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journal homepage: www.elsevier.com/locate/finel

using solid-shell nite element model

H. Naceur a,n, S. Shiri b, D. Coutellier a, J.L. Batoz c

a

Lab. LAMIH, UMR8201 CNRS, Universit Lille Nord de France, 59313 Valenciennes, France

Lab. I2M, UMR 5295 CNRS, Arts & Mtiers ParisTech, Universit Bordeaux I, 33607 Pessac, France

c

Lab. Roberval, UMR 6253 CNRS, Universit de Technologie de Compigne, 60205 Compig`ne, France

b

art ic l e i nf o

a b s t r a c t

Article history:

Received 19 July 2012

Received in revised form

31 December 2012

Accepted 20 February 2013

Available online 1 April 2013

In this investigation a coupling between a 3D solid-shell element for the analysis of multilayered

composite shell structures and a specic response surface method is proposed. The rst part of the paper

is dedicated to the nite element formulation of a developed composite 8-node solid-shell element

called SCH87, based only on translational degrees of freedom. The basis of the present nite element

formulation is the standard 8-node brick element with tri-linear shape functions. A particular attention is

given to alleviate shear, trapezoidal and thickness locking, without resorting to the classical plane-stress

assumption. Assumed natural strain method and enhanced assumed strain method are used to improve

the relative poor element behavior of a standard hexahedral displacement element. The anisotropic

material behavior of layered shells is modeled using a fully three dimensional elastic orthotropic material

law in each layer, including the thickness stress component. The second part of the paper will focus on an

adaptive response surface method for the structural optimization problem. The response surfaces are

built using moving least squares approximations and design of experiments by means of a specic

method called Diffuse Approximation.

Several numerical applications to composite multilayered shell structures are studied to show the

applicability and effectiveness of the proposed procedure. Good results of analysis and optimization

using the developed SCH87 solid-shell element have been obtained in comparison with reference

analytical solutions and with those obtained using the SC8R solid-shell nite element available in

ABAQUS code.

& 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Keywords:

Composite structures

Solid-shell

Optimization

Design of experiment

1. Introduction

In the modeling of shell structures various problems may

appear especially when shell nite elements are used in combination with solid elements. Therefore special connection elements

are necessary to link shell elements with solids having different

degrees of freedom. It turns obvious to develop general-purpose

brick elements, which are able to deal with any type of structures

(solid, shell, and/or their combination).

3D-continuum elements are a variety of Finite Element (FE)

models halfway between solid elements and thin shells. They have

the same freedom conguration of solid elements but account for

shell-like behavior in the thickness direction. They are very

attractive for modeling shell-like regions of a 3D structure without

the need of special elements to connect solid elements to shell

nodes. 3D-continuum elements also called solid-shell elements

E-mail address: hakim.naceur@univ-valenciennes.fr (H. Naceur).

0168-874X/$ - see front matter & 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.nel.2013.02.004

mainly because of the simplicity of their kinematics, their ability

in modeling complex structures generally composed of massive

and thin-walled regions and also special rotations treatment in

geometric nonlinear analysis may be avoided.

The 3D-continuum FE concept has attracted many researchers

since the late 1990s. Domissy et al. [15] and Sze et al. [37] are

probably the rst authors to investigate a solid-shell approach

for the analysis of plates and shells. In 1998, Hauptmann and

Schweizerhof [20] propose an extension to the original solid-shell

theory called double-node models where the position of an arbitrary point in the element is assumed to depend either linearly or

quadratically, on the thickness coordinate. In 1998, Cho et al. [12]

proposed a solid-shell element model based on the assumed

strain formulation for buckling and postbuckling analysis of shell

structures.

During the last decade, solid-shell FE models for thin shell

structures have attracted considerable attention. Numerous models

have been proposed in the literature and can be found in Sze and

Yao [38], Vu-Quoc and Tan [40], Areias et al. [3], Harnau and

H. Naceur et al. / Finite Elements in Analysis and Design 7071 (2013) 114

Schweizerhof [19], Alves de Sousa et al. [2], Hannachi et al. [18], Quy

and Matzenmiller [32], Nguyen et al. [29], Shiri et al. [35] and more

recently the work of Schwarze and Reese [34], Moreira et al. [25].

Solid-shell element properties make them appropriate also for the

modeling of laminated structures as can be seen in some representative references [3,21,25,33,40], to name just a few. In all of

these works it has been shown that it is possible to use a solid-shell

nite element models which possess no rotational degrees of

freedom and obtain good results for the resolution of various

structural problems. However, development of these elements is

not straightforward, transverse shear, trapezoidal and thickness

locking phenomena must be alleviated and therefore special treatments have to be included to suppress the numerical locking effects

become crucial.

Transverse shear locking is characterized by an overestimation

of stiffness associated to transverse shear strain energy [2]. The

most common methods that have been used to solve the shear

locking effect are the Selective Reduced Integration (SRI) scheme

[2] and also the Assumed Natural Strain (ANS) which has been

applied rstly on shells by Dvorkin and Bathe [17] and as can be

seen in the works of [3,11,15,35] for a fully integrated solid-shell

element.

Trapezoidal locking is only found in structures where the

directors of the element edges are not perpendicular to the midplane. One method to resolve this pathology is by using the ANS

interpolation of the transverse strain in thickness direction as

performed in [8,9,37,38], where it was proposed to avoid articial

thickness straining.

