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5/16/2011

Network Devices

Common Network Devices

5/16/2011

Objectives
Install, configure and differentiate between
common network devices

Network+2009 Objective 3.1

What we will cover

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Hubs connect network segments


together
Regenerate signals
to increase the size
of the network

Switches function at the Data-Link


Layer (Layer-2)

Switch Symbol

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Bridges function at the Data-Link Layer


(Layer-2)

Bridge Symbol

Routers operate at the Network layer


(Layer-3)

Router Symbol

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Network Interface Cards (NIC) connect


host to the network media

Wireless

Wired

Gateways can operate at any or all


layers, they connect different network
types.

Windows

Netware

MS Gateway
Services for
Netware

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Wireless Access Point (WAP) provide


wireless network connectivity

Modems convert digital signals to


analog voice signals and vice-versa
Analog

Analog
Modem

Telco

Modem

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DSL Modems connects to Internet via


PSTN copper pairs

DSL Modems use spare POTS bandwidth


to carry Data

Cable Modems connects to Internet


via cable network

Cable Modems use spare Cable


Television (CATV) channels to carry Data

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Transceivers convert form one media


type to another.
Small Form-Factor
Pluggable (SFP)
Gigabit Interface
Converter (GBIC)

Transceivers are also called Media


Converters
Media converters
(UTP to Fibre)

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Firewalls protect the network from


outside threats.

Internal
Network

Internet
(Untrusted)

(Trusted?)

Demilitarized
Zone

DHCP servers provide IP addresses and


other network information
I need an IP
Address

Client

Okay, here is
an IP
Address

DHCP
Server

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Summary

Network interface adapters


Hubs
Bridges and switches
Routers
Firewalls
Gateways
Modems
Wireless Access Point
Transceivers

Physical Layer Devices

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The following are Physical Layer Devices

Network Interface Card (NIC)


Transceiver
Repeater
Hub
MAU
Modem
Channel Service Unit/Data Service Unit
(CSU/DSU)

Network Interface Cards connect the


computer to the network media
Wired

Wireless

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Transceivers/Media Convertors
convert from one media type to
another
AUI

Coaxial

Fibre

UTP

Media Attachment Unit (Ethernet)

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Repeaters regenerate network signals so they


can travel for a greater distance

Repeaters are Physical layer devices


that regenerate signals

Maximum Segment Length

Signal
Strength

Repeater
Extends Network Reach

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Repeater

Signals get weaker and more distorted the


further from the source they get
Repeaters regenerate the signals

Hubs are multi-port repeaters


Hubs connect multiple network segments together

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Hubs maintain a Single Collision and


Broadcast Domain
Collision
Domain

Repeater
Hub

Broadcast
Domain

Media Access Unit (Token Ring)

IBM 8228 (MAU)

Token Ring Media Access Unit (MAU, also


called Multistation Access Unit, MSAU)

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Dial-up Modem convert between digital


signals and audio tones.
External Modem

Internal Modem

Modems convert digital signals to analog


voice signals and vice-versa
Analog

Analog
Modem

Telco

Modem

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CSU/DSU interface your LAN to the


Service Providers digital lines
Service Provider

Your LAN

CSU / DSU

Channel service unit / Data service unit

Channel Service Unit/Data Service Unit


(CSU/DSU)

WAN Side

LAN Side

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Summary
Network Interface Card (NIC)
Transceiver
Repeater
Hub
MAU
Modem
CSU/DSU

Data Link Layer Devices


Switches, Bridges, and Wireless
Access Points

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Bridges and Switches connect multiple


network segments at the data link
layer

Bridges and Switches


Are Data-link layer devices that use
destination addresses to forward frames
Are Network protocol independent

Do not filter broadcast packets

Do not define separate networks

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Network without Bridge


Collision
Domain

Repeater
Hub

Broadcast
Domain

Network with Bridge

Bridge

Collision
Domains

Broadcast
Domain

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Layer-2 Switches

Switch

Collision
Domains

Broadcast
Domain

Every interface on the Switch/Bridge is


a separate Collision Domain
Collision

Domain

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Switches & Bridges have Three Main


Functions
Address Learning

Forwarding/Filtering

Loop Avoidance

ADDRESS LEARNING

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Switch keeps a Table mapping MAC


Address to Port
MAC Address Table
Port MAC Address

Table is initially
Empty

1
2
aaaa

bbbb

4
1

3
cccc

dddd

Switch learns the Address and


Connected Port of Transmitting Device
Port
I want to send to
cccc
aaaa

MAC Address Table


MAC Address
aaaa

2
3

bbbb

4
1
dddd

3
cccc

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Switch does not have destination


address in its MAC table
Port

MAC Address

I want to send to
cccc

aaaa

aaaa

MAC Address Table

2
bbbb

4
1

3
cccc

dddd

Switch Floods frame out of every port except the one


it came in on.

