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1.

India is a country of rich heritage and cultural diversity. Which one of the following facts

best supports the claim made in the above sentence?

(A) India is a union of 28 states and 7 union territories.

(B) India has a population of over 1.1 billion.

(C) India is home to 22 official languages and thousands of dialects.

(D) The Indian cricket team draws players from over ten states.

Answer: C

Exp: Diversity is shown in terms of difference language

2.

The value of one U.S. dollar is 65 Indian Rupees today, compared to 60 last year. The Indian

Rupee has ____________.

(A) Depressed

(B) Depreciated

(C) Appreciated

(D) Stabilized

Answer: B

3.

'Advice' is ________________.

(A) a verb

(C) an adjective

Answer: B

(B) a noun

(D) both a verb and a noun

4.

The next term in the series 81, 54, 36, 24 is ________

Answer: 16

Exp:

81 54 = 27;27

2

= 18

3

2

= 12

3

2

36 24 = 12;12 = 8

3

24 8 = 16

54 36 = 18;18

5.

In which of the following options will the expression P < M be definitely true?

(A) M < R > P > S

(B) M > S < P < F

(C) Q < M < F = P

(D) P = A < R < M

Answer: D

6.

Find the next term in the sequence: 7G, 11K, 13M, ___

(A) 15Q

(B) 17Q

(C) 15P

Answer: B

(D) 17P

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7.

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The multi-level hierarchical pie chart shows the population of animals in a reserve forest. The

correct conclusions from this information are:

Re d ant

Beetle

Tiger

Elephant

Mammal

Honey

bee In sec t

Leopard

Re ptile

Snake

Moth

Bird

Crocadile

Drongo

Hawk

Bulbul

Butterfly

(ii) There are more tigers in this forest than red ants

(iii) All reptiles in this forest are either snakes or crocodiles

(iv) Elephants are the largest mammals in this forest

(A) (i) and (ii) only

(B) (i), (ii), (iii) and (iv)

(C) (i), (iii) and (iv) only

(D) (i), (ii) and (iii) only

Answer: D

Exp: It is not mentioned that elephant is the largest animal

8.

A man can row at 8 km per hour in still water. If it takes him thrice as long to row upstream,

as to row downstream, then find the stream velocity in km per hour.

Answer: 4

Exp: 4 km/hr.

Speed of man=8

Left distance =d

Time taken=

d

8

Upstream:

Speed of stream=s

speed upstream = S' = (8 s)

d

t' =

8s

Downstream:

Given speed downstream = t '' =

d

8+s

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3t ' = t ''

3d

d

=

8s 8+s

3d

d

=

8s 8+s

s = 4km / hr

9.

A firm producing air purifiers sold 200 units in 2012. The following pie chart presents the

share of raw material, labour, energy, plant & machinery, and transportation costs in the total

manufacturing cost of the firm in 2012. The expenditure on labour in 2012 is Rs. 4,50,000. In

2013, the raw material expenses increased by 30% and all other expenses increased by 20%.

If the company registered a profit of Rs. 10 lakhs in 2012, at what price (in Rs.) was each air

purifier sold?

Trans

Labour

portat

15%

ion

Plant and

machinery

10%

Raw Material

20%

30%

Energy

25%

Answer: 20,000

Exp:

Total expenditure= =

15

x = 4,50,000

100

x=3106

Profit=10 lakhs

So, total selling price =40,00,000

Total purifies=200

(2)

S.P of each purifier=(1)/(2)=20,000

(1)

10.

A batch of one hundred bulbs is inspected by testing four randomly chosen bulbs. The batch

is rejected if even one of the bulbs is defective. A batch typically has five defective bulbs.

The probability that the current batch is accepted is _________

Answer: 0.8145

Exp:

95

100

4

95

Probabilities that none of the bulbs is defectives

= 0.8145

100

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1.

The maximum value of the function f(x) = ln(1 + x)- x (where .x > - 1) occurs at x=______.

Answer: 0

Exp:

f1 (x) = 0

1

1 = 0

1+ x

x

=0x =0

1+ x

1

and f 11 ( x ) =

< 0 at x = 0

2

(1 + x )

2.

Which ONE of the following is a linear non-homogeneous differential equation, where x and

y are the independent and dependent variables respectively?

( A)

dy

+ xy = e x

dx

( B)

dy

+ xy = 0

dx

( C)

dy

+ xy = e y

dx

( D)

dy y

+ e = e y = 0

dx

Answer: A

Exp:

(A)

dy

+ xy = e x is a first order linear equation (non-homogeneous)

dx

dy

+ xy = 0 is a first order linear equation (homogeneous

dx

(C), (D) are non linear equations

(B)

3.

