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Status and Issues of Biofuel

Production and Potentials in


Myanmar
San Thein, Agronomist
Myanmar Industrial Crops Development Enterprise
20.11.2009

The Government Policy Guidelines for Energy Sector


To maintain the status of energy independence;
To employ hydroelectric power as one of the vital sources of
energy sufficiency;
To generate and distribute more electricity for economic
development;
To save non-renewable energy for future energy sufficiency of
the nation;
To promote efficient utilization of energy and impress on
energy conservation;
To prevent deforestation caused by excess use of fuel wood
and charcoal.

Achieving the status of energy independence is considered to


be the goal of the energy sector of Myanmar.
To attain this goal, sectoral objectives had placed emphasis on
tapping the hydroelectric power and saving non-renewable
energy for future need.
Other objectives are promotion of efficient utilization and
conservation of energy.
The government encourages bio-fuel production and granted
permission for bio-ethanol production and distribution in the
country.
Presently one private sugar company and Myanmar Economic
Corporation set up the gas stations in large cities and regularly
sell the sugarcane- based bio-ethanol to consumers.

Institutional Framework with the Respective Agencies


1 Petroleum

Ministry of Energy

2 Electric power(Hydro power)


(Thermal power, power
transmission & distribution)

Ministry of Electric Power(1),


Ministry of Electric Power(2),

3 Coal

Ministry of Mines

4 Biomass

Ministry of Agriculture and Irrigation

5 Fuel wood

Ministry of Forestry

6 Renewable

Ministry of Science and Technology

*Ministry of Energy is a focal point of the Myanmar Energy sector cooperation.

Energy Resources in Myanmar


Crude oil (Offshore & On-shore)
(Proven + Probable)

648.59 MMBBL (Million barrel)

Natural Gas (Offshore & On-shore) 122.5391 TSCF (Trillion Std. Cubic Feet)
( proven + Probable)
Hydro power

108,000 MW (Mega Watt)

Coal

711 Million Metric Tons

Biomass

1. 344, 232 Sq. km covered with forest amounting to


50.8 percent of total land area
2. Potential available annual yield of wood-fuel up to
19.12 million cubic ton
3. 18.56 million acre of lands could generate
residues, by products or direct feed stocks for
biomass energy
4. 103 million heads of livestock could generate
animal waste for biogas.

Wind

365.1 TWH per year* (Terra Watt Hour/year)


Coastal strip of 2832 Km with Southwesterly
wind 9 months
Northeasterly wind 3 months

Solar power

51973.8 TWH per year*(Terra Watt Hour/year)

Source : Energy Planning Dept., Ministry of Energy, 2005


* NEDO estimation, 1997

Percent by sources of energy consumption (2007-08)

Biomass
62%

Crude Oil &


Petroleum
Products
12%

Gas
12%

Coal
4%
Hydro
10%

Energy consumption (%) by sector (2002-03)

Non-energy
uses and other
consumption Industry
0.5%
5.8%

Transportation
10.8%
Agriculture
1.1%
Services
1.0%

Residential
80.8%

Biofuel consumption per household per annum


Sr. No. Items

Dry Ton

Percent

1.
2.
3.

Fuel wood
Pigeon pea stalk
Cotton stalk

3.76
2.3
0.5

42.7 %
26.2 %
5.6 %

4.
5.

Sesame stalk
Coconut or palm leaves

1.2
0.6

13.6 %
6.8 %

6.
7.

Rice husk
Sawdust

0.3
0.07

3.0 %
0.8 %

8.

Bamboo

0.12

1.3 %

Yearly production of crude petroleum oil and natural gas


(inland and off-shore), and ratio of export to total production of gas
Inland

Year

Off -Shore

Crude
Natural gas,
Condensate,
petroleum
Million
bbl x000
oil, bbl x000
Cu.ft

Natural
gas,
Million
cu.ft

Export of
gas (Mil.
Cu.ft)

Ratio of
export to
total
production of
gas

2000-01 3428

52963

710

246425

65359

0.22

2001-02 3376

43311

1460

267191

237081

0.76

2002-03 3997

44697

2389

286722

350900

1.05

2003-04 4331

50070

2835

299895

200156

0.57

2004-05 4004

52027

3480

330824

335525 *

0.87

2005-06 3600

46198

4363

388564

N.A

2006-07 3408

44422

4262

410372

N.A

Source: , Energy Planning Dept., Ministry of Energy, January 2008


* provisional data ( Source: Statistical Year Book, 2005, CSO, Yangon, Myanmar)