Switch learns the Address and


Connected Port of Transmitting Device
Port

MAC Address

aaaa

MAC Address Table

2
aaaa

bbbb

3
4

cccc
1

dddd

3
cccc

Reply to
aaaa

Switch learns the address of another device.

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Switch finds Destination MAC address in its


Table
Port

MAC Address

aaaa

MAC Address Table

2
aaaa

bbbb

3
4

cccc
1

3
cccc

dddd

Reply to
aaaa

Switch forwards the frame out ONLY the correct


Port.

Process continues until switch learns the


Address and Port of all nodes
MAC Address Table

aaaa

Port

MAC Address

aaaa

dddd

bbbb

cccc

1
dddd

bbbb

3
cccc

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Layer 2 Forwarding

Forwarding device wants to send


message to another device
MAC Address Table

aaaa

I want to
send to
bbbb

Port

MAC Address

aaaa

dddd

bbbb

cccc

bbbb

dddd

cccc

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1.

Forwarding switch looks for


destination address in MAC Address
TableMAC Address Table
Lookup bbbb in MAC Table

2. Finds it
3. Forward Frame out ONLY the
associated port

Port

MAC Address

aaaa

dddd

bbbb

cccc

aaaa
I want to
send to
bbbb

bbbb

dddd

cccc
2

Layer 2 Switch Filtering

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Multiple Nodes on the Same Port


MAC Address Table
Port

MAC Address

aaaa, dddd

2
aaaa

bbbb

cccc

bbbb

Hub
1

dddd

3
cccc
4

Frames destined out the same port


they entered are dropped - Filtered
MAC Address Table
Sending to
dddd

aaaa

Port

MAC Address

aaaa, dddd

2
3

bbbb

cccc

bbbb

Hub
dddd

I dont need to
do anything
cccc

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Loop Avoidance

Networks with a Single Point of Failure


are not as Reliable

Failure at any of these point


will disrupt communication
between clients and servers

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An additional Switch adds Redundancy

No more Single Point of Failure

However, Loops can now occur

Frames can now


loop indefinitely
around the network

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STP Blocks Layer-2 Loops even when


Physical loops exists

Spanning Tree Protocol (STP)


blocks some ports, to
maintain a loop-free network

At what point of the frame does the switch


start to forward the frame

Switches:

Bridges:

Cutthrough
Store-andforward
Store-andforward

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Cut-through Switching
The fastest way to forward frames
Looks at only the first 6 bytes (destination
MAC address) before forwarding
No error checking
Destination
MAC Address

Rest of Frame
Forwarding Decision

Fragment-free Switching
Waits for the first 64 bytes before forwarding
Catches most collisions
Limited error checking
Destination
MAC Address
64
Bytes

Rest of Frame
Forwarding Decision

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Store-and-Forward Switching
Slower but more reliable than the cut-through
Reads entire frame and performs a CRC check
If CRC check fails discard frame

Complete Frame

CRC

Forwarding Decision

OTHER BRIDGING TECHNOLOGIES

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Source route bridging


Used in Token Ring networks.
The source node determines the path through
the network, not the bridge.
Bridges add path information when frames are
forwarded
Continue to use this information to forward
frames between source and destination hosts.

Translation bridges are used to


connect dissimilar data-link protocols.

Token Ring

Ethernet

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Remote Bridges allow network


segments to be connected over long
distances

Site A

Site B

Wireless Access Points Bridge between


Wireless and Wired devices

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Summary

Why use Switches or Bridges


Three functions of Switches and Bridges
The Spanning Tree Protocol
At what point to switch frames
Other bridging technologies

Network Interface Cards

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A Network Interface Adapter

Diagnostic
LEDs

RJ-45 Jack

PCI Connector

Network Interface Card

Links computer to the network


Requires a device driver
Plugs into an interface on a computer
Network Interface Adapter

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Transmission Functions

Data transfer, and buffering


Data encapsulation
Media Access Control (MAC)
Parallel/serial conversion
Signal encoding and amplification

Advanced NIC Features


10Mbps
Speed

100Mbps
1000Mbps

Auto
negotiation
Duplex
mode

Full duplex
Half duplex

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Advanced NIC Features (cont.)