Thickness locking, caused by Poisson's ratio coupling to the

in-plane and transverse normal stress and normal strain responses

[14,15] can be overcome by plane-stress assumption, or more

generally by the Enhanced Assumed thickness Strain (EAS), where

a 7th parameter is added [10,21] and suppressed by condensation

technique. This locking pathology usually appears when a solidshell element with only translational degrees of freedom is to be

used in problems involving bending.

The 7th parameter as proposed by Bchter and Ramm [10] is an

extension of classical shear deformation theory. The interest of this

model is especially useful when full three-dimensional constitutive law is used which allows solving problems involving large

strains. In their work, Bchter and Ramm [10] describe the 7th

parameter model along with a FE formulation and they introduce

it on the element level by means of the hybrid-mixed formulation.

In the present solid-shell model, the 7th parameter is resulting

independently from the FE formulation, i.e. it can be understood as

semi-discretization of the solid-shell element through the thickness. Based on this technique, the obtained 7th parameter model

is considered simply as a two-dimensional continuous concept

with 7 degrees of freedom per node of the reference surface. The

7th parameter is then eliminated using the static condensation

procedure on the element level.

Another alternative, has been proposed recently by Professor

Brunet and his collaborators [4], concerning a solid-shell element

with 9 nodes: 8 are located at the element vertices and the 9th is

located at the centroid. The authors used classically a reduced

integration with one in-plane quadrature point with an assumed

shear-strain eld to avoid locking phenomena. The centroid node

is used as an extra parameter to enhance the displacement in the

thickness direction and thus obtain a linear normal strain, allowing the use of full three-dimensional constitutive strainstress

behavior.

During last few years, Response Surface Method (RSM) [24] has

gained more and more importance in the optimization of general

shell structures [30]. RSM has the advantage of replacing a

complex response model by an approximate one based on results

calculated at various points in the design space. The optimization

Two important issues when applying RSM to a particular problem

concern the Design of Experiments (DOE) and construction of

accurate approximation functions [13,22] so that rapid convergence may be achieved.

In the present work, we exploit the RSM based on Diffuse

Approximation (DA) [7,26] and particularly the notion of pseudoderivative to design a specic optimization technique, custom

built for this regression model. This new method is an extension of

pattern search in two aspects: (1) accommodation of arbitrary

regular and irregular patterns; (2) design points eligible for

inclusion in any pattern instance belong to a predened set in

the design where experiments are authorized.

The outline of the paper is as follows. In Section 2 we present

the kinematics, the material law, and the variational equations of a

3D-shell formulation with convective coordinates with the associated FE description. A special technique, which is necessary for

integration through the layers in the 3D-case, is also given. In

Section 3 the optimization procedure dedicated for the design of

material parameters is given, a special attention is set to the built

of response surface model, we use to approximate the implicit

objective function. In the fourth section we discuss the applicability of the proposed procedure which consists in coupling

between RSM, DOE and solid-shell solution for the modeling of

several standard benchmarks which have been given by NAFEMS

[28]. The obtained results are compared with those obtain using

SC8R. Finally some conclusions are drawn.

2.1. Kinematics

To overcome the difculties of rotational degrees of freedom

(dof) in conventional shell elements, the shell kinematics of

deformation is described using the position vectors of a pair of

material points at the top and at the bottom of the shell midsurface (Fig. 1).

In this kinematic description, a straight transverse ber before

deformation remains straight after deformation. Such transverse

ber does not need necessarily to be normal to the shell midsurface before deformation, as well as after deformation. With

respect to nodal designation (Fig. 2), the coordinate vector X and

displacement vector u of the element, are [5,6,16]

4

1 1

X,, X 0 , X n , N i ,

Xi

Xi

1

2

2

i1

4

u,, u0 , un , N i ,

i1

1 1

u

ui

2 i

2

2

H. Naceur et al. / Finite Elements in Analysis and Design 7071 (2013) 114

Using Eqs. (2) and (3), the displacement gradient vector in the

curvilinear coordinate system can be expressed as

du L ds

12

with

L F T L

13

and du L d is the displacement gradient tensor in the parametric coordinate system. In order to calculate the strain tensor

directly in the curvilinear coordinate system, we have to dene a

tensor which is given by [6,15,41]

C F 1 Q

14

where

2 1

a t 1

6 2

a t

C 6

4 1

0

a1 t 2

a2 t 2

0

a1 n

7

a2 n 7

5

a3 n

15

where Ni are the two-dimensional 4-node Lagrangian interpolation functions, X i , ui and X i , ui are respectively, the coordinate

and displacement vectors of the ith node on the bottom and top

shell surfaces respectively (Fig. 1).

Using Eq. (1), the gradient vector dX can be expressed in terms

of d fd, d, dg

E c 12L LT

dX F d

and

F 1 a1 ; a2 ; a3 T

16

17

E aT1 u, ,

2E aT1 u, aT2 u,

F a1 ; a2 ; a3

E aT2

E aT3

u, ,

2E aT1 u, aT3 u,

u, ,

2E aT2 u, aT3 u,

dened by [6,15]

Therefore, we obtain a simple relationship between the curvilinear and covariant strain tensors

a1 X p, 12 V ,

a2 X p, 12 V ,

a3 V

1

2

using

dV J d d d

with

J detF ja1 a2 a3 j

dened by

Q t 1 ; t 2 ; n

where t 1 and t 2 are unit vectors in the plane A for Cst. The

normal unit vector is dened by

n

a1 a2

ja1 a2 j

vectors t 1 , t 2 , following Batoz and Dhatt [6], one can dene

2

3

1 2

1

6 1 ny 1 nx ny nx 7

6

7

6

7

1

1 2

10

Q 6

7

nx ny

nx ny 7

6

4 1

5

1

nx

ny

nz

with n k (see Fig. 2).