Application

Numerical |Method

Answer: B

Exp:

4.

An unbiased coin is tossed an infinite number of times. The probability that the fourth head

appears at the tenth toss is

(A) 0.067

(B) 0.073

(C) 0.082

(D) 0.091

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Answer: C

Exp:

P[fourth head appears at the tenth toss] = P [getting 3 heads in the first 9 tosses and one

head at tenth toss]

1 9 1 21

= 9 C3 . =

= 0.082

2 2 256

5.

If z = xyln(xy), then

( A)

z

z

+y

=0

x

y

( B)

z

z

=x

x

y

( C)

z

z

=y

x

y

( D)

z

z

+x

=0

x

y

Answer: C

Exp:

z

1

= y x y + ln xy = y (1 + ln xy )

x

xy

and

6.

z

z

z

= x (1 + ln xy ) x

=y

y

x

y

the

source voltage VS, the resistance R, the capacitance C, and the current i(t) is given below:

1 t

i ( u ) du

c 0

Which one of the following represents the current f(t)?

Ve = Ri ( t ) +

( B)

( A)

i (t)

i (t)

( C)

( D)

i (t)

i (t)

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Answer: A

Exp:

In a series RC circuit,

VS

and in steady state at t = ,

R

capacitor behaves like open circuit and no current flows through the circuit

Initially at t = 0, capacitor charges with a current of

i (t )

7.

In the figure shown, the value of the current I (in Amperes) is __________.

5

5

I

5V

1A

10

Answer: 0.5

Exp:

V

5V

5

1A

10

V5

V

1 + = 0

5

15

30

V = volts

4

V

2

current I = 0.50 Amperes

15

4

Apply KCL at node V,

8.

(A) Isolation oxide growth

(B) Channel stop implantation

(C) Poly-silicon gate patterning

(D) Lithography step leading to the contact pads

Answer: C

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9.

A thin P-type silicon sample is uniformly illuminated with light which generates excess

carriers. The recombination rate is directly proportional to

(A) The minority carrier mobility

(B) The minority carrier recombination lifetime

(C) The majority carrier concentration

(D) The excess minority carrier concentration

Answer: D

Exp:

)( P

no

+ Pn'

n n0 & Pn0 = Electron and hole concentrations respectively under thermal equilibrium

10.

kT

= 26 mV.

q

Answer: 13

Exp: From Einstein relation,

D P kJ

=

p

q

D P = 26 mV 500cm 2 / v s = 13cm 2 / s

11.

(A) High input resistance and high output resistance

(B) High input resistance and low output resistance

(C) Low input resistance and high output resistance

(D) Low input resistance and low output resistance

Answer: A

Exp:

Transconductance amplifier must have z i = and z 0 = ideally

12.

In the circuit shown, the PNP transistor has VBE = 0.7 and = 50. Assume that R B = 100k

For V0 to be 5 V, the value of R C ( in k ) _________________

RC

V0

RB

VEE = 10 V

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Answer: 1.075

Exp:

IB =

10 0.7

= 93 A

100K

IC = IB = 50 93 A = 4.65mA

from figure, V0 = IC R C

RC =

13.

V0

5V

=

= 1.075

IC 4.65 mA

The figure shows a half-wave rectifier. The diode D is ideal. The average steady-state current

(in Amperes) through the diode is approximately ____________.

D

10sin t ~

f = 50 Hz

R

100

C

4 mF

Answer: 0.09

Exp:

Vdc = Vm

Idc

4fc

Idc R L = Vm

Idc

4fc

Idc R L +

= Vm

4fc

Idc =

14.

10

1

100 +

4 50 4 103

= 0.09A

An analog voltage in the range 0 to 8 V is divided in 16 equal intervals for conversion to 4-bit

digital output. The maximum quantization error (in V) is _________________

Answer: 0.25

Exp:

step size =

step size

2

80 1

= = 0.5V

16

2

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15.

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D

Q

D Latch

En

Q

Q

D Latch

En

Q

Clk

(B) JK Flip Flop

(C) SR Latch

(D) Master-Slave D Flip Flop

Answer: D

Exp: Latches are used to construct Flip-Flop. Latches are level triggered, so if you use two latches

in cascaded with inverted clock, then one latch will behave as master and another latch which

is having inverted clock will be used as a slave and combined it will behave as a flip-flop. So

given circuit is implementing Master-Slave D flip-flop

16.