Yearly Output of Crude Petroleum and Diesel(1985-2007)

300

a&eH
pd
rf;csu fv kyfrI

million gallons

250
200
150
100

'D
Z, fq D
x kwfv kyfrI

50

"gwfq D
x kwfv kyfrI

a&eH
pd
rf;csufv kyfrI

"gwfq D
x kwfv kyfrI

'D
Z, fq D
x kwfv kyfrI

Yearly Distribution of Petroleum and Diesel(1985-2007)


ES
pft v d
k
u f"gwfq D
?' D
Z, fq D
jzefh
jzL;a&m
i f;cs
rS
K
400
'Z
D, fq D

300
250
200
150
100

"gwfq d
D

50
0

1985-86
1986-87
1987-88
1988-89
1989-90
1990-91
1991-92
1992-93
1993-94
1994-95
1995-96
1996-97
1997-98
1998-99
1999-2000
2000-01
2001-02
2002-03
2003-04
2004-05
2005-06
2006-07

*gvefoef;aygif;

350

b @m
a&;ES
pf
"gwfq D

'Z
D, fq D

Projection of Distribution for Petroleum and Diesel(2009-2030)

ES
pft v d
k
u f "gwfq D
?' D
Z, fq DjzefY
jzL;&efv sm
xm
;csuf

*gv efo ef;aygi f;

1500

'Z
D, q
fD

1200
900

"gwfq D

600
300
0

b @m
a&;ES
pf

2009-2010

2013- 2014

2017-2018

"gwfq D

2021- 2022

'D
Z, fq D

2025-2026

2029-2030

Policies and Programs /Projects


Prospective policies:
To formulate the policy on By 2020, all diesel and petrol imported and
used for agricultural farms machinery will include 10 % locally-sourced
biodiesel and ethanol produced by potential crops.
To formulate policy on Community oriented policy for sustainable
biofuels and Renewable energy to enhance rural development in
Myanmmar.
To allow local and foreign investors to invest in large-scale biofuel
production including establishment of plantation.
To make flexible in cross border trade on biofuel to give priority to
welfare of rural community.
To formulate the appropriate Contract Farming policy/act

Policies and Programs /Projects


Current program in relation to renewable energy sources development
Major Program/campaign: Cultivation of Jatropha or Physic Nuts all over
the country.
Objectives: to reduce reliance on imported fossils fuel, to encourage the
utilization of farm machinery by using bio diesel, and to reduce the green
house gas emission.
Date implementing: Three years (2006/2007 to 2008/2009).
Ministries involved: Ministry of Agriculture & Irrigation, Ministry of Forestry,
Ministry of Home Affairs, and other relevant ministries, Military regional
commander Office, Private entrepreneurs, other Local NGOs (USDA, MCCA,
MWA, and Myanmar Red Cross).
Budget: Both government and private sector concerned.
Needs assistance from multilateral agencies.

Policies and Programs /Projects


Prospective Programs:
Installation of medium scale bio diesel processing plants in 17
States and Division of Military command areas as a model for
each State/ Division.
Installation of medium scale ethanol processing plants in sugar
mill areas.
Manufacturing and Installation of small scale bio diesel
processing plants including efficient chemical processing
method in 5 model Jatropha villages of each and every State
and Division.
(17 5 = 85 Numbers)

Land Potential and recommended crops


State/Division

Cultivable Waste
(000 ha)

Fallow Land
(000 ha)

