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Centre for Open Education

MACQUARIE UNIVERSITY
NSW 2109 AUSTRALIA

ASSIGNMENT COVER SHEET


(For Open Universities Australia students)
Office Use Only
**

Unit Code

PHI130

Assignment No.

Assignment Title

Exam

Due Date

26/08/2011

Contact Info

Phone:0403424484

Unit Name

Mind Meaning and Metaphysics

COE USE ONLY


Date Received

Email:joseph.zizys@gmail.com

Word Count:

Turnitin No.:

(If Applicable)

(If Applicable)

ACADEMIC HONESTY DECLARATION (this is very important please read carefully):


By placing my name in this document I declare that:

This assessment is my own work, based on my personal study and/or research;


I have acknowledged all material and sources used in the preparation of this assessment, including any
material generated in the course of my employment;
If this assessment was based on collaborative preparatory work, as approved by the teachers of the unit, I
have not submitted substantially the same final version of any material as another student;
Neither the assessment, nor substantial parts of it, have been previously submitted for assessment in this
or any other institution;
I have not copied in part, or in whole, or otherwise plagiarised the work of other students;
I have read and I understand the criteria used for assessment;
The assessment is within the word and page limits specified in the unit outline;
The use of any material in this assessment does not infringe the intellectual property / copyright of a third
party;
I understand that this assessment may undergo electronic detection for plagiarism, and a copy of the
assessment may be retained in a database and used to make comparisons with other assessments in
future. Work retained in a database is anonymous and will not be able to be matched to an individual
student;
I take full responsibility for the correct submission of this assessment in the appropriate place with the
correct cover sheet attached and I have retained a duplicate copy of this assessment

This declaration is a summary of the University policy on plagiarism. For the policy in full, please
refer to Student Information in the Handbook or http://www.mq.edu.au/academichonesty

Student Name:

Family Name Zizys

Student Number:

42351979

Date:

26/08/2011

Given Name Joseph

Exam for PHI130


Joseph Zizys

2.

What philosophical conclusions did Pythagoras draw from his study of music?

Pythagoras is said to have discovered the relationship between relative lengths of vibrating
strings and the harmonies they make together, and to have discovered the mathematical
relationships that account for those harmonies. Pythagoras claimed that this deep significance
of number in explaining harmony existed throughout the phenomenal world, and even to the
heavenly spheres and he claimed that number was therefore the fundamental principle of the
world. His insight was both physically grounded, in that harmonics is still a legitimate branch of
mathematical physics today, and incredibly prescient, for while the Greek atomists are often
credited with having been visionaries, the atom as they understood it is all but unrecognizable in
contemporary physics while number, and mathematics of the most abstract kind, combined with
the use of instrument and experiment, and intuitive insight, are still the bedrock from which
physical explanation emanates.

4.

What argument did Plato use in the Republic, Book X, to justify his theory of the Forms?

What critique did Aristotle level at this argument?

Plato argues that the idea precedes the example, using the analogy of the carpenter who makes
a bed needing to have an idea of the form of beds in his mind in order to make one. Aristotle
criticizes this view, in a way that seems very hard to explain clearly, because i've never heard
anyone explain it well. The notes say that Aristotle uses a kind of infinite regression argument,
that if we allow an actual bed and an ideal bed then we must posit a third bed that provides the
ideal for the ideal and the bed, and so on, this is not a clear criticism for mine, why do we need
an ideal for the ideal? And I am not sure that Aristotles own solution avoids his own critique,
that is he says that the essence is within the physical example, but how does that avoid the
problem? the essence of any given bed will be identical to the essence in all, and different from
each, so there is still an example bed, and a different essential bed, so do we not still need a
third bed, embedded, if you will, in the essence that is embedded in the actual, to explain the
connexion between the essence and the example?

8.

What is the hard problem of consciousness?

The hard problem of consciousness is explaining the qualitative, phenomenal aspect of


consciousness, not explaining that a being can be conscious of such and such a thing, but that
there should be anything at all that it is like to be conscious of things at all. This is also known as
the qualitative problem of consciousness, that is consciousness is said to have Qualia,
qualitative aspects. A thought experiment used to illustrate this is the idea that a scientist might
study color all their life while living in a black and white world, then be introduced to actual color,

and have a qualitatively different experience, no amount of color concepts could replace the
actual experience of color. The hard problem does not seem obviously amenable to reductive
explanations with recourse to things like brain states for example, because there might be two
totally different qualia related to identical brain states and we would have no way of knowing that
fact from the reduction, this is exemplified in the inverted spectra thought experiment.

12. What conclusion does Derek Parfit draw from divided-brain experiments?

Parfit concludes that our concept of person cannot be explained by unity of consciousness,
because when we split a brain we appear to be able to have multiple consciousness, unaware of
one another, and nevertheless do not conclude that there are different persons acting. Parfit
further urges us to think of the stream of consciousness, rather like an actual stream, to be
capable of splitting into separate streams and reuniting down the line. All this implies for Parfit
that we should not explain experience with recourse to a reified person and that the unity of
consciousness can be explained without recourse to such concepts. That is to say that unity of
consciousness is not to be explained by recourse to an experiencer.

13. Explain Freuds distinction between the manifest content of a dream and latent dreamthoughts.

the manifest content of a dream is what appears to happen in it. the latent dream thoughts are
the underlying thought, of which the dreamer is unaware, that are being worked through in the
dream. This explanation becomes all the more radical when Freud extends it to waking life in
explaining things like slips, the manifest content might be to lose ones keys before an important
meeting, while the latent, unconscious thought being worked through is a feeling of
emasculation at the hands of ones wife. What is even more marvelous about Freud's
explanation is that it gives us a reason why the public will resist acknowledging the theory as
correct, that is, the latent thoughts are "repressed" by the unconscious, and cannot become
conscious without a struggle, therefore any theory that attempts to draw to conscious attention
the fact that losing ones keys means that one is being emasculated by ones wife will be resisted
and repressed just like the latent thoughts are themselves. neat.