W

0

MUX

1

0

MUX

1

S1

S2

( A)

( C)

Answer: D

Exp:

( B)

( D)

F = WS1 S2

F = W + S1 + S2

0

MUX

F = W S1 S2

Y

0

MUX

S1

S2

ws1 + ws1 = w s1

Let Y = w s1

= Y s2

= w s1 + s 2

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17.

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Let x(t)= cos (10t ) + cos ( 30t ) be sampled at 20 Hz and reconstructed using an ideal lowpass filter with cut-off frequency of 20 Hz. The frequency/frequencies present in the

reconstructed signal is/are

(A) 5 Hz and 15 Hz only

(D) 5 Hz only

Answer: (A)

Explanation: x ( t ) = cos (10t ) + cos ( 30t ) , Fs = 20Hz

Spectrum of x(t)

15 5

15

35

25

15 5

15

25 35

18.

For

an

all-pass

system

H (z) =

Re ( a ) 0, Im ( a ) 0, then b equals

(A) a

( z b) , where H e = 1,

( )

(1 az )

(B) a*

(C) 1/a*

for

all

.If

(D) 1/a

Answer: (B)

Exp:

1

1

or zero =

zero *

pole*

pole = a

1

zero =

b

1 1

=

or b = a *

b a*

19.

A modulated signal is y(t) = m.(t)cos(40000 t ), where the baseband signal m(t) has

frequency components less than 5 kHz only. The minimum required rate (in kHz) at which

y(t) should be sampled to recover m(t) is __________________.

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Answer: 10 KHz.

Exp: Since m(t) is a base band signal with maximum frequency 5 KHz, assumed spreads as

follows:

M(f )

f

m(t)

5k

+5k

7

y(t) = m(t) cos(40000 t)

m(f )

M(f )

f (Hz)

*1

[(f 20k) + (f + 20k)]

2

1

[ M(f 20k) + M(f + 20 k)]

2

Thus the spectrum of the modulated signal is as follows:

y(f ) =

y(f )

20k

25k

15k

15k

25k

20k

f (Hz)

If y(t) is sampled with a sampling frequency fs then the resultant signal is a periodic

extension of successive replica of y(f) with a period fs.

It is observed that 10 KHz and 20 KHz are the two sampling frequencies which causes a

replica of M(f) which can be filtered out by a LPF.

Thus the minimum sampling frequency (fs) which extracts m(t) from g(f) is 10 KHz.

20.

R ( s)

( A)

G1G 2

1 + G1G 2

G1

G2

C ( s)

+

+

C ( s)

is

R ( s)

( B)

G1G 2 + G1 + 1

( C)

G1G 2 + G 2 + 1

( D)

G1

1 + G1G 2

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Answer: C

Exp:

By drawing the signal flow graph for the given block diagram

G1

R (s)

G2

C (s)

1

1

Gains P1 = G1G 2 , P2 = G 2 , P3 = 1

By masons gain formula,

C(s)

R (s)

= P1 + P2 + P3

G1G 2 + G 2 + 1

21.

The input 3e2 t u ( t ) , where u(t) is the unit step function, is applied to a system with transfer

s2

. If the initial value of the output is -2, then the value of the output at steady

s+3

state is__________________.

Answer: 0

Exp: 1

function .

Y (s )

X (s )

S 2

S+3

SY ( s ) + 3Y ( s ) = S ( s ) 2X ( s )

Due to initial condition, we can write above equation as

Sy ( s ) y ( 0 ) + 3y ( s ) = sx ( s ) x ( 0 ) 2x ( s )

y ( 0 ) = 2, x ( 0 ) = 0

x ( t ) = 3e2t u ( t )

3

Sy ( s ) + 2 + 3y ( s ) = ( s 2 )

s2

5

( s + 3) y ( s ) = 3 2 y ( s ) =

5+3

3t

y ( t ) = 5e u ( t )

y ( )( steady sate ) = 0

Exp:

s2

;X ( t ) = 3e2 t .u ( t )

s+3

3

3

X (s) =

Y (s) =

s2

s+3

H (s) =

s 0

y() = 0

s 0

3s

s+3

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22.

