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Use of Non-Woven Geo-textiles to

Improve CBR Values of Clay


E.Rakesh Reddy, Civil Engineering (III/IV), Malla Reddy Engineering College, rakesh15794@gmail.com .
B.Haritha Reddy, Civil Engineering (III/IV), Malla Reddy Engineering College,Haritha.reddy4512@gmail.com

ABSTRACT
The influence of non-woven Textiles embedded in
clay on CBR values is investigated. CBR tests were
conducted on a clay soil reinforced with non-woven
geotextiles of different thicknesses. CBR Tests were
conducted with one, two and three layered
reinforcement of geotextiles. Further each of these
tests was conducted using 4 different geotextile.
CBR Test was conducted on natural soil without
geotextile and the results were compared. CBR tests
were also conducted using, one geotextile, at
different moisture contents i.e. at OMC condition, on
wet and dry sides of OMC conditions. The results
were analyzed to study the effect of moisture content
(wc) and density conditions on CBR value and the
influence of Geotextile at these conditions.

This paper presents the details of an experimental


investigation (CBR Tests) carried out on clay soil
with and without geotextiles. 4 geotextiles with
different densities and strengths were used in the
investigation. Further each geotextile was again used
in single, double and triple layers. The details of
experimental investigation and the results were
presented in section 2. The experimental results were
analyzed and discussed in section 3. A set of
conclusions were presented in Section 4.

The investigation indicated that the CBR values


increased for the reinforced soil with one Geotextile
layer placed in the middle. With increase in number
of layers the increase in CBR values were
insignificant and in some cases the reduced the CBR
values. For the clay soil, effect of Geotextile was
observed more in dry side of OMC conditions.

2.1. Properties of the material Used


The materials used in the investigation are
locally available clay soil and Non-woven
geotextiles supplied by the local manufacturing
company.

1. INTRODUCTION
Transportation system contributes to the economic,
industrial, social and cultural development of any
country. For the performance of highway depends on
the strength of sub-grade of the pavement. As the
length of any roadway runs into hundreds of KiloMetres. Hence, the soil conditions will not be the
same for the entire length. Hence, where ever weak
soils i.e. loose or compressible soils are met with
there is a need to improve the soil properties to meet
the strength and stiffness requirements. The methods
available to improve the subgrade soil conditions
include Physical and Chemical stabilization of soil
and reinforcing the soil. Use of Geotextiles is one of
the methods of reinforcing the subgrade. To measure
the strength and compressibility properties of soil for
the application of flexible pavements is California
Bearing Ratio (CBR) test.

2. DETAILS OF EXPERIMENTAL
INVESTIGATION
This section presents the properties of the materials
used in the investigation, the details of experimental
investigation carried out and their results.

Properties of Soil:
Tests conducted on the soil include classification
properties and proctor density test results i.e.
Optimum Moisture Content (OMC) and
Maximum Dry Density.
The Results are
presented in Table -1.

Table 1. Properties of Soil Used in the Investigation


Sl.
Property
Value
No.
1
Particle Size
Distribution
Gravel (>
1%
4.75mm)
Coarse Sand
2%
(2.00 -4.75mm)
Medium Sand
9%
(0.425 -2.00mm)
Fine Sand
10%
(0.0750.425mm)
Silt (0.002mm38%
0.075mm)
Clay
40%
(<0.002mm)
2
Liquid Limit
58.8
3
Plastic Limit
22.5
4
Plasticity Index
36.3
5
Shrinkage Limit
11.4
6
Specific Gravity
2.62
7
IS Classification
CH
8
OMC
17.8%
9
Maximum Dry
1.69g/cc
Density
All the tests were conducted as per the relevant IS
code of practice.