Major type of crops recommended

Kachin

1824

Orchard, seasonal plantation crops

Kayah

20

seasonal plantation crops, Castor

Kayin

77

19

Orchard, plantation crops, Castor

Chin

1223

Orchard, Sericulture

Sagaing

113

19

Orchard, seasonal crops, Jatropha, Castor

Tanintharyi

282

Orchard, rubber, oil palm, other plantation crop

Bago

114

Orchard, rubber, seasonal plantation crop, Jatropha, Castor

Magway

78

11

Orchard, seasonal crop, Jatropha, Castor

Mandalay

46

93

Orchard, seasonal crop, Jatropha, Castor

Mon

40

Orchard, rubber, oil palm, other plantation crop

Rakhine

128

20

Orchard, plantation crops

Yangon
Shan

18

2163

136

Orchard, rubber, seasonal crop


Orchard, Tea, coffee, seasonal, other plantation crops

47

15

Orchard, paddy-fish farming, seasonal crop

6159

353

Ayeyarwady
Total

Feed stocks for Bio-diesel

Sunflower

Jatropha carcus

Palm Oil
Edible oil crops

Mustard

Renewable Energy sources


Biodiesel Production
Potential Crops
Perennial crops-oil palm, coconut, Jatropha(physic Nuts),
castor bean, neem seeds, thit-seit(Bastard myrobalan), Sie-thapyay, (Simerrula gluba), Mese (Madhuca tree)etc.
Seasonal crops-rape seeds, sunflower, sesame, groundnut, rice
bran, niger, soybean, saff flower.
At present, domestic demand for edible vegetable oil is
increasing and ned to be export 200,000 metric tons of palm
oil every year.
Among them, Jatropha is most potential and efficient crops for
biodiesel production in our country.

Renewable Energy sources


Biodiesel Production
Jatropha Cultivation
3 year plan to cultivate 3.44 Mil: ha*8.5mil: acres) at all
States and Division as much as possible.
2007/08 Plan Terget- 1.304 Mil: ha
Cultivated areas (up to end of May)- 0.693 Mil: ha
Performance - 53 %
(It is necessary to invite FDI to expend the areas of Jatropha
Cultivation)

The biomass energy has drawn attention to the country


after the sudden price hike of the imported crude oil and
petroleum in the late 2005-06.
The government had launched the Jatropha carcus as the
biomass resources alternatives to petroleum energy.
In the wake of global warming, counter measures, the
promotion of awareness and dissemination of energy
efficient and renewable energy technologies are presently
addressed to the public.

Bio-diesel Processing


Bio-diesel is Methyl or Ethyl Ester of Free


Fatty Acid.

The basic process isTransesterification of


vegetable oil/fats in presence of a catalyst in
batch or continuous mode.

Now a small scale bio-diesel processing plant has


been installed and producing bio-diesel in
research scale is being conducted.

Cultivated areas of Jatropha (up to 1/6/2007)


Sr.

State/Division

1
2
3
4
5

Kachin
Kayah
Kayin
Chin
Sagaing

6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17

Tanintharyee
Bago (East)
Bago (West)
Magwe
Mandalay
Mon
Rakhine
Yangon
Shan (South)
Shan (North)
Shan (East)
Ayeyarwaddy
Grand Total

(targeted acre)

Sown area (from 2006 to up to 1/6/2007)


Total sown
Plantation
As fencing
areas
( acres)
( acres)
(acres)

267000
100000
260000
130000

69525
42486
52520
70602

100558
11627
35010
713

170083
54113
87530
71315

300000
200000
122000
74000
169525
400525
300000
200000
100000
150000
100000
149020
200000
3,222,070

79286
9504
7503
20952
63147
50820
31436
11589
13577
141788
100458
9095
6048
780,336

92996
2541
53363
22619
329428
265431
36103
3462
24319
41966
35620
22973
9108
1,087,837

172282
12045
60866
43571
392575
316251
67539
15051
37896
183754
136078
32068
15156
1,868,173

Oil content of Jatropha from various location

Location

Oil content %

Location

Oil content %

Kayah

41.25

Sagaing

33.95

Shan (south), Banyin

39.59

Magway

33.90

Mandalay, Pyawbwe

39.46

Big-M

32.82

India

36.95

Bago

31.04

Kayin (Thai var:)

36.12

Shan (east)

29.90

Shan (south), Namlatt

35.06

Ayeyarwady(Kyankhin)

27.10

Yakhine (Myaypon)

27.06

Sagaing (Tamu)

26.08

Shan(north)

34.80

Sagaing (Monywa)

34.05

Current biodiesel processing method


Jatropha Seed
Expelling, Filtering

Crude oil
Degumming

Degummed oil
Drying

Sediment

Degummed dried oil


Sediment
Transesterification Methyl + NaOH at 60C

Crude Bio-diesel
Crude glycerin
Washing with warm water at 60C

Crude Bio-diesel
Drying at 45-60C, Sand and Salt filtering

Bio-diesel

Constraints in Jatropha for Bio-diesel


1.