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( f ) = 2 ( f f c ) 2 f c

Where fc is the centre frequency, and and are positive constants. The actual signal

propagation delay from the transmitter to receiver is

(A)

( B)

( C)

( D)

Answer: C

Exp:

( f ) = 2 ( f f c ) 2 f c

Group delay t y =

d ( f )

2 df

Thus ' ' is actual signal propagation delay from transmitter to receiver

23.

deviation of the instantaneous frequency from the carrier frequency fc is

( A)

( B)

1f1 + 2f 2

1f 2 + 2f1

( C)

1 + 2

( D)

f1 + f 2

Answer: A

Exp:

d

1

i ( t )

dt

2

= f c + 1f1 cos 2f1t + 2 f 2 cos 2f 2 t

Instantaneous frequency f i ( t ) =

Maximum f = 1f1 + 2 f 2

24.

Consider an air filled rectangular waveguide with a cross-section of 5 cm 3 cm. For this

waveguide, the cut-off frequency (in MHz) of TE21 mode is _________.

Answer: 7810MHz.

2

Exp:

C 2 1

f c ( TE 21 ) =

+

2 9 b

3 1010 2 1

+

2

5 3

2

= 0.52 1.5 1010

= 7.81 GHz

= 7810 MHz.

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25.

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In the following figure, the transmitter Tx sends a wideband modulated RF signal via a

coaxial cable to the receiver Rx. The output impedance ZT of Tx, the characteristic

impedance Z0 of the cable and the input impedance ZR of Rx are all real.

Transmitter

Characteristic Im pedance = Z0

Re ceiver

ZT

ZR

TX

RX

Which one of the following statements is TRUE about the distortion of the received signal

due to impedance mismatch?

(A) The signal gets distorted if ZR Z0, irrespective of the value of ZT

(B) The signal gets distorted if ZT Z0, irrespective of the value of ZR

(C) Signal distortion implies impedance mismatch at both ends: ZT Z0 and ZR Z0

(D) Impedance mismatches do NOT result in signal distortion but reduce power transfer

efficiency

Answer: C

Exp:

ZT Z 0

ZR Z0

26.

Answer: 6

Exp:

f 1 ( x ) = 6x 2 18x + 12 = 0 x = 1, 2 [ 0,3]

Now f ( 0 ) = 3 ; f ( 3) = 6 and f (1) = 2 ; f ( 2 ) = 1

Hence, f(x) is maximum at x = 3 and the maximum value is 6

27.

Which one of the following statements is NOT true for a square matrix?

(A) If A is upper triangular, the eigenvalues of A are the diagonal elements of it

(B) If A is real symmetric, the eigenvalues of A are always real and positive

(C) If A is real, the eigenvalues of A and AT are always the same

(D) If all the principal minors of A are positive, all the eigenvalues of A are also positive

Answer: B

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Exp:

1

Consider, A

1

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1

which is real symmetric matrix

1

Characteristic equation is A I = 0

(1 + ) 1 = 0

2

+ 1 = 1

= 0, 2

( not positive )

(A), (C), (D) are true using properties of eigen values

28.

Exp:

A fair coin is tossed repeatedly till both head and tail appear at least once. The average

number of tosses required is __________________.

Let the first toss be Head.

Let x denotes the number of tosses( after getting first head) to get first tail.

We can summarize the even as:

Event

Probability(p(x))

1/2

HT

1/2*1/2=1/4

HHT

1/8

and so on..

1

1

1

E ( x ) = xp ( x ) = 1x + 2x + 3x

2

4

8

x =1

1

1

1

Let, S =1x + 2x + 3x

2

4

8

1

1

1

1

S=

+ 2x + 3x

2

4

8

16

I

II

gives

(

)

( I)

( II )

1 1 1 1

1

1 S = + + + +

2 4 8 16

2

1

1

S = 2 =1

1

2

1

2

S= 2

E(x) = 2

i.e. The expected number of tosses (after first head) to get first tail is 2 and same can be

applicable if first toss results in tail.

Hence the average number of tosses is 1+2 = 3.

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29.

Let X1, X2, and X3 be independent and identically distributed random variables with the

uniform distribution on [0, 1]. The probability P{X1+ X2 X3} is ________.

Answer: 0.16

Exp: Given x1 x 2 and x 3 be independent and identically distributed with uniform distribution on

[0,1]

Let z = x1 + x 2 x 3

P {x1 + x 2 x 3 } = P {x1 + x 2 x 3 0}

= P {z 0}

Let us find probability density function of random variable z.

Since Z is summation of three random variable x1 , x 2 and x 3

Overall pdf of z is convolution of the pdf of x1 x 2 and x 3

pdf of {x1 + x 2 } is

1

pdf of x 3 is

1

P {z 0} =

( z + 1)

30.