Finally the relationship between the curvilinear basis and the

global cartesian framework can be expressed by

dX Q ds

11

E C T Ec C

18

may be rewritten in a simple form

E C~ E c

with

2

C 211

6

6 C 212

6

6 2C C

6

~

C 6 112 12

6 C 13

6

6 2C C

4 11 13

2C 12 C 13

19

C 221

C 11 C 21

C 222

2C 21 C 22

C 12 C 22

C 12 C 21 C 11 C 22

0

0

0

0

C 223

C 13 C 23

C 233

C 13 C 33

2C 21 C 23

C 23 C 11 C 21 C 13

C 11 C 33

2C 22 C 23

C 23 C 12 C 22 C 13

C 12 C 33

7

7

7

7

7

7

C 23 C 33 7

7

C 21 C 33 7

5

C 22 C 33

0

0

2.2. Material law in convected basis

The constitutive relation of laminated composites [39] can be

described using an orthotropic material law. For that purpose, we

express the components of the tangent elastic moduli tensor

relative to the ber reference axis fm1 ; m2 ; m3 g of lamina [23]

2

3

H 1111 H 1112

0

H 1113

0

0

6 1122

7

6H

H 2222

0

H 2223

0

0 7

6

7

6 0

1212

0

0

0 7

0

H

6

7

H 6 1133

20

7

2233

3333

6H

7

H

0

H

0

0

6

7

6 0

7

1313

0 5

0

0

0

H

4

0

0

0

0

0

H 2323

Each layer is constituted of an orthotropic elastic material

directions fm1 ; m2 ; m3 g (see Fig. 3). The non-zero coefcients of

H. Naceur et al. / Finite Elements in Analysis and Design 7071 (2013) 114

H 1111 E1 123 32 =K,

H

2222

H 1122 E1 21 23 =K

H 1113 E1 31 21 32 =K

E2 113 31 =K,

H 2223 E2 32 12 31 =K,

H 1212 G12 ,

H

2323

G23 ,

H 3333 E3 112 21 =K

H 1313 G13

ij Ej ji Ei

E3 are the elastic moduli in the principal material directions

fm1 ; m2 ; m3 g, ij and Gij are respectively the Poisson's ratio and

the shear modulus.

Since matrix is associated with the principal material directions, we need to transform it from the lamina coordinate axes

fm1 ; m2 ; m3 g to the global cartesian coordinate axes fX; Y; Zg. With

being the ber orientation angle relative to the global cartesian

system (Fig. 3), the relationship between the lamina coordinate

system and the global Cartesian system is given by

m1 cos X sin Y

m2 sin X cos Y

m3 Z

21

convective coordinates as

H~ RT HR

with

2

r 1 2

6 1 2

6 r 1

6 2

6 1 1

6 2r 1 r 2

R6

6 r 1 2

6 3

6 1 1

6 2r r

4 2 3

2r 11 r 13

22

r 21 2

r 11 r 21

r 31 2

r 21 r 31

r 22 2

2r 21 r 22

r 12 r 22

1 2

r 1 r 2 r 21 r 12

r 32 2

2r 31 r 32

r 22 r 32

2 3

r 1 r 2 r 22 r 31

r 23 2

r 13 r 23

1 2

r 2 r 3 r 13 r 22

r 11 r 23 r 13 r 21

r 33 2

r 23 r 33

2 3

r 2 r 3 r 23 r 32

r 21 r 33 r 23 r 31

2r 22 r 23

2r 21 r 23

2r 32 r 33

2r 31 r 33

r 11 r 31

7

7

r 22 r 32

7

1 3

1 37

r 1 r 2 r 2 r 1 7

7

7

r 13 r 33

7

7

1 3

1 37

r 2 r 3 r 3 r 2 5

r 11 r 33 r 13 r 31

23

r ji

Q j mi .

and

The stresses can be evaluated in the curvilinear coordinate

system (Fig. 4) as

S H~ Z

where the stress tensor S fSxx Syy Sxy Szz Sxz Syz g

24

T

The principal of virtual work can be stated as

Wu,u W int W ext 0

25

u0 and u 0, u u on Su.

With Su is the shell contour where displacements are imposed.

The Principal of Virtual Work can be expressed in the curvilinear

coordinate system as

Z

Z

Z

W W int W ext E T S dV uT f v dV uT f s dS

V

26

Sf

where f V and f s are volume and surface traction forces respectively. In order to deal with the several locking phenomena

separately, we need to split the expression of virtual internal work

by separating the membrane/bending, thickness and transverse

shear effects [6,15].

W int W mb W tr W sh

27

with

Z

W mb E Ts H~ 1 E s dV

Z V

W tr E Tz H~ 2 E z dV

ZV

W sh GTs H~ 3 Gs dV

28

H~ 1 , H~ 2 and H~ 3 are sub-matrices extracted from the global

material matrix H~ according to the different strain components.