*The Properties of the Geotextiles were


provided by the manufacturer.
2.2. Details of Investigation:
The investigation mainly consists of conducting CBR
Tests with and without geotextiles. Initially the soil
sample used for the Investigation was tested for its
OMC properties by conducting light proctor
compaction test, the results are presented in Table 1.
Preparation of Specimen without Geotextile: CBR
tests was conducted in the standard mould confirming
to IS: 9669 on the soil sample without use of
Geotextile following the procedure as per IS 2720
(Part XVI). According to the procedure 5.5 kg of
oven dry soil has been taken and the required
moisture content has been added. The soil sample is
divided into three layers. Each layer was compacted
into the mould with 56 Blows with standard rammer.
Placement of Geotextile: Geotextiles are placed in
three conditions i.e. single, double and triple layers as
shown in Figure 1.
Soil
Specimen

Geotextile Layers

H
H/3
3 X H/6

Properties of Geotextiles: The properties


Geotextiles used in the investigation are presented
here under.
1. Type of Geotextile Non-woven
2. Material Polypropylene
3. Specific Gravity = 0.92
The other properties of Geotextiles used are
presented in Table 2.

Sl.
No
.
1
2
3
4

Table 2. Properties of Geotextiles Used in


the Investigation*
Name of Unit
Thickne Strength(Kgf/5c
Geotexti Weig
ss
m)
le
ht
(g/cc)
GTL1
225
1.8 +
35 M/c
0.2 mm
48 Cross
GTL2
300
3.0 +
60 M/c
0.2 mm
75 Cross
GTL3
350
3.2 +
70 M/c
0.2 mm
80Cross
GTL4
400
3.5 +
80 M/c
0.2 mm
95 Cross

One Layer

Two Layers
Figure 1. Location of Geotextiles in the Soil Specimen

Preparation of Test Specimen with Geotextile:


The soil specimens were prepared with one, two
and three layers of geotextile as shown in the
Figure 1. For the one layer of geotextile at the
middle of the specimen, the compaction process
is adopted as follows.
5.5Kg of oven dried soil and calculated amount
of water was mixed thoroughly. One third of this
soil was placed in the CBR Mould and was
compacted with 56 blows. Then one sixth of the
soil quantity was taken and placed above the first
layer and compacted by 28 blows. The identified
geotextile, was cut into circular shape with
diameter equal to that of internal diameter of the
CBR mould, was placed. Over the geotextile
layer one sixth of the sample was placed and
compacted with 28 blows. The remaining one
third of the soil was then placed as the top layer
and compacted with 56 Blows.

Three Layers

Similar procedure was adopted for the


preparation of test samples with two and three
layered of geotextiles. The Details of the Tests
conducted are presented in Tables 3 and 4.

Table 3. Details of Test Conducted at OMC


conditions
Without Geotexti Geotexti Geotexti Geotexti
Geotexti le GTL1 le GTL2 le GTL3 le GTL4
le
One
One
One
One
Layer
Layer
Layer
Layer
Two
Two
Two
Two
Layer
Layer
Layer
Layer
Three
Three
Three
Three
Layer
Layer
Layer
Layer
Table 4. Tests to Study Effect of Moisture Content
with and without Geotextile (Geotextile used is
GTL1)
Moisture
Content (%)
15.6
16.2
17.8*
21.0
23.0
* OMC value

Test Condition

Table 5. The CBR Values with and without


Geotextiles.
(Tests were conducted at OMC Conditions)
With
Geote
xtile
GTL2

With
Geote
xtile
GTL3

With
Geote
xtile
GTL4

7.0

8.4

9.1

7.5

7.5

7.0

6.5

6.8

8.6

6.9

7.0

6.4

4.7

7.5

5.5

wc =
16.2
dry =
1.65g/
cc
7.60

wc =
17.8
dry =
1.69g/
cc
7.00

wc =
21.0
dry =
1.65g/
cc
4.65

wc =
23.0
dry =
1.57g/
cc
3.80

8.20

8.80

8.40

4.80

3.80

8.30

6.00

5.70

5.50

3.10

7.00

6.05

5.40

4.05

3.10

Numbe
r of
Geotex
tile
layers
Withou
t
Geotex
tile
One
layer
Two
Layers
Three
Layers

3. ANALYSIS AND DISCUSSION OF RESULTS

2.3 Experimental Results


The CBR Tests were conducted on both Top and
Bottom faces and the average values are
presented in Tables 5 and 6.