( z + 1)

dz =

3 0

=

1

1

= 0.16

6

Let C = 100F and R = 10k

Network N

+

V1 ( s)

V2 ( s)

V1 ( s)

Network N

Network N

V3 ( s )

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( A)

s

1+ s

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v 3 ( s)

of the cascaded network is

v1 ( s )

( B)

s2

1 + 3s + s2

( C)

1+ s

( D)

s

2+s

Answer: B

Exp:

+

V1 ( s )

1

SC

1

SC

V3 ( s )

V3 ( s )

V1 ( s )

R . R

1

1

1

+R

+ R

R+R+

sc

SC

SC

R. R

1 1

R

2R ( SC ) + 1 +

.

[1 + RSC]

SC SC

SC

S2 C 2 .R.R

2 2 2

1 + 2R ( SC ) + RSC + R S C

S2 100 106 104 1012 + 3S + 100 106 104 + 1

V3 ( s )

V1 ( s )

31.

S2

1 + 3S + S2

100O V

+

V1

V2

4

40OA

(A) 22 + j 2 V

j3

(B) 2 + j 22 V

j6

(C) 22 j 2 V

(D) 2 j 22 V

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Answer: D

4

Exp:

Super node

10 0

V

+

4 0o A

V2

j3

j6

V1

+

10 0

V1 V2 = 10 0o

V2

+

....(1)

V1 = V2 + 10 0o

KCL at super node:

V1 V2 V2

+

+

=0

j3 6

j6

V1 V2 V2

+

+

= 4 0o

j3 V6 j6

... ( 2 )

4 0o +

V2 + 10 0o V2 V2

+

+

= 4 0o

j3

6

j6

1

1 1

10

V2

+ + = 4 0o +

j3

j3 6 j6

V2 = ( 2 j22 ) Volts

32.

In the circuit shown in the figure, the angular frequency (in rad/s), at which the Norton

equivalent impedance as seen from terminals b-b' is purely resistive, is

__________________.

1

1F

b

+

10cos t ~

( Volts)

0.5 H

b'

Answer: 2 r/sec

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Exp:

1

1* j.

2 + 1

ZN =

1 j.1

1 + j.

2

j

1

=

+

2 + j j

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1F

0.5H

b1

Zu

2

2

( 2 ) j . + 2 j

=

N

2 j 2

4 + 42

Equating imaginary term to zero i.e., 3 4 = 0

( 2 ) + j Z

2

ZN =

( 2 4 ) = 0 = 2 r / sec

33.

For the Y-network shown in the figure, the value of R 1 ( in ) in the equivalent -network is

_____________________.

R1

5

7.5

Answer: 10

Exp:

R1

7.5

R1 =

7.5

R 1 = 10

34.

The donor and accepter impurities in an abrupt junction silicon diode are 1 x 1016 cm-3 and 5

x 1018 cm-3, respectively. Assume that the intrinsic carrier concentration in silicon ni = 1.5 x

kT

1010 cm-3 at 300 K,

= 26 mV and the permittivity of silicon si = 1.04 1012 F / cm. The

q

built-in potential and the depletion width of the diode under thermal equilibrium conditions,

respectively, are

(A) 0.7 V and 1 x 10-4 cm

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Answer: D

Exp:

NA ND

5 1018 1 1016

Vbi = VT ln

= 26 mv ln

(1.5 1010 )2

ni2

= 0.859V

2S Vbi N A + N D

5

= 3.34 10 cm

q NA ND

W=

35.

The slope of the ID vs VGS curve of an n-channel MOSFET in linear regime is 103 1 at

VDS = 0.1V. . For the same device, neglecting channel length modulation, the slope of the

Answer: 0.07

Exp:

V 2

In linear region, I D = k ( VGS VT ) VDS DS

2

I D

= 103 = kVDS

VGS

K=

VDS is small,

103

= 0.01

0.1

In saturation region, I D =

ID =

ID

VGS

36.

VDS2

is neglected

2

1

2

k ( VGS VT )

2

k

( VGS VT )

2

k

0.01

=

= 0.07

2

2

An ideal MOS capacitor has boron doping-concentration of 1015 cm-3 in the substrate. When a

gate voltage is applied, a depletion region of width 0.5 m is formed with a surface (channel)

potential of 0.2 V. Given that o = 8.854 10-14 F/cm and the relative permittivities of silicon

and silicon dioxide are 12 and 4, respectively, the peak electric field (in V/m) in the oxide

region is __________________.