In the context of modeling multilayered composite structures

using solid-shell elements, there exist two possibilities regarding

the numerical implementation:

Case of one element per layer: This is the easiest way for

modeling the entire thickness of the structure using several

elements (1 element per layer) as indicated in Fig. 5. In this case

the numerical procedure of integration is straightforward and

does not require any efforts in the implementation compared to

the case of isotropic material modeling. The user has to provide

the following basic properties:

1. Declaration of n groups of different elements in the FE mesh,

these groups correspond to the n different material layers

constituting the laminate.

2. Provide the physical characteristics of each layer.

Case of several layers per element: This second technique

consists in stacking the different material layers within the

same element (see Fig. 5). Each FE is a stack of several layers,

H. Naceur et al. / Finite Elements in Analysis and Design 7071 (2013) 114

stiffness matrix is carried out using the single-layer approach

identical to the one commonly used for the integration of

plasticity, by using either one or several Lobatto integration

points through the thickness for each layer.

In the present investigation, this second method has been

implemented because it is more general and more convenient

since it requires only one element in the thickness of the

structure (gain of CPU time in the case of industrial applications). On the other side the drawback the chosen element

kinematic will not be able to capture delamination effects.

In this case, the numerical implementation of the FE model

requires some modications of the stresses calculation and the

integration of the stiffness matrix. For each element the user

has to provide the following properties:

1. Declaration of n groups of materials, these n groups correspond

to the different layers constituting the multilayered structure.

2. Provide the physical characteristics for each material.

i

3. Provide for each layer i, the thickness hi (with ni 1 h h total

thickness of the structure).

For instance, the numerical implementation for the in-plane

membrane/exion effect is done in the following way:

!

Z Z

Z Z

W mb

z h=2

z h=2

E Ts S s

z hi =2

nl

dz dA

i1

Ai

z hi =2

E Ts S s

dz dA

29

and h is the total thickness of the structure.

Eq. (29) implies that for each layer of material, all operators are

reported to the mid-plane of every layer i then the numerical

integration is performed using Lobatto integration scheme with

N points through the thickness direction. In the present model, 2

Lobatto integration points are used in the thickness direction for

each layer, since all applications involve only elastic material

behavior, for the case of material nonlinearities, at least 5 integration points will be necessary to achieve a correct stress integration.

A solid-shell element formulated using Eqs. (26)(28) with

standard integration based on 2 2 N Gauss schema will fail

because of numerous locking phenomena.

2.4. Remedies for shear locking

An effective method of resolving shear locking is the Assumed

natural Strain method in which the natural transverse shear

strains are sampled and then interpolated at some discrete

element points. The transverse shear strains 2E and 2E are

calculated according to the average surface plan ( 0), assuming

that they vary linearly (Fig. 6), and are function of and at the

mid-side points:

2EANS

1 A1 1 A2

2

2

30

2EANS

1 B1 1 B2

2

2

31

4 1

ANS

E~ z 1 i 1 i E i ,i

i14

32

linear function of . Because our solid-shell element has only two

layers, as consequence the thickness strain does not vary with

thus the element fail in reproducing the plane-stress condition. In

order to obtain a linear distribution of the normal strain in

thickness direction, we enhance the thickness strain eld by

adding an internal degree of freedom as

E EAS

E~ z

z

ANS

33

known as the Enhanced Assumed Strains (EAS), in which the

enrichment variable will be eliminated by static condensation

technique within the element level. By substituting Eqs. (3031)

and (33) into Eq. (28), the virtual internal work takes the nal

expression

Z Z Z i 1

nl

~ EAS

W int

ETs H~ 1 E s E EAS

z T H 2 Ez

i1

GANS

T H~ 3 GANS

J d d d

s

s

34

coordinate position of the ith layer along the thickness. After

applying the FE discretization with the use of Eqs. (30), (31) and

(33) into the previous equation, one can obtain

T

ANS

T

W int uTn K mb K EAS

tr K sh un k k u un un ku

35

Similar to shear locking, trapezoidal locking occurs when lower

order elements such as 8-node hexahedral elements are used to

model curved shells so that their cross-sections assume the

trapezoidal shape these excessive number of sampled thickness

strains can be reduced by using a bilinear interpolation of the

transverse normal strains sampled at the four corners of the

element are given by

Z Z Z i 1

nl

33

ku

H~ 2 BTz e J d d d

36

i1

nl

i1

Z Z Z

i 1

i

33

2 H~ 2 e J d d d

37

the 7th unknown parameter in the previous expression which

T

leads to 1=k ku un . Then the nal stiffness matrix takes

H. Naceur et al. / Finite Elements in Analysis and Design 7071 (2013) 114

given by (Fig. 9)

1

T

ANS

ku ku

K K mb K EAS

tr K sh

k

38

degrees of freedom is called SCH87.

The optimization problem can be stated as [30]

Minimize f x,

xRn

39

g i x0, j 1,,m

Li xi U i , i 1,,n

40

gj is the jth constraint. The region of interest is dened by Li and Ui

which are respectively the lower and upper bounds on the design

variables. The RSM approach consists in solving a problem where

the OF is replaced by its approximation f~ .

This new problem may be written as

Minimize f~ x, xRn

Subject to g~ i x0, j 1,,m

Li xi U i , i 1,,n

wxi ,x wr

exp2 r 2 exp2

1exp2

42

support. As we can observe in Fig. 9, the parameter affects the

shape of the weight function. Generally, small values of the

parameter lead to a smooth and diffuse approximation but with

the cost of a slow convergence process, and for larger values of

the optimization process converges more rapidly but increases the

risk of divergence. Through the present investigation, it has been

found by the authors, that 2 (Fig. 9) is a good compromise since

it insures a good convergence rate while maintaining a certain

amount of diffusive character on the approximation.