2.
3.

4.

Economic Feasibility:
Seed price
ks 15000 (USD 12.5)/16kg-basket
Processing cost ks 395 (USD 0.78)/gallon bio-diesel
Ks15935 (USD 13.3)/gallon bio-diesel
- Market price of diesel : Ks 5000 (USD 4.2)
- Not economically feasible at the percent productivity
level from seed production along
- Should consider value added of bio-mass
(i.e-stem to fiber board, Seed-cake to compost, branches to
charcoal, etc)
Irregular ripening of fruits making costly in hand picking
Occurrence of pests and diseases after being domesticated of this
semi-wild plant.
Seed yield is extremely low.

Prioritization of Bio-fuel Options


Jatropha
Although jatropha received the top priority for
producing bio- diesel, the productivity is still too
low to be commercially feasible.
Improved variety should be sought by applying
conventional
breeding
methods
and
biotechnological tool. An ideal plant type should
be designed in setting the breeding objectives for
jatropha.

Feed stocks for Bio-ethanol

Cassava

Sugarcane

Broken-rice

Feed stocks for Bio-ethanol

Grain sorghum

Sweet Sorghum

Maize

Bagasses and Molasses production capacity in 17 sugarcane factories by


State and Division, 2006-2007
Location

Installed
Capacity
(TCD)

Potential
Production (mt)

Actual Production (mt)


(2006-2007)

Sagaing
Division
Mandalay
Division

2000

Bagasses
80000

Molasses
12800

Bagasses
47620

Molasses
8700

6000

240000

38400

67630

11396

Bago
Division
Yagon
Division

11000

440000

70400

111002

19372

2000

80000

12800

14871

2335

Magwe
Division

4000

160000

25600

20267

3987

Mon State
Shan State

1500
300

60000
12000

9600
1920

4185
1751

746
244

Yakhine
State
Total

300

12000

1920

1261

92

27100

1084000

173440

269637

46872

INDUSTRY PROFILE
Ministry of Agriculture
and Irrigation
Factories
TCD
Pyinmana (2)
1500
Pyinmana (3)
1500
Myo Hla
2000
Yedashe
1500
Nawaddy
2000
Shwe Nyaung
300
Kyauk Taw
300
Namti
1000
8 Factories
10100

Myanmar Economic
Corporation
Factories
TCD
Dahatkone
1500
Taung Zin Aye
1500
Oaktwin
2000
Yoneseik
2000
Duyingabo
2000
Kantbuli
2800
6 Factories
11800

Ministry of Industry (1)


Factories
TCD
Zayawadi
1500
Bilin
1500
2 Factories
3000

The Union of Myanmar


Economic Holding Limited
Factories
TCD
Inngagwa
2000
Okkan
2000
2 Factories
4000

Private
SMEs Procession
Mini Mill
2000
Centrifugal Plant
88
Vacuum Plant
110

Modern Standard Factory


Factories
TCD
Maunggon
2000
Mattayar
1000
Sin Shwe li
1500
3 Factories
4500

Molasses-based Gasohol Production


Ethanol Production Plant
Myanmar Sugarcane Enterprise
Ministry of Agriculture & Irrigation

Earliest bio-ethanol plant in


Myanmar;

Established

in

2000. Capacity : 500 gallons


of 95% ethanol per day. Too
early to start the business.

sugarcane

The govt. - controlled price


was ks. 1500 per gallon of
gasoline. The production cost
of
Distillation Columns

Operators Control Room

bio-ethanol

is

ks.3000

(approx. USD 5)

Figure 13. Yearly output of Molasses (state + private sector) = 60,000 MT


If 30% of total Molasses could be diverted to Ethanol production, the total outturn of
liquid fuel per year could be expected about 1,650,000 gallons (200,000 liters)

Present Status of Bio-ethanol Production


Pilot production of bio-ethanol was carried out by
Pyinmana sugar factory under SDD, MOAI in 2000 and
at that time the government setting of petroleum price
was only 25.8 cents per litre and the unit production cost
of anhydrous alcohol was about 80 cents.
Moreover, there was no market for gasohol at that time.
But early attempts to produce anhydrous alcohol by
using azeotrophic distillation with catalyst cyclohexane
had demonstrated the feasibility of bio-ethanol
production from the sugarcane molasses and the followup commercial production had improved the process and
found to be commercially viable