Answer: 2.4

Exp:

Es =

2 0.2

= 0.8 v / m

0.5

E ox =

Es

E s = 2.4 v / m

E ox

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In the circuit shown, the silicon BJT has = 50 . Assume VBE =0.7 V and VCE(sat) = 0.2 V.

Which one of the following statements is correct?

10 V

RC

50k

5V

RB

(B) For RC = 3 k, , the BJT operates in the saturation region

(C) For RC =20 k, , the BJT operates in the cut-off region

(D) For RC =20 k, , the BJT operates in the linear region

Answer: B

Exp:

KVL in base loop,

5 I B ( 50 k ) 0.7 = 0

5 0.7

= 80 A

50 k

IC = IB = 50 86 A = 4.3mA

IB =

RC =

10 VCE ( sat )

IC

10 0.2

4.3mA

38.

3R

V1

R

2R

( A)

5

V1 3V2

2

( B)

V2

5

ZV1 V2

2

VO

R

( C)

3

7

V1 + V2

2

2

( D)

3V1 +

11

V2

2

Answer: D

Exp:

Virtual ground and KCL at inverting terminal gives

V2 V1 V2 V2 V0

+

+

=0

R

2R

3R

V0 V2 V2 V2 V1

=

+

+

3R R 3R 2R R

V0 = 3V1 +

3R

V1

V2

2R

V2

Vo

R

11

V2

2

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For the MOSFET M1 shown in the figure, assume W/L = 2, VDD = 2.0 V, n Cox = 100A / V 2

and VTH = 0.5 V. The transistor M1 switches from saturation region to linear region when Vin

(in Volts) is_________________.

39.

VDD

R = 10 k

Vout

Vin

M1

Answer: 1.5

Exp:

VDS = VGS VT ; where VDS = V0 and VGS = Vi

VDS = V0 = Vi VT

1

w

2

Drain current ID = n cos ( VGS VT )

2

L

VDD Vo 1

2

= 100 106 2 ( VGS 0.5 )

10K

2

2 ( Vi 0.5 )

10 K

Vi = 1.5V

40.

If WL is the Word Line and BL the Bit Line, an SRAM cell is shown in

WL

WL

VDD

BL

(A)

VDD

BL

BL

BL

( B)

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WL

WL

VDD

VDD

BL

BL

( C)

BL

BL

( D)

Answer: B

Exp: For an SRAM construction four MOSFETs are required (2-PMOS and 2-NMOS) with

interchanged outputs connected to each CMOS inverter. So option (B) is correct.

41.

In the circuit shown, W and Y are MSBs of the control inputs. The output F is given by

4 :1 MUX

4 :1 MUX

I0

I0

I1

I1

VCC

I2

I2

I3

I3

W

(A)

F = W X + WX + Y Z

( B)

F = W X + WX + YZ

( C)

F = W XY + WXY

( D)

F = W + X YZ

Answer: C

Exp:

I0

I1

Vcc

I2

I0

4 :1

MUX

I3

I1

I2

4 :1

MUX

I3

W Vcc + WX.Vcc

WX + WX

=W X

Let Q = W X

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= Q.Y ( Z + Z )

= Q.Y.1 = Q.Y

Put the value of Q in above expression

= ( WX + WX ) .Y

= W X.Y + WX.Y

42.

If X and Y are inputs and the Difference (D = X Y) and the Borrow (B) are the outputs,

which

one of the following diagrams implements a half-subtractor?

Y

I0

( A)

I1

2 :1

MUX

( C)

X

B

2 :1

MUX

I1

I0

I1

I1

2 :1

MUX

I0

S

I0

2 :1

MUX

I1

( B)

S

X

2 :1

MUX

I0

2 :1

MUX

S

S

I0

I1

I1

( B)

S

X

I0

S

X

2 :1

MUX

I0

D

I1

2 :1

MUX

Answer: A

Exp:

X

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I0

2 :1

MUX

D = X. Y + XY

=X Y

2 :1

MUX

B = X. Y + X.0

= X.Y + 0

I1

I0

I1

43.