The approximation is local, which means that only the points

closest to the current optimum are taken into account (Fig. 10). The

approximation coefcients are continuous when panning and/or

zooming of the region of interest is performed.

Given the function values for a set of experimental points xi

distributed according to a chosen Design of Experiment, the

function f~ can be dened in terms of basis functions p and some

adjusting coefcients a as

f~ x pT x ax

43

41

quadratic monomials

experiments with the function f. Generally, the approximate

functions encountered in RSM rely on second-order models, over

a given region of interest, with the constant regression coefcients

tted by means of least squares. The idea in this work is to apply

minimization algorithm progression by building new response

surfaces centered each successive solution (Fig. 8). During the

progression of the process, the region of interest moves and new

numerical experiments are performed at each iteration, which is

known as the Moving Least Square (MLS) approximation.

In the present investigation, we explore the application of DA

regression for building the response surface during the iterative

process. In the DA Method used in this work [26,27], the approximating functions are polynomials tted to the nodal values of

each local domain by a weighted least squares approximation.

Belytschko et al. [7] developed an Element Free Galerkin (EFG)

method which is an alternative implementation using Moving

Least Square (MLS) approximation [24]. In this paper we adopt the

moving least squares (MLS) interpolation. In the DAM the idea is to

replace the OF f(x) computed using the FE method, for a local

moving square tting. The resulting function f~ is more regular that

the function of the FE method, since the discontinuous coefcients

are placed, by continuous functions of weight, which gives a

continuity C m m1. The approximate function becomes smooth

by using continuous weighting functions. Different weight functions have been proposed in the literature, they differ in both the

shape of the domain of inuence, and in functional form. The

truncated Gaussian spherical weight function used in this work is

T

x2

x2

px 1 x1 x2 x3 xn x1 x2 x1 x3 xi xi 1 1 n

2

2

and on the polynomial degree of the approximation, for instance if

H. Naceur et al. / Finite Elements in Analysis and Design 7071 (2013) 114

generalized coefcients a are determined by performing a

weighted least squares t for the local approximation, which is

obtained by minimizing the error Ja between the experimental

and approximated values of the OF

experimental designs. The weights wi insure the continuity and

the locality of the approximation and are dened wi > 0, decreasing within a xed region around the point i called domain of

inuence of xi and vanish outside. The weight functions play a

crucial role by inuencing the way that the coefcients a depend

on the location of the design point x.

The minimization of Ja leads to the coefcients a and

consequently the function to the expression of the function f~ .

Thus, to obtain nonlinear parameters vector a, we use

plate that is simply supported on its bottom edges. The layers are

oriented at 7 451 with respect to the plate edges. Fig. 11 shows the

plate dimensions and the loading pressure which is applied on the

top surface of the plate. Each layer has the material properties

given in Table 1.

Table 2 summarizes the results of deection by comparing the

normal displacement at the center of the plate and the in-plane

displacement at (x 0,y b=2) to the analytical solution and to

model. We can observe from Table 2; that the present model gave

more precise results than those obtained with the solid-shell

instance, with only 10 elements, we obtain a maximum deection

of 22.461 mm which represents 3.4% of error when compared to

the analytical solution 23.250 mm, while the solution obtained

presents and error of 22.7%.

J

AxaBxZ 0

a

44

i1

45

with

ANN x P T WxP

46

BNM x P T Wx

47

and

6

6

W MM 6

6

4

wx1

0

wx2

wxM

0

2

6

P MN 4

pT x1

pT xM

3

7

5

and

problem is analyzed using different meshes of the developed 3D

solid-shell FE model. Various options are used to model the

3

7

7

7

7

5

8

9

>

< f x1 >

=

Z MN

>

: f x >

;

M

48

49

algorithm can be used to minimize the resulting OF. In this work

we have adopted an algorithm based on a Sequential Quadratic

Programming technique [31] and a second algorithm based on the

Simplex method. Both algorithms are robust enough and suitable

to deal with constrained nonlinear optimization problems. But any

Minimization algorithm may be used at this stage.

We have to notice, that as the minimization procedure is an

iterative process, therefore at least few iterations (generally less than

10) are often needed for the SQP algorithm in order to nd the optimal

solution of the metamodel obtained using the RSM based on DA.

Table 1

Material properties of the anisotropic layered plate.

Material property

Value

Units

E11

E22 E33

G12 G13 G23

13 23

12

27,6000

6900

2000

0

0.25

MPa

MPa

MPa

4. Numerical applications

In order to

model dened

with the aim

phenomena, as

previously, several benchmarks are carried out

of studying its behavior regarding the locking

well as the global rate of convergence.

The problem considered is the analysis of a at plate made

from two layers oriented at 7451, subjected to a uniform pressure

loading. The example veries simple laminated composite plate

analysis. Our numerical results are compared with the analytical

solution given in Spilker et al. [36] and a second verication is

solid-shell FE model. In this benchmark, the cross-section is not

balanced, so the response includes membrane-bending coupling.

Table 2

Plate deection convergence.