Checksum processing
Processor offloading
Bus mastering
Transmission Control Protocol (TCP) segmentation
Internet Protocol Security (IPSec) processing
Network management
Wake on LAN

Selection Criteria
Consider the following:
The data-link layer protocol
The transmission speed requirements
Cabling and connector types
Computers bus architecture and resource
availability
Network interface driver availability
The operating system type

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Installing a NIC in a Computer


To install a network interface adapter:
Insert the NIC into the slot
Configure the card to use the appropriate
hardware resources
Install the cards device driver

Configuring a NIC
For none plug and play (PnP) NICs, configure
the following, as required:
Interrupt request (IRQ)
Input/output (I/O) port address
Memory address
Direct memory access (DMA) channel

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Device Drivers
A device driver provides the link between
operating system and the network interface
adapter
Operating
System

Device
Driver

Network
Card

Configuration Tools
Depends on the operating system
For all Microsoft Windows operating systems,
use the Device Manager utility
Accessed from the System Properties dialog
box in Control Panel or from the Computer
Management console

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Configuration Tools (Continued)


For Novell NetWare:
Use Install.nlm for versions earlier than NetWare 5
Use Nwconfig.nlm for NetWare 5
Use Hdetect.nlm and Inetcfg.nlm for NetWare 6.5

For UNIX or Linux, use the line command


ifconfig

Isolating a Problem
Check existing cables and connectors
are secure
Test with known good cables and
connectors
Exclude other related hardware and
software
Verify that the appropriate driver is
installed
Verify that no conflicts exists with
other devices

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Troubleshooting a Network Interface


Card
Verify that the interface is seated properly
in the bus slot
Remove the card, clean the connector, and
test in the same slot or try another slot
Test with a known good card in the same
slot and in a different slot

Network Layer Devices

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Routers
Routers are network layer devices that
connect networks
Connect similar or different data-link layer
LANs
Must understand and support the network
layer protocol and addressing
Perform fragmentation
Strip the data-link header and footer off
received frames

Routers (Continued)
Add a new data-link header and trailer before
transmitting frames
Use routing protocols to build routing tables
and forward frames
Define separate broadcast domains

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A Simple Routed Network


Interface Address
192.168.1.1

Interface Address
192.168.2.254

Network: 192.168.1.x

Network: 192.168.2.x

Switch

Router

192.168.1.20

Switch

192.168.2.20

A Routed Internetwork
Switch

192.168.3.x

RouterA
3rd Floor

Switch

192.168.2.x

RouterB
2nd Floor

Switch

192.168.1.x

RouterC
1st Floor

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Layer-3 Switches
Perform the same function as a Router
Use special hardware integrated circuits
ASIC Application Specific Integrated Circuits

Routers & Layer-3 Switches come in all


Sizes

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Gateways connect dissimilar systems


and protocols
Windows

Netware

MS Gateway
Services for
Netware

Can include the functions of all seven layers of the


Open Systems Interconnection (OSI) model
Perform translation and conversion services
Router were traditionally called Gateways

Specialized Network Devices

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At the end of this lesson we will be able to


Identify the functions of specialized network
devices

Network+2009 Objective 3.2

What we will cover

Multilayer switch
Content switch
IDS/IPS
Load balancer
Multifunction network devices
DNS server
Bandwidth shaper
Proxy server
CSU/DSU

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Multilayer switch operate at multiple


layers of the OSI model

Cisco 6500 Series

Intrusion Detection System (IDS)


IDS
Internal
(Protected)
Network

External
Network

Cisco IDS/IPS-4235

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Intrusion Prevention System (IPS)


External
Network

IPS

Internal
(Protected)
Network

Cisco IPS-4240

Load balancer distributes load across


many servers

Minicomputer

Minicomputer

Minicomputer

Minicomputer

Servers

Load
Balancer

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Content switch optimize data delivery


to clients

Minicomputer

Minicomputer

Minicomputer

Minicomputer

Content Switch

Multifunction network devices can


provide more than one function
Integrated Services
Router (ISR)
Multifunction device

I
S
R

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Choose the Multifunction Device to


suit your requirements

The Domain Name System (DNS) is a


hierarchical naming system

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DNS servers resolve host name to IP


address and vice versa
What is the IP
Address for?

Minicomputer

DNS
Server

Bandwidth Shaper or Traffic Shaper

Recreational
Business
Critical

Bandwidth
Shaper

Business Critical
Non-Business Critical

Traffic IN

Traffic OUT

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Proxy server

Minicomputer

Proxy
Server

Minicomputer

www.example.com

Makes request on behalf of client


Caches pages
Proxy returns previously cached pages

Channel Service Unit / Data Service


Units
CSU/DSU

Provides the interface between your network and the


service providers, for serial data

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Channel Service Unit / Data Service


Units

To WAN circuit

To router

Review

Multilayer switch
Content switch
IDS/IPS
Load balancer
Multifunction network devices
DNS server
Bandwidth shaper
Proxy server
CSU/DSU

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