= X .Y

1

1

1

are real numbers. Consider p = ,q = , r < 1. If the zero of H(z) lies on the unit circle, then

2

4

r = ________

Answer: -0.5

Exp:

H1 ( z ) = (1 Pz 1 )

H 2 ( z ) = (1 qz 1 )

1 qz 1 + r (1 Pz 1 ) (1 + r ) ( q + rp ) z 1

1

1

H (z) =

+r

=

=

1 Pz 1

(1 qz 1 ) (1 Pz 1 )(1 Pz 1 ) (1 Pz 1 )(1 Pz 1 )

zero of H ( z ) =

q + rp

1+ r

q + rp

q + rp

= 1 or

= 1

1+ r

1+ r

1 r

1 r

+

+

4 2 = 1 or 4 2 = 1

1+ r

1+ r

1 r

+ =1+ r

4 2

r=

r=

5

r

5

=

2

2

4

or

or

1 r

+ = 1 r

4 2

3 3r

=

4

2

r = 1 r = 0.5

2

5

is not possible

2

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Let h(t) denote the impulse response of a causal system with transfer function

1

. Consider

s +1

S1: The system is stable.

S2:

h ( t + 1)

is independent of t for t 0.

h ( t)

For the above system,

(A) Only S1 and S2 are true

Answer: A

Exp:

h ( t ) H (s) =

1

h ( t ) = e t u ( t )

s +1

h ( t + 1)

S2 :

h (t)

( t +1)

e t

e 1 (independent of time)

1

e t u ( t ) (a non-causal system) but this is not absolutely integrable thus

s +1

unstable.

Only S1 and S2 are TRUE

45.

convergence z > 2. Then, x [ 2 ] is ______.

(1 2z )

1 2

Answer: 12

Exp(1):

X ( z) =

(1 2z )

1 2

1

1

1

(1 2z ) (1 2z1 )

x [ n ] = 2n u [ n ] * 2n u [ n ]

n

x [ n ] = 2K.2(

n k )

k =0

x [ 2] = 2k.2(

2 k )

k =0

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Exp(2):

X (z) =

Z2

(1 2Z ) ( Z 2)

1 2

Z

1 Z

X(n) = Z

.

Z2

Z 2

v( z )

u ( z )

= u m .Vn m ( u sin g conduction theorem and u n = 2n ; v n = 2n )

n

m =0

n

= 2m.2n m = 2n ( n + 1)

m =0

x ( 2 ) = 12

46.

The steady state error of the system shown in the figure for a unit step input is _______.

E ( s)

R ( s) +

r (t)

e (t)

1

s+2

K=4

C ( s)

C(t)

2

s+4

Answer: 0.5

Exp:

4

2

;H ( s ) =

s+2

s+4

For unit step input,

Given G ( s ) =

k p = lim G ( s ) H ( s )

s0

4 2

k p = lim

s0 s + 2

s + 4

kp = 1

Steady state error ess =

ess =

1

1+1

ess =

1

0.50

2

A

1 + kp

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x ( t ) = Ax ( t ) , x ( 0) = x 0

e t

e t e 2 t

0

1

For x 0 = , x ( t ) = t and for x 0 = , x ( t ) = t

2 t

1

1

e

e + 2e

3

when x 0 = , x ( t ) is

5

( A)

8e t + 11e 2 t

t

2 t

8e 22e

( B)

11e t 8e 2t

t

2t

11e + 16e

(C)

3e t 5e 2t

t

2t

3e + 10e

( D)

5e t 3e 2 t

t

2 t

5e + 6e

Answer: B

Exp:

3

1

0

5 = a 1 + b 1 s

a =3; b =8

e t e t e 2 t

x ( t ) = 3 t + t

2t

e e + 2e

11e t 8e2t

x(t) =

t

2 t

11e + 16e

48.

In the root locus plot shown in the figure, the pole/zero marks and the arrows have been

removed. Which one of the following transfer functions has this root locus?

j

2

1

( A)

s +1

( s + 2 )( s + 4)( s + 7 )

( B)

s+4

( s + 1)( s + 2)( s + 7)

( C)

s+7

( s + 1)( s + 2)( s + 4)

( D)

( s + 1)( s + 2)

( s + 7)( s + 4)

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Answer: B

Exp::

(s + 4)

( s + 1)( s + 2 )( s + 3)

j

49.

Let X(t) be a wide sense stationary (WSS) random process with power spectral density SX(f).

If Y(t) is the process defined as Y ( t ) = X ( 2t 1) , the power spectral density SY(f) is

(A)

1 f

SY ( f ) = SX e jf

2 2

( B)

1 f

SY ( f ) = SX e jf / 2

2 2

(C)

1 f

SY ( f ) = SX

2 2

( D)

1 f

SY ( f ) = SX e j2 f

2 2

Answer: C

Exp:

Shifting in time domain does not change PSD. Since PSD is Fourier transform of

autocorrelation function of WSS process, autocorrelation function depends on time

difference.

X ( t ) R x ( z ) Sx ( f )

1 f

Y ( t ) = X ( 2t 1) R y ( 2 ) Sx

2 2

[time scaling property of Fourier transform]

50.