No. of elements

uA (mm)

Present model

uA (mm)

uC (mm)

Present model

uC (mm)

ABAQUS

2

4

6

8

10

20

30

40

50

100

0.335

0.360

0.365

0.368

0.370

0.371

0.371

0.371

0.371

0.371

0.423

0.414

0.416

0.417

0.417

0.418

0.418

0.419

0.419

0.419

17.960

20.806

21.766

22.204

22.461

22.956

23.114

23.191

23.236

23.241

29.435

28.649

28.584

28.555

28.543

28.460

28.475

28.480

28.485

28.495

Analytical

0.376

0.376

23.250

23.250

ABAQUS

H. Naceur et al. / Finite Elements in Analysis and Design 7071 (2013) 114

developed SCH87 solid-shell employ a single element in the

thickness direction using a composite section based on 7 singlelayers through the thickness.

The structure is a 7-layer, composite, orthotropic, rectangular

strip that is simply supported on its supports on A and B and

subjected to a line load of 10 N/mm at C onto the top surface

(Fig. 12). The layers are oriented at 01/901 consecutively with

respect to the strip edges. Each layer has the material properties

given by Table 3 below.

Our numerical results are compared with the reference solution given by NAFEMS [28] and a second verication is done using

a comparison with the results obtained using the SC8R solid-shell

Table 4 summarizes the results by comparing the normal

displacement at the center of the strip (point E) to the reference

SC8R solid-shell FE model. The displacement eld obtained using

the present SCH87 element is of a very good accuracy. We can see

from Table 4, that even with only 1 element per edge AE, the

obtained deection (0.807 mm) presents an error less than 23.9%

compared to NAFEMS reference solution, while the obtained

67.5%. The error vanishes as the number of element increases

(only through the edge, while keeping only 1 element in the

deection (1.059 mm) with an error less than 0.1%.

4.3. Multilayered composite plate with ply drop-offs

This example demonstrates the applicability of the present

solid-shell formulation to analyze a composite structure with ply

drop-offs; it consists on a composite multilayered plate (with

6 layers) with ply drop-offs (Fig. 13).

In this example, each layer is made of unidirectional berreinforced material [40], with the ber directions aligned at

45=45= 45=45= 45=451 with respect to the length direction. The structure, with length L 12 m, width b 6 m and

thickness h 0.1 m is clamped on its thicker side and the free

thinner end is subjected to a transverse normal load distribution

uniformly along the free edge equivalent to a concentrated force of

F600 N. The location of the ply drop-offs are at x 4 m and

x 8 m with the top two layers removed after each drop-off. The

layer material properties are given in Table 5.

Table 6 shows the computed solution obtained using the

developed SCH87 solid-shell model with 12 6 elements (12 along

the length and 6 elements along the width). One can observe that

the present model can predict accurately the global deection even

for a very thin structure (L=h 12=0:004 3000). Comparison of

the maximal deection obtained with the present model with the

same mesh (Fig. 13), gave a small error of only 2.4%, which shows

that the present model is free of shear locking.

4.4. Optimization of a warped thick cylinder under pressure

In this application a warped thick cylinder submitted to an

internal pressure is studied [28]. The continuum shell model

employs one single element with a composite section based on

two single-layers through the thickness. The structure is

Table 3

Material properties of the laminated strip.

Material property

Value

Units

E11

E22 E33

G12

G13 G23

13 23

12

100,000

5000

3000

2000

0.3

0.4

MPa

MPa

MPa

MPa

Fig. 13. Multilayered composite plate with ply dropoffs: undeformed mesh.

Table 5

Material properties of the multilayered composite plate.

Table 4

Convergence of the laminated strip deection.

No. of elements

(edge AE)

uE (mm)

Present model

ABAQUS

1

3

6

9

12

15

18

30

60

0.807

1.034

1.055

1.059

1.061

1.061

1.062

1.062

1.062

1.776

1.062

1.052

1.056

1.057

1.057

1.058

1.058

1.058

NAFEMS

1.060

1.060

uE (mm)

Material property

Value

Units

E11

E22 E33

G12 G13 G23

12 13 23

25,000

1000

1000

0.2

MPa

MPa

MPa

Table 6

Deection of the multilayered composite plate.

Thickness

Deection (m)

ABAQUS

Deection (m)

Present model

0.0039

2.6933

40.9174

0.0029

2.5685

39.9480

0.1

0.01

0.004

H. Naceur et al. / Finite Elements in Analysis and Design 7071 (2013) 114

outer orthotropic circumferentially wound cylinder having the

following material parameters, expressed in a cylindrical coordinate system: a circumferential modulus E11 130 GPa, a longitudinal and a transverse moduli E22 E33 5 GPa (as indicated in

Fig. 14), 12 13 0:25, 23 0, G12 G13 10 GPa, and

G23 5 GPa. The boundary conditions correspond to a displacement dz 0 at z0 and the cylinder is subjected to an internal

pressure of 200 MPa (Fig. 14).

At rst and prior to the optimization of the material parameters, the cylinder is modeled using the initial material data and

a mesh of 40 elements through its circumference, 10 elements

through the length and only 1 element in thickness direction. The

circumferential stress at z 0 is measured for 2 radius values

(R 23 mm, R27 mm) and compared to the NAFEMS reference

solution [28] and to the one obtained using the ABAQUS SC8R

solid-shell FE model.

