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How its transmitted?

Definition an infectious
disease caused by a parasite,
Plasmodium.

-transmitted to humans
when an infected
Anopheles mosquito bites
a person and injects the
malaria parasites
(sporozoites) into the
blood.

-mal aria=bad air in Italian

Signs and symptoms:


Incubation period for
malaria:
-the period between
the mosquito bite and
malaria illness is 7 to
21 days.

-flu-like illness wirh fever,

ARTICLE
1:
Malaria

chills, muscle aches,


headache, nausea,
vomiting, cough and
diarrhea.
-also can be bleeding
problems, shock, liver or
kidney failure,central
nervous system problem,
coma, death

How malaria treated?


3 main factors determine
treatments:
-the infecting species of
Plasmodium parasite
-the clinical situation of
the patient
-the drug susceptibility of
the infecting parasites

How malaria diagnosed?


-most used test is the blood
smear on a microscope slide
that is stained to show the
parasites inside red blood
cells.

Definition: is a vectorborne infectious


disease caused by
protozoan parasites an
enormous public
health problem.

Symptoms
-fever, cold, shivering,
rigor, joint pain, vomiting,
anemia, hemoglobinuria,
retinal damage,
convulsions

Diagnosis: malarial
retinopathy
Symptomatic diagnosis:
using Giemsa-stained
blood smears
Microscopic
examination of blood
films:economic, preferred
& reliable diagnosis

ARTICLE 2:
Malaria

Causes : by protozoan
parasites, of the genus
Plasmodium.
Human = caused by
P.falciparum, P.malariae,
P.ovale,P.vivax,P. knowlesi
Animals = P. Plasmodium

Prevention and disease control :


Treatments :
Malaria infection with
P.falciparum =hospitalization
Infection with P.vivax,P.ovale
& P.malariae =an outpatient
basis
Anti malarial drugs:
Chloroquine is cheap, very
effective

Vector control = removing or poisoning


the breeding grounds of the larva stages
Prophylactic drugs =seldom practical for
full-time residents of malaria-endemic
areas
Indoor residual spraying =spraying
insecticides on the interior walls of home
Mosquito nets and bedclothes =help
keep mosquitoes away,reduce the
infection and transmission of malaria

Before that, I would like to thank the Chairman for giving me opportunity to talk
deeply about malaria disease. Malaria is a vector-borne infectious disease caused by
protozoan parasites which called as Plasmodium. Malaria also one of the most common
infectious disease and an enormous public health problem. The disease is transmitted
to humans when an infected Anopheles mosquito bites a person and injects the malaria
parasites which known as sporozoites into the blood. Malaria is a particular problem and
a major one in areas of Asia, Africa and Central and South America. Unless precautions
are taken, anyone living in or traveling to a country where malaria is present can get the
disease.
The symptoms and signs of malaria disease is include flu-like illness with fever,
chills, muscle aches, and headaches. Some patients develop nausea, vomiting, cough,
diarrhea, yellowing, anemia, hemoglobinuria and retinal damage. Moreover, people with
severe Plasmodium Falciparum malaria can develop bleeding problems, shock, liver or
kidney failure, central nervous system problems, coma and also can die, Malaria is
caused by protozoan parasites of the genus Plasmodium. In humans malaria caused by
Plasmodium Falciparum, Plasmodium Malariae, Plasmodium Ovale, Plasmodium Vivax
and Plasmodium Knowlesi. Parasitic Plasmodium species also infects birds, reptiles,
monkeys, chimpanzees and rodents. The period between the mosquito bite and the
oneset of the malaria illness is usually one to three weeks.
For your information, recent investigations suggest that malarial retinopathy
better than anya other clinical or laboratory feature in distinguishing malarial from nonmalarial coma. If we talking about the treatment, active malaria infection with
Plasmodium Falciparum is a medical emergency requiring hospitalization. Infection with
Plasmodium Ovale, Plasmodium Vivax or Plasmodium Malarial can often be treated on
an outpatient basis. Treatment of malaria involves supportive measures as well as
specific antimalarial drug, There are several families of drugs used to treat malaria.
Chloroquine is very cheap, and, until recently was very effective, which made it the
antimalarial drug of choice for many years in most parts of the world. There are several
types prevention and disease control.

First is vector control where removing or poisoning the breeding grounds of the
mosquito or the aquatic habitats of the larva stages. These methods have been little
application in Africa for more than half a century. Secod is use prophylactics drugs. Use
of rophylactics drugs is seldom practical for full-time residents of malaria-endemic
areas, and their use is usually restricted to short-term visitors and travelers to malaria
regions. Third s indoor residul spraying where the walls of dwellings have been coated
with insecticides, the resting mosquitos will be killed before they can bite another victim,
transferring themalaria parasite. Lastly using mosquito mets and bedclothes. Mosquito
nets keep mosquitos away from people, and thus greatly reduce the infection and
transmission of malaria. For maximum effectiveness, the nets should be re-impregnated
with insecticide every six months.

PERSONAL REFLECTION
As students of PISMP-IPG, we were assigned by our lecturer Madam Paramjiit to
conduct a forum regarding with the few topics. We were given six weeks to find relevent
informations and conduct the forum regarding with the topic which choosen by each
group. For that my group had discussion for determining the topic that going to discuss
and choose the chairman and panellists. On the forum day, all of us looked with a bit of
nervous. Our group are the last group which did the forum. Before our group, there were
three groups done their forum. The pronunciation of chairman from first group was not
clear as well as what he talked. The chairman from second group was did a good
introduction before starting their forum. Like previous groups, third groups also did their
forum as well except one panelist who talking emotionally and in different intonations. In
my group I as a first panelist did a bit mistake where forgotten my beginning script.
Anyhow the chairman did a good job where back up me by making jokes. In overall, I
felt that all of us conducted forum in such a good way.

BIBLIOGRAPHY
1. http://www.careacademy.org/learningresources/km_forums.pdf
2. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Malaria

3.

Extract fromThe MedicineNet physician

ENGLISH FOR UNDERGRADUATES


ELECTIVE 2 SEMESTER 3
( PROJECT)
NAME : THAVAMALAR A/P CHITRABAHU
I/C NUMBER : 880626-05-5256
GROUP : PISMP-IPG G 3.4
LECTURER : MADAM PARAMJIIT KAUR
DUE DATE : 3RD APRIL 2009