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Textbook for Fundamental Information Technology Engineers

NO. 1
NO. 1

INTRODUCTION TO COMPUTER SYSTEMS

Supervised by Japan Information Processing Development Corporation

Central Academy of Information Technology

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Technology 9 2 0 0 1 U I O P   H J K L V
Technology 9 2 0 0 1 U I O P   H J K L V
Technology 9 2 0 0 1 U I O P   H J K L V

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Contents

Contents

Part 1

1. Basic Theories of Information

COMPUTER SYSTEMS

Introduction

2

1.1 Data representation

2

1.1.1 Numeric conversion

2

1.1.2 Numeric representation

11

1.1.3 Operation and precision

22

1.1.4 Non-numeric value representation

23

1.2 Information and logic

25

1.2.1 Proposition logic

25

1.2.2 Logical operation

26

Exercises

2. Hardware

Introduction

2.1 Information element

29

34

34

2.1.1 Integrated circuit

34

2.1.2 Semiconductor memory

35

2.2 Processor architecture

36

2.2.1 Processor structure and operation principles

36

2.2.2 Operation mechanism

48

2.2.3 Processor performance

52

2.3 Memory architecture

53

2.3.1 Memory types

53

2.3.2 Memory capacity and performance

54

2.3.3 Memory configuration

55

2.4 Auxiliary storage devices

56

2.4.1 Types and characteristics of auxiliary storage devices

56

2.4.2 RAID types and characteristics

66

2.5 Input/output architecture and devices

2.5.1 Input/output control method

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Contents

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2.5.3 Types and characteristics of input/output devices

2.6 Computer types and architectural characteristics

2.6.1 Computer types

Exercises

3. Basic Software

Introduction

3.1 Operating system

72

83

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3.1.1 OS configuration and functions

92

3.1.2 Job management

95

3.1.3 Process management

97

3.1.4 Main memory management

100

3.1.5 Virtual storage management

102

3.1.6 File management

104

3.1.7 Security management

108

3.1.8 Failure management

108

3.1.9 Supervisor

109

3.2 Types of OS

109

3.2.1 General-purpose OS

109

3.2.2 Network OS (NOS)

113

3.3 Middleware

113

3.3.1 DBMS

113

3.3.2 Communication management system

114

3.3.3 Software development support tool

114

3.3.4 Operation management tool

114

3.3.5 ORB

115

Exercises

4. Multimedia System

Introduction

4.1 What is multimedia?

116

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121

4.1.1 Multimedia service

121

4.1.2 Platforms that implement the multimedia system

123

4.1.3 Multimedia technology

127

4.2 Multimedia applications

4.2.1 Voice and image pattern recognition

127

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Contents

 

4.3

Multimedia application system

129

 

Exercises

131

5.

System Configurations

5.1 System classification and configurations

133

 

5.1.1 System classification

133

5.1.2 Client/server system

133

5.1.3 System configurations

136

5.2 System modes

140

5.2.1 System processing mode

140

5.2.2 System usage mode

142

5.2.3 System operating mode

146

5.2.4 Web computing

147

Exercises

148

Answers to Exercises

152

Part 2

INFORMATION PROCESSING AND SECURITY

1.

Accounting

 

1.1 Business Activities and Accounting Information

154

1.1.1 Fiscal Year and Accounting Information

154

1.1.2 The Accounting Structure

157

1.2 How to Read Financial Statements

162

1.2.1 How to Read the Balance Sheet

162

1.2.2 How to Read the Income Statement

169

1.3 Financial Accounting and Management Accounting

176

1.3.1 Financial Accounting

176

1.3.2 Management Accounting

177

1.3.3 Accounting Information System Configuration

184

Exercises

186

Contents

v

2. Application Fields of Computer Systems

2.1 Engineering Applications

192

2.1.1 Automatic Control of Production

192

2.1.2 CAD/CAM/CAE

193

2.1.3 FA Systems and CIM

194

2.2 Business Applications

195

2.2.1 Head Quarters Business Support Systems

195

2.2.2 Retail Business Support Systems

197

2.2.3 Financial Systems

200

2.2.4 Intelligent Transport System

202

2.2.5 Government Administrative Information System

204

2.2.6 Inter-Enterprise Transaction Data Interchange

205

Exercises

3. Security

3.1 Information Security

208

211

3.1.1 What Is Information Security?

211

3.1.2 Physical Security

211

3.1.3 Logical Security

212

3.2 Risk Analysis

213

3.2.1 Risk Management

213

3.2.2 Types, Evaluation, and Analysis of Risks

213

3.2.3 Risk Processing Methods

214

3.2.4 Security Measures

214

3.2.5 Data Protection

214

3.2.6 Protection of Privacy

215

Exercises

217

Answers to Exercises

219

Index

220