Large Scale Gasohol Plants


Total annual production capacity is 1,950,000 gallons
About 1.7% of total
imported gasoline
in
2004-2005

Kant Ba Lu
900,000 GPY (2005)

Pyin Ma Na

Taung Sin Aye

150,000 GPY

900,000 GPY

(2003)

(2007)

After Sein Thaung Oo

33

Emerging private sugar industry with potential capacity of annex


biomass energy plant, 2007-08
Sr

Company

Yuzana Co.

(a)

Location

Tanine area,
Kachin State

Great Wall Madaya


No. (1)
Township,
Factory
Mandalay
Division

Installed
Capacity of
crushing ton
cane per day
(TCD)

Potential
Production (mt)
Remark
Bagasses

Molasses

5000

225000

36000

Under
construction

1000

45000

7200

in operation

(b) Great Wall Hteegaint


No. (2)
Township
Factory
Sagaing
Division

2000
Gasohol 90000
30,000 Ton/year

14400

in operation

Shwelee Energy

Katha
Township,
Sagaing
Division

5000 TCD with 225000


30000 Ton
(Gasohol)/year

36000

Under
construction

SinShweli Sugar

Naungcho
Township,
Shan State

1500 TCD likely 675000


to install gasohol
plant soon

10800

in operation

Total

652500

104400

MYANMA ECONOMIC CORPORATION

Location

- Kantbulu, Sagaing Division

Established Year

Daily Capacity of Ethanol Output - 99.5 % ethanol,

- 2004

3000 gals


Design & Construction

- Myanmar Engineers
Group

TAUNG ZIN AYE




Location- Leway, Napyitaw Division

Established Year

Daily Capacity of Ethanol Output

- 2006

99.9 % anhydrous ethanol, 3000




Design & Construction


Myanmar Engineers Group

gallons

GRATE WALL

Location

Hteegaint, Sagaing Division

Established Year

Daily Capacity of Ethanol Output

- 2008

99.9 % ethanol anhydrous,




Design & Construction

37500gallons

Feicheng Pyramid Machinery Co.,Ltd P.R China

Model of 500LPD Mobile Distillation


Plant Assembly

Sein Thaung Oo, 2008

bio-ethanol for the community in remote areas

300 GAL /DAY

Sweet Sorghum
Stalks

Sweet Sorghum
Grain

In Myanmar, sorghum for grain and fodder is largely


grown in dry zone areas, central plain and upper
Myanmar. Total currently sown area of grain sorghum
is 253,376 ha.
Sweet sorghum is a newly introduced crop as one of
the alternative energy crops in Myanmar.
The

earliest

studies

on

sweet

sorghum

were

conducted in 1983 & 1987


Initial results showed that it possess good potential in
food, feed and fuel ethanol productivity (San Thein,
1987).

Production similar to grain sorghum


Sugar-rich stalks (16-23% Brix)
Ethanol from juice of stalks after
fermentation
Stillage-feed; grain-food
A Cheaper and eco-friendly option;
Greenhouse gas emission cut by 12%
Ratio of energy invested to energy
given is 1 : 8 (USDA estimate)
No sulphur and aldehydes.

Bioethanol from sweet sorghum

Maize production by State and Division, 2006-2007, MT


No

State/Division

Production (mt)

% of national level

Kachin State

26695.23

2.64

Kayah State

23575.03

2.33

3
4
5
6

Kayin State
Chin State
Sagaing Division
Tanintharyi Division

47683.86
66538.62
206280.63
0.00

4.71
6.58
20.39
0

7
8
9

Bago Division(East)
Bago Division (west)
Magway Division

3768.94
1809.64
104018.61

0.37
0.18
10.28

10

Mandalay Division

51578.11

5.10

11
12
13
14

Mon State
Yakhine State
Yangon Division
Southern Shan State

0.00
61.16
5.04
174638.32

0.00
0.01
0.00
17.26

15
16
17

Nothern Shan State


Easthern Shan State
Ayeyarwady Division
Union Total (mt)

238323.67
29462.39
37375.23
1,011,814.48

23.55
2.91
3.69
100.00

Source MOAI

Maize bio-ethanol feed stock


The outturn of maize into alcohol is about 70 to 75 gallons
per ton seeds.
Taking into account the requirement for food, animal feeds
and exported amount, the surplus maize that could be
diverted into fuel alcohol is estimated to be 0.1 million mt
seeds.

