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|=-----------------------------------------------------------------------=|

|=------------=[ T C P S e s s i o n H i j a c k i n g ]=------------=|
|=-----------------------------------------------------------------------=|
|=-----------------------=[
by Cheese
]=-----------------------=|
|=-----------------------=[ cheese[at]mymail.ch ]=-----------------------=|
|=-----------------------=[ http://myCheese.org ]=-----------------------=|
|=-----------------------------------------------------------------------=|
---=[ Contents
[0x01] - Intro
[0x02] - Theory
[0x02a] - TCP Sessions
[0x02b] - Man-in-the-Middle
[0x02c] - Session Hijack
[0x03] - Practice
[0x03a] - Tools
[0x03b] - Scenario
[0x03c] - Attack
[0x04] - Outro

---=[ 0x01 - Intro


Hi guys, in this paper I want to introduce you to the
theoretical and practical aspects of attacking TCP sessions.
We will aim to hijack a client-server connection, so we are
able to bypass password authentications which are normally done
at the start of a session.
---=[ 0x02 - Theory
-------=[ 0x02a - TCP sessions
At the establishment of a TCP session the client starts by
sending a SYN-packet (SYN=synchronize) with an sequence number.
This number is used to assure the transmission of packets in
a chronological order. It is increased by one with each packet.
The both sides of the connection wait for an packet with a specified
sequence number. The first seq-number for both directions is
random.
The server responds with an SYN/ACK packet (ACK-acknowledgment)
which contains the seq-number of the client+1 and also a own start
seq-number. The client confirm everything with an ACK packet including
the seq-number of the server+1, after that the session is established.
+---+
syn seq=x
+---+
| C | -------------------> | S |
| L |
| E |
| I | syn ack=x+1 seq=y | R |
| E | <-------------------- | V |
| N |
| E |

| T |
ack=y+1 seq=x+1
| R |
+---+ --------------------> +---+
To hijack a session it is required to send a packet with a right
seq-number, otherwise they are dropped. You have two options to get
the right seq-number.
Option A:
You try to guess the right number. It is made up of 32bit
so you _just_ have 4294967296 possibilities, good luck!
Option B:
You sniff the existing connection, this works at networks
which use Hub's without problems, but to do this at a switched
network you have one way:
Man-in-the-Middle!
-------=[ 0x02b - Man-in-the-Middle
To get Man-in-the-Middle we use ARP Poison Routing.
ARP (address resolution protocol) binds MAC addresses to
IP addresses to make a data transfer on Ethernet possible.
You should read up about this protocol if you do not know much
about it.
In order to sniff the connection between two hosts the attacker
sends a manipulated ARP packet to one of the hosts which contains
the IP of the second host and the MAC of the attacker. So this host
sends every packet that is meant for the second host to the attacker.
The same is done with the other host, the attacker himself just
forwards the packets, so he acts as an invisible intermediary, as
Man-in-the-Middle.
+------+
+------+
|HOST-A| -------------------SWITCH------------------ |HOST-B|
+------+ ................. | ................. +------+
: | :
: | :
: | :
: | :
+--------+
Hello [A], I am [B] > |ATTACKER| < Hello [B], I am [A]
+--------+

-------=[ 0x02c - Session Hijack


Vulnerable to hijacking is every unencrypted connection.
We start with the Man-in-the-Middle attack between the victim
and the server, if the server is in another subnet we attack
the gateway instead of the server. If everything is successful
we are able to observe every single packet with a sniffer.
To hijack the session we wait for a packet and use the infos
from it: source IP, destination IP, source port, destination port,
and the sequence number. With this data we create a own packet
and send it instantly to the server. The server accepts it and
increases the expected seq-number for the next one. As soon the

next packet from the real client arrives the server drops it as
outdated, so the client is desynchronized and loses the connection.
---=[ 0x03 - Practice
-------=[ 0x03a - Tools
There are many programs which do the complete thing by
itself (Hunt, Juggernaut, T-Sight), but I got some problems
with some of them.
For the Man-in-the-Middle attack I will use the well known
program "Ettercap". "Wireshark" does the sniffing for me
and the hijack is done with "Shijack", everything of course
on a Linux/GNU box.
Shijack: http://packetstormsecurity.org/sniffers/shijack.tgz
-------=[ 0x03b - Scenario
We aim to hijack a telnet session between a client
and a server.
Network:
+--------+
+--------+
| SERVER | <.......T..E..L..N..E..T......> | CLIENT |
|10.0.0.1| --------------+ +--------------|10.0.0.2|
+--------+
| |
+--------+
| |
+------+
|SWITCH|
+------+
|
|
+--------+
|ATTACKER|
|10.0.0.3|
+--------+
-------=[ 0x03c - Attack
As I said in the beginning we start with the MitM attack.
We will use ettercap to do it. Ettercap is started in the GTK mod
and we activate "Unified sniffing" in the sniff menu. Choose your
network interface and we continue with a click at "Scan for hosts"
at the hosts menu. After the scan is finished we display the hosts
with "Host list" in the same menu.
10.0.0.1 -> Add to Target 1
10.0.0.2 -> Add to Target 2
Press "Start sniffing" at the start menu and "Arp poisoning" at the
Mitm menu.
Next we start a sniffer, "Wireshark" in my case. There we click
"List the available capture interfaces..." and get a list of our
interfaces, choose the right one and the sniffing starts.
Wait for any packet of the telnet connection, as soon as we get one

we click it and see the required informations.


For example:
Source IP
10.0.0.2
Destination IP 10.0.0.1
Source Port
53517
Destination Port 23
Now we are finally at the hijack, I will use "Shijack" for it.
If you got problems compiling you can use the binaries which are
included.
#
#cheese:/home/cheese/hijack# ./shijack
#Usage: ./shijack
[-r]
#
The interface you are going to hijack on.
#
The source ip of the connection.
#
The source port of the connection.
#
The destination IP of the connection.
#
The destination port of the connection.
#[-r]
Reset the connection rather than hijacking it.
#
OK thats simple.
#
#cheese:/home/cheese/hijack# ./shijack eth0 10.0.0.2 53517 10.0.0.1 23
#
Attack!!!!
#
#Waiting for SEQ/ACK to arrive from the srcip to the dstip.
#(To speed things up, try making some traffic between the two)
#
The tool runs and waits for another packet to get an
working seq-number. As soon as it get something it will hijack
the connection automatically.
#
#Got packet! SEQ = 0xad6e5b8e ACK = 0x5ebaf20d
#Starting hijack session, Please use ^C to terminate.
#Anything you enter from now on is sent to the hijacked TCP connection.
#
Hijack successful! Now we are able to send everything we want
through the session to the server.
---=[ 0x04 - Outro
Every unencrypted session is vulnerable to TCP-session-hijacks,
although it is mostly more simple to sniff the password directly.
But I think it is a really dangerous technique since one-time-password
like TAN or security token are also vulnerable.
I really hope you like my little paper.
-Thx for reading-

Written by : Cheese <cheese(at)mymail.ch>


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