A real band-limited random process X(t) has two-sided power spectral density

Sx (f ) =

10 6 ( 3000 f

0

) W atts / H z

for f 3 kH z

otherw ise

Where f is the frequency expressed in Hz. The signal X(t)modulates a carrier cos16000 t

and the resultant signal is passed through an ideal band-pass filter of unity gain with centre

frequency of 8 kHz and band-width of 2 kHz. The output power (in Watts) is _______.

Answer: 2.5

Exp:

Sx ( f )

Sx ( f )

3 103 watts

+3

f (in KHz )

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1

Sx ( f f c ) + Sx ( f + f c )

4

This is obtain the power spectral density Random process y(t), we shift the given power

spectral density random process x(t) to the right by fc shift it to be the left by fc and the two

shifted power spectral and divide by 4.

Sy ( f ) =

1.5 10 3 / 2

11

11

f (in KHz )

1.5 10 3 / 2

9 8 7

= 2 [ Area of one side portion ]

= 2 [ Area of triangle + Area of rec tan gle ]

1

2

=

2

= [ 0.5 + 2] = 2.5 watts

51.

In a PCM system, the signal m ( t ) = { sin (100t ) + cos (100t )} V is sampled at the Nyquist

rate. The samples are processed by a uniform quantizer with step size 0.75 V. The minimum

data rate of the PCM system in bits per second is _____.

Answer: 200

Exp:

Nyquist rate = 2 50 Hz

=

m ( t ) max m ( t ) min

L

L=

2 2

0.75

2 2

= 3.77 = 4

0.75

No. of bits required to encode 4 levels = 2 bits/level

Thus data rate = 2 100 = 200 bits / sec

L=

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A binary random variable X takes the value of 1 with probability 1/3. X is input to a cascade

of 2 independent identical binary symmetric channels (BSCs) each with crossover probability

1/2. The outputs of BSCs are the random variables Y1 and Y2 as shown in the figure.

X

BSC

Y1

BSC

Y2

Answer: 2

1

Let P {x = 2} = ,

3

Exp:

P {x = 0} =

2

3

P {Y1 = 0} = P {Y1 = 0 / x1 = 0} P {x1 = 0} + P { y1 = 0 / x1 = 1} P {x1 = 1}

1 1 1 2 1

= . + =

2 3 2 3 2

P { y1 = 1} =

1

2

1

1

H ( y1 ) = log 2 2 + log 2 2 = 1

2

2

Similarly

P {y 2 = 0} =

1

1

and P { y 2 = 1} =

2

2

H {y 2 } = 1

H {y1} + H {y 2 } = 2 bits

53.

Given the vector A = ( cos x )( sin y ) a x + ( sin x )( cos y ) a y , where a x , a y denote unit vectors

along x,y directions, respectively. The magnitude of curl of A is ________

Answer: 0

Exp (1):

a x

a y

a z

Curl A =

x

y

z

cos x sin y sin x cos y 0

=0

Curl A = 0

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Exp(2):

Given A = cos x sin ya x + sin x cos y a y

ax

A =

/ x

cos x sin y

ay

az

/ y

sin x cos y

/ z

0

A = 0

54.

A region shown below contains a perfect conducting half-space and air. The surface current

amperes per meter. The tangential H

K s on the surface of the perfect conductor is K s = x2

field in the air just above the perfect conductor is

y

KS

Air

Perfect conductor

Answer:

Exp:

Medium (2) is air

H1 = 0

From boundary conditions

( H1 H 2 ) a n = K S

H1 = 0

an = ay

K S = 2a x

H 2 a y = 2a x

( H x a x + H y a y + H z a z ) a y = 2a x

H x a z + H z a x = 2a x

Hz = 2

H = 2a z

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Assume that a plane wave in air with an electric field E = 10cos t 3x 3z a y V/m is

incident on a non-magnetic dielectric slab of relative permittivity 3 which covers the region.

Z > 0 The angle of transmission in the dielectric slab is _________________ degrees.

Answer: 30

Exp:

Given E = 10cos t 3x 3z a y

E = E 0e

So, x = cos x = 3

y = cos y = 0

z = cos z = 3

x + y 2 + z 2 = 2

2

9 + 3 = 2 = 13

cos z = 3 cos z =

3

z = 61.28 = i

13

sin i

E2

sin 61.28

3

0.8769

=

= sin t

sin t

E1

sin t

1

3

t = 30.4 t 30o

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