For the inner ange we obtain S11 1534:8 MPa, the SC8R

ABAQUS gave S11 1477 MPa, while the reference solution was

1565 MPa. For the outer ange we obtain S11 892:8 MPa, the

ABAQUS solution was S11 900 MPa, while the reference solution

was 875 MPa. These results conrm that our solid-shell model and the

used mesh are good enough to carry out the optimization process.

The optimization problem consists in nding optimal ber

orientation angle of the outer orthotropic circumferentially

wound layer and the Young's modulus E of the inner isotropic

cylinder while keeping constant the cylinder expansion for

z 0 mm at a value of uR 0:5 mm. The objective function is based

on the general Hill criterion [42].

nel

J,E J J e

Fig. 15. Design of experiments: (a) central composite design and (b) Box-Behnken

design.

Table 7

DOE plan using central composite design.

Run

Factor x1

Factor x1

Response J (MPa2)

Disp. uR (mm)

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

9

1

1

1

1

1

1

0

0

0

1

1

1

1

0

0

1

1

0

268316.8

294069.1

282546.0

293785.5

278756.9

294282.9

280609.1

286957.9

285223.1

0.355

0.833

0.150

0.196

0.210

0.316

0.584

0.134

0.211

50

e1

on the whole structure, the element OF is given by

J e FS22 S33 2 GS33 S11 2 HS11 S22 2 2NS212 2LS223 2MS231

51

The design variables (x1 ,x2 E) are constrained between

01901 and 60 GPaE300 GPa. Before performing the optimization procedure, a DOE based on composite design (Fig. 15a) built

of 9 functions evaluations for the full cylinder, is carried out. In this

case we used 3 groups of design points (4 two-level factorial

design points, 4 axial points and a 1 center point). Then design

variables are coded as (1, 1) in order to facilitate the data

treatment. The DOE plan with the OF values is given in Table 7.

Fig. 16 shows the global quadratic response surface model

based on DA which has been calculated and given explicitly by

J~ ,E 291900 4107:30 1842:52E7520:69E

10230:382 261:44E2

The response approximation function for the constraint

(uR 0.5) on the radial displacement of the cylinder at z 0 is also

10

H. Naceur et al. / Finite Elements in Analysis and Design 7071 (2013) 114

carried out using (DA) and given explicitly by (see Fig. 17).

~

u,E

0:49 0:026 0:071E 0:13E0:132 0:098E2

~

The minimization of J~ ,E under constraint u,E

0:5 (see

Fig. 18) has been done using the SQP algorithm based on the work

of Powell [31], the optimal solution was obtained in 5 iterations

leading to the optimal solution in coded form (0.830, 0.961) which

corresponds to n ,En 82:341,295:40 GPa.

Fig. 19 shows the hoop stress distribution on the cylinder

before and after optimization. We can observe just a few amount

of stress reduction is obtained after optimization, this is due to the

~

presence of the constraint u,E

0:5 which cannot lead to the

minimum of the unconstrained objective function J~ ,E.

composed by two layers having the same thickness. The lower layer

is made of an aluminum alloy 6066-T651 (E67 GPa, 0:34) and

the upper layer is an orthotropic lightweight based aramid bers

with strong characteristics (E11 130 GPa, E22 E33 5 GPa, 12

13 0:25, 23 0, G23 5 GPa and G12 G13 10 GPa).

The structure is submitted to a transverse load in point A of

4.17 N/mm, and clamped at its end BC. The structure was meshed

using 1596 3D-shell elements corresponding to 3588 nodes

(Fig. 20).

Prior to performing the material optimization, a FE model

validation is carried out using initial material parameters. A

numerical comparison of our results to those obtained with

performed. Fig. 21 shows the deection of the strip panel under

the maximal load. Comparison of the deection value obtained

using the present SCH87 solid-shell model gave 13.747 mm which

The optimization problem consists in nding optimal ber

orientation angle of the upper orthotropic lightweight based

aramid layer and the Young's modulus E of the lower aluminum

alloy layer, while the maximal deection under load is maintained

equal to 15 mm. The objective function is based on the general Hill

criterion [1] and dened by Eq. (51).

strip panel.

H. Naceur et al. / Finite Elements in Analysis and Design 7071 (2013) 114

11

Fig. 21. Comparison of the global deection of a multilayered strip panel (SC8R vs. SCH87). (a) ABQUS (SC8R). (b) Present model SCH87.

nel

Minimize

J,E J e ,

,ERn

obtained for the optimal structure is about un 15:11 mm which

respects the imposed constraint u15 (Fig. 23).

e1

with

u,E15 mm0,

22:51 22:51,

60 GPaE79 GPa:

52

same DOE based on central composite design using 9 experiments.

Fig. 22 shows the approximated RSM calculated which is given by

the quadratic metamodel

J~ ,E 939800 58864:99 29763:57E 11549:15E

1465002 1431:34E2

has been also carried out using DA by means of a quadratic

metamodel, it is given explicitly by

~

u,E

13:08 31:22E0:17E 4:582 0:14E2

The optimal solution obtained after un-normalizing the DV

corresponds to n ,En 3:401,60:12 GPa, the displacement

suspension

In this application, a composite leaf spring for automobile

suspension is studied. The structure shown in Fig. 24 with a

10 mm constant thickness is made of a composite orthotropic

material whose mechanical characteristics are given in Table 8.

The optimization problem here, consists in nding the best

orientation of the material bers which allows reducing the

maximal stresses over the structure under ultimate loading

conditions.