With
Geote
xtile
GTL1

wc =
15.6
dry =
1.57g/
cc*
5.60

* dry = dry density of soil

1) Without Geotextile
2) With One Layer Geotextile
3) With Two Layer Geotextile
4) With Three Layer Geotextile

Witho
ut
Geote
xtile

Table 6. Effect of Moisture content on CBR Values


with and without Geotextile (Geotextile used is
GTL1)

Num
ber
of
Laye
rs
One
layer
Two
Laye
rs
Thre
e
Laye
rs

3.1 Effect of one layer of Geotextile


From Table 5 it can be observed that, the CBR value,
at OMC conditions, without geotextile is 7 and
increased to 8.4, 9.1, 7.5 and 7.5 when one layer of
geotextile GTL1, GTL2, GTL3 and GTL4 was used
respectively. This indicates that, the use of single
layer of geotextile increases the CBR value of clay
soil. The increase in the CBR values is ranging from
7 to 30%. Further it may be noted from Table 2 that,
the thickness and strength values of geotextile are
increasing from GTL1 to GTL4. However the
increase in CBR values do not indicates this trend.
This suggests that, during CBR test the stress levels
may not be reaching to high values and hence there is
no influence of thickness and strength of Geotextile
on CBR values.
3.2 Effect of Two and Three layers of Geotextiles
From Table 5 it can be observed that, use of two or
three layers of geotextile has, except in two cases,
reduced the CBR values from 7 (without geotextile)
to 4.7 with three layers of geotextile. This indicates a
32% reduction of CBR value. This reduction in CBR
value with two and three layers may be due the fact
that more closely spaced geotextile may be resulting
incomplete transfer of compacting energy to all soil

layers and continuity of the soil and its compactness


may be reducing.
3.3 Effect of Moisture Content
Results furnished in Table 6 indicate that, the effect
of water table on CBR values. From Table 6 it can be
observed that, the % increase in CBR value is high at
dry condition (46%) and Negligible at high moisture
contents. This may be due to the fact that, at wet
conditions the clay soil is more plastic and
compressible and hence mobilization of friction
between the geotextile and clay may be low at high
moisture contents.
4. CONCLUSIONS
The experimental investigation presented in this
paper indicates the following:
1) Use of Geotextiles increases the CBR values
of clay soil.
2) Strength and thickness of Geotextile has
shown no effect on the improvement on the CBR
values.
3) Use of one layer of geotextile gives better
results than two or three layers of geo textile.
This may be due to more closeness of layers.
Large scale tests, which give reasonable good
spacing, with two or three layers may give better
performance, this need to be investigated.
4) The percentage increase in CBR is more at
Dry side OMC compared to at OMC and wet
side of OMC conditions of the clay soil
investigated. This may be because; the clay soil
is more plastic and compressible at high
moisture contents.
Acknowledgement: This project work was
conducted under the guidance of Dr. E. Saibaba
Reddy, Professor of Civil Engineering, and JNT
University Hyderabad.
REFERENCES
1. Khanna. S.K. and Justo C.E.G., Highway
Engineering, Published by Nem Chand
Brothers, Roorkee, Uttaranchal, 1980.
2. IRC: 37 Guidelines for the design of flexible
pavements, a publication of Indian Road
Congress, New Delhi, 1970.
3. IS: 2720 (Part II) Determination of Water
Content, A Publication of Bureau of Indian
Standards, New Delhi, 1973
4. IS 2720 (Part III) Determination of Specific
Gravity Soil, A Publication of Bureau of
Indian Standards, New Delhi, 1980.
5. IS 2720 (Part IV) Methods of Tests for soils,
Grain Size Analysis of Soils, A Publication

of Bureau of Indian Standards, New Delhi,


1965?
6. IS 2720 (Part V) Methods of Tests for soils,
Determination of liquid and plastic limit, A
Publication of Bureau of Indian Standards,
New Delhi, 1985
7. IS 2720 (Part VI) Methods of Tests for soils,
Determination of shrinkage limit, A
8. IS 2720 (Part VII) Determination of water
content, dry density relation, using
compaction, A Publication of Bureau of
Indian Standards, New Delhi, 1974.
9. Publication of Bureau of Indian Standards,
New Delhi.
10. IS 2720 (Part XVI) Methods of Tests for
soils, Determination of California Bearing
Ratio, A Publication of Bureau of Indian
Standards, New Delhi, 1987
11. IS 2720 (part XXIX) Determination of Dry
Density of Soils by Core Cutter method, A
Publication of Bureau of Indian Standards,
New Delhi, 1966.