Cassava- starch-rich ethanol feed stock




Sown area was only 30,260 acres. With a low yield of


4.63 ton/acre, tuber production was about 140,000 mt.

Considering 22.2% of dried powder from fresh tuber and


100 gallon of ethanol outturn from the dried power, the
current bio-ethanol potential production from cassava was
estimated to be about 3.1 million gallons at the present
technology level.

Cost of feedstock component in producing one gallon of bio-ethanol


with respect to different types of feed stock (FY- 2008)

Type of feed stock

Bio-ethanol

Market prices of
raw

Cost of feed
stock
component

outturn
gallon/mt

material (USD)
(2007-2008)

in one gallon
of ethanol
(USD)

of feed stock
Sugarcane (Direct)

14.25

Low

High

Low

High

10.71

14.29 0.75

1.00

Sugarcane (by product


Molasses)

50

67.46 107.14 1.35

2.14

Corn

70

128.8 136.09 1.84

1.94

Cassava

100

79.37 198.41 0.79

2.00

Sweet Sorghum *

Paddy ( broken rice)

87

150.63

1.73

Requirement of cropping acreage for production of


one million gallons of bio-ethanol
Bio-ethanol
Crop or

Acreage
Bio-ethanol

productivity
Sr.

Type of feed stock

byproduct

required for
productivity

gallon/mt of
yield (mt/ha)

1 million bio(gallon/ha)

feed stock

ethanol

49.42-61.78

14.25

704.14-879.68

3509-2809

4.32-6.18

70.00

303.93-432.43

8130-5714

Cassava (Tuber)

12.36

4.

Cassava (Powder)

7.41

100.00

741.30

3333

5.

Sweet sorghum

44.48

7.00

311.46

7936

6.

Paddy (broken rice)

.28

87.00

24.22

102041

1.

Sugarcane

2.

Corn

3.

Bio-ethanol options
The

following criteria are considered in


prioritization of bio-ethanol feed stocks;
(i) Stable supply for the bio-fuel industry
(ii) Cost-effectiveness in both field and factory
(iii) Scale economy or appropriate for community
level operation
(iv) Avoid the food vs. fuel issue
(v) Environmentally friendly operation

Constraints and Issues in Biofuels Production


Food security: demand for food consumption (cereal and edible
oils, sugar) and demand for feed consumption (coarse grains,
broken rice) are increasing. Most potential crops can not be
utilized for biofuel production.
Both horizontal and vertical expansion are necessary to increase
productivity and production.
Investment: Inadequate capital investment (both government and
private sector) for installation of medium scale biofuel plants.
Private sector also needs capital for manufacturing of expeller and
other processing materials. Establishment of laboratory also needs
investment.

Broken rice possible feed stock


Broken rice was normally converted to beverage
alcohol in alcohol distillation plants of lower Myanmar.
The outturn is 85.90 gallons per ton of broken rice.
Since rice is politically important commodity, there
usually is a restricted flow of this commodity brewery.
About 0.7 million ton of broken rice is required by
livestock industry at present.

Broken rice by- product generated by season and States/Divisions in


2005-2006.
State/Division
Kachin State
Kayar State
Kayin State
Chin State
Sagaing Division
Tanintharyi Division
Bago Division (East)
Bago Division (West)
Magway Division
Mandalay Division
Mon State
Yakhine State
Yangon Division
Southern Shan State
Northern Shan State
Eastern Shan State
Ayeyarwady Division
Union Total
Source MOAI

Monsoon rice
48321
10472
49763
8255
204918
43868
204000
143291
86896
102613
99329
133204
140678
61015
70474
36364
472411
1915870

Production(MT)
Summer rice
2124
1385
13461
28
61835
4246
22878
21176
22355
35475
13560
2050
20704
4427
5812
3758
196173
434745

Total
50445
11857
63224
8283
266753
48114
226878
164467
109251
138088
112889
135554
164382
65442
76286
40122
668584
2350615