The FE mesh using 1220 solid-shell elements and the boundary

conditions and loading are shown in Fig. 24. The structure

supports a concentrated force at its free end (applied on the

bottom shell surface) of 500 N, the other edge being clamped.

Prior to the optimization process, the FE model has been

validated using initial material parameters with an orientation

angle 01 with reference to the global x-axis (Fig. 24). A rst

12

H. Naceur et al. / Finite Elements in Analysis and Design 7071 (2013) 114

Fig. 24. Geometry and boundary conditions of a composite leaf spring suspension.

Table 8

Material properties of a composite leaf spring suspension.

Material property

Value

Units

E11

E22 E33

G12 G13 G23

12 13 23

39,000

10,000

5000

0.3

MPa

MPa

MPa

analysis is carried out using ABAQUS software and its SC8R solidshell element with the same mesh. Fig. 25 shows the stress

distribution on the top ange of the structure in the 1st principal

direction. Comparison of maximal values of S11 obtained using the

present solid-shell model gave 185.79 MPa which is almost the

same maximal value 185.41 MPa obtained with the SC8R element

of ABAQUS .

Unlike the stress S11, the distribution of the transverse stress

S33 in the thickness direction, shows that a maximal value of

stress as indicated in Fig. 26 (This results from the fact that the

condition). Analysis of other stress components shows small

values compared to the principal stress S11 values and a compar

ison with ABAQUS results shows good agreement. This rst study

conrms that the present model is valid and therefore the

optimization process can be performed.

In order to minimize the number of design variables, a

1-dimensional parameterization is used through the curvilinear

abscissa s where 5 DVs are dened as indicated in Fig. 27. The

points represented by 1 ,2 ,,5 are the optimization poles of

control, where the bers orientation angle i is dened. Inside each

nite element, the ber orientation angle e is calculated using a

linear interpolation between two successive poles where the

element is located. For instance, if an element is located between

two poles i and j , the material orientation angle inside the

element is dened as

sj s

ssi

s

i

sj si

sj si j

Here again, the objective function is based on the Hill criterion

[1] and dened by Eq. (51). Thus the optimization problem can be

stated in terms of the DV vector f1 ; 2 ; 3 ; 4 ; 5 g as follows:

nel

Minimize

J J e ,

e1

with

601i 601,

Rn

i 1,5

53

based on the Box-Behnken algorithm is used with three levels

coded between {1, 0, 1} (Fig. 15b). The Box-Behnken DOE with

5 variables, allows a screening of only 46 experiments (or

combination of variables) coded between 1 and 1. The quadratic

response surface model based on DA is built up using the above

mentioned DOE based on 46 experiments in the space of 5 coded

DV. Fig. 28 shows the approximated RSM calculated and given by

the following quadratic metamodel:

J~ 1874:041206:351 2210:642 1240:793 331:034 71:525

4:252 4 1:142 5 444:043 4 2:083 5 64:004 5

1245:7521 2475:7022 1375:8423 269:3524 31:3325

The minimization of the resulting metamodel was carried out

with two different algorithms, namely the VF02AD algorithm

using the SQP method [31] and a second optimizer based on the

simplex algorithm. Different initial points were used to minimize

the OF, and the best result obtained after minimization corresponds to n f15:771; 15:451; 17:331; 15:191; 0:001g.

After obtaining the optimal material bers orientations, we

carried out a last FE calculation using optimal solution n found, by

means of the developed SCH87 solid-shell model. Review of the

principal results is given in Table 9, where maximal stresses in all

principal directions are compared to values obtained using the

initial material data with 01. As we can observe, the optimal

bers orientation, allow a reduction of the maximal stress distribution in the structure, we found also that the obtained results

if physically good since the orientation of the material bers

follows the general orientation of the structure geometry.

5. Conclusion

In the present investigation, an efcient 8-node solid-shell

element formulation for the analysis of multilayered composite

shell is presented. While the ANS method has been used in order

to remedy to shear locking, the enhancement of transverse normal

strain is adopted, thus full 3D anisotropic constitutive model is

incorporated without resorting to the plane-stress assumption.

The present formulation can predict the through-thickness effects

with a high degree of accuracy.

In the second part of the paper we proposed a specic method

based on RSM for the optimization of laminated structures, where

H. Naceur et al. / Finite Elements in Analysis and Design 7071 (2013) 114

Fig. 25. Comparison of stress distribution on the top ange in the 1st principal direction. (a) ABQUS (SC8R). (b) Present model SCH87.

Fig. 26. Comparison of stress distribution on the top ange in the 3rd principal direction (thickness direction). (a) ABQUS (SC8R). (b) Present model SCH87.

the optimization problem, we proposed a technique which has the

advantage of replacing a complex response model by an approximate model evaluated in a limited number of points obtained

through an experimental design. In this study, we proposed a

specic response surface method based on Diffuse Approximation

involving pattern search optimization. The resulting response

13

14

H. Naceur et al. / Finite Elements in Analysis and Design 7071 (2013) 114

Table 9

Summary of principal results obtained before and after optimization.

Maximal stress

component

(in [MPa])

(in [MPa])

S11

S22

S12

S33

185.79

20.41

34.53

20.43

173.90

19.12

12.66

19.20

function employing locally supported nonlinear approximations.

Numerous applications have been treated, they conrmed that

the optimization method based on RSM and DA coupled to the

developed SCH87 FE solid-shell model is efcient and particularly

suited for industrial problems in structural mechanics.

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