% of Total
availability
2.15
0.50
2.69
0.35
11.35
2.05
9.65
7.00
4.65
5.87
4.80
5.77
6.99
2.78
3.25
1.71
28.44
100.00

Rice husk and Gasifiers


Rice husk as by-product is made available amounting to
6,139,261 MT in 2005-2006 in monsoon and summer season.
Assuming that 1.5 kg rice husk could generate 1 KWh including steam
for process, the total available amount of rice husk in the whole
country is expected to be 4,092 GWh.
But the temporal and spatial aspect of rice husk availability could be
restrictive to the widespread utilization sites. However for the major
rice producing areas, such as Ayeyarwaddy, Bago, and Yangon
Division and Shwebo, Mandalay and Kyaukse District, rice husk is the
most important feed stock.
A large sum of rice husk is excreted in rice mills. Rice husk is a safe
and sanitary material. Rice husk based energy generated by gasifier
could supply electricity to household and small mills.

Rice husk by- product, fuel availability and cogeneration potential


by Season and States/Divisions,2005-2006.
Production (MT)
State/Division

% of Total availability

Kachin State
Kayar State
Kayin State
Chin State
Sagaing Division
Tanintharyi Division
Bago Division (East)
Bago Division (West)
Magway Division
Mandalay Division
Mon State
Yakhine State
Yangon Division
Southern Shan State
Northern Shan State
Eastern Shan State

Monsoon rice
126204
27350
129969
21559
535198
114573
532800
374244
226953
268002
259423
347898
367418
159357
184062
94974

Summer rice
5547
3617
35156
161498
123618
11089
59753
55306
58386
92653
35415
6137
61908
11562
15178
9816

Total
131751
30966
165125
21631
696697
125662
592552
429550
285339
360564
294838
354035
429326
170919
199240
104789

2.15
0.50
2.69
0.35
11.35
2.05
9.65
7.00
4.65
5.87
4.80
5.77
6.99
2.78
3.25
1.71

Ayeyarwady Division

1233827

512359

1746186

28.44

Union Total

5003809

1135452

6139261

100.00

Source MOAI

Gasification of Rice-husk for Power Generation


 2005 paddy production ranges from 21 22 mil. MT. About 23% of paddy is husk, available year round.
 Some medium to large scale rice mills use rice husk as fuel to generate steam for steam engines.
 Small scale rice mills using motors or diesel engines produce surplus rice husk.
 The existing system could be improved by the technology of rice-husk gasification for power generation.

Rice-husk

Available Rice-husks and Utilization, 2005


Number

Capacity
(ton/24hrs)

Estimated paddy
production
(103 ton/year)

Estimated husk
volume
(103 ton/year)

Rice husks used for


power plant
(103 ton/year)

State

68

5,113

1,537

307

32

Private

1,158

26,625

8,002

1,600

320

Total

1,226

31,738

9,539

1,907

352

Small-scale rice mills

10,469

41,341

12,424

2,485

Total

11,695

73,079

21,963

4,392

352

Category

Large
scale rice
mills

Investment Cost (estimated), KAUNG KYAW SAN


Item Description

Cost US$

Building Cost

2,500

Gasifier Unit

3,750

Gas Engine

1,250

Generator Unit

1,250

Electricity main and distribution System

4,583

Installation and Overhead Cost

2,000

Total

15,333

Number of biogas plants installed in different States and Divisions with the
technical assistance of Ministry of Sciences and Technology from 2003 to 2009
State / Division
Mandalay

Capacity of biogas, m3

Number

100

50

107

25

20

Subtotal

109

50

23

10

Subtotal

24

Magway

50

Shan North

50

Shan South

10

Kayah

50

Kachin

10

Ayarwaddy

10

Bago

Naypyitaw

Sagaing

Total

156

ISSUES


Prioritization of Bio-fuel Crops

Sugarcane, cassava, maize and sweet sorghum offer potential bioethanol feed stocks at both large scale and community level
production.
The present jatropha option should be strengthened by intensive
cultivar improvement research and development.




Need for market mechanism and supply chain


development
Supply of bio-ehtanol by private sector is now initiating.
There is no appreciable development of supply chain
mechanism in biofuel feed stocks.
Economies of scale in biofuel production could be
achieved by large scale investment.
It is noted that export opportunities of biofuel products
are still under consideration by higher authorities.