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Awit, Rendel Mark (LEADER)

Mapa, Tobias
Genodia, Ma. Fe
Ordinario, Ma. Angela
Gurtiza, Sharlayne
Estonilo, Maria Cecilia
Toledo, Angelica Marie
Sagario, Geraldine
Hermosura, Kristine
Mendoza, David

Cardiovascular System
The cardiovascular system or sometimes called the circulatory system is consists of the
heart, which is a muscular pumping device and a closed system of vessels called arteries, veins
and capillaries. As the name implies, blood contain in the circulatory system is pumped by the
heart to transport nutrients, waste products, gasses and hormones throughout the body. It also
plays a role in the immune response and the regulation of the body temperature and provides
clotting to stop the bleeding of an injury.
As we said, the Cardiovascular system is composed of the:

• Heart

The heart is a hollow muscular organ which beats over 100,000 a day to pump blood
around the body’s 60,000 miles of blood vessels. It is found thoracic cavity between the
lungs and is protected by a cavity called the pericardium.

• Blood
The red, viscid fluid filling and circulating through the heart and blood vessels which is
consists of cells and cell fragments called formed elements and water with dissolved
molecules called blood plasma. Its function is to supply nutritive material to and carries
waste away from the body tissues.

• Blood Vessel
Blood vessels are channels for transporting blood throughout the body comprising of
arteries, capillaries and veins.

The blood is a connective tissue containing many suspended cells and can be found flowing
through the circulatory system transporting substances. These substances may include the
digested food substances like amino acids and glucose, excretory products of the body, heat from
the respiring body organs and tissues and oxygen and carbon dioxide for respiration. Apart from
the transportation of substances, blood also serves to protect the body against pathogens.
Functions of Blood:
1. Transport of gasses, nutrients and waste products.
2. Transport of processed molecules.
3. Transport of regulatory molecules.
4. Regulation of pH and osmosis.

5. Maintenance of body temperature

6. Protection against foreign substances
7. Clot formation
Compositions of Blood
Our body is composed of 92% fluids tissues and 8% blood. 55% of this blood is
made up of plasma constituting the fluid part of the blood and the other 45% are the cells
and platelets that are also present in our blood.

o Plasma

A pale yellow fluid that consist of about 91% water; 7% proteins; and 2% other
substances, such as ions, nutrients, gasses and waste products. Plasma proteins include
albumin, globulins, and fibrinogen.
o Formed Elements

These are the cells and cell fragments found in the blood mostly consists of 95%
red blood cells (erythrocytes), 5% white blood cells(leukocytes) and cell fragments called
platelets (Thrombocytes).


It is the process of blood cell production which occurs in tissues such as liver, thymus
gland, spleen, lymph nodes and bone marrow during fetal stage but after birth it only
takes place in the bone marrow with the exception of some white blood cells forming in
lymphatic tissues. The accepted theory on how this process work is called the
monophyletic theory which means all matured blood cells of the blood came from a
single population of cells called Pluripotent stem cells.

How it works:

Pluripotent stem cells multiply to produce more stem cells to ensure the lasting supply of
stem cells or may multiply slowly into one of the five possible Unipotential stem cells
which then multiply rapidly into the precursor of the specific matured blood cell they are

Products of Hematopoiesis

o Red Blood Cells

Erythrocytes are biconcave disks, 6.5 to 8.5 mcm which does not contain nucleus
but contains hemoglobin which colors the cell red. Its primary function is to transport
oxygen from the lungs to the various tissues of the body and to assist in the transport of
carbon dioxide from the tissues to the lungs.
o White blood Cells

Leukocytes are spherical cells containing nucleus but white in color due to lack of
hemoglobin. Its functions are protecting our body against invading microorganisms and
to remove dead cells and debris from the tissues by phagocytosis. White blood cells have
two forms according to their appearance, these forms are the: Granulocytes and
Agranulocytes. Granulocytes are those large cytoplasmic granules while Agranulocytes
are those with very small granules.

 Granulocytes have three kinds:

• Neutrophil
- Nucleus with two to four lobes connected by thin filaments; cytoplasmic
granules stain alight pink or reddish purple; 10-12 mcm in diameter. Its
function is to phagocytize microorganism and other substances.

• Basophil
- Nucleus with two indistinct lobes; cytoplasmic granules stain blue purple; 10-
12 mcm in diameter. Its function is to release histamine, which promotes
inflammation, and heparin which prevents clot formation.

• Eosinophil
- Nucleus of bilobed; cytoplasmic granules stain orange red or bright red; 11-14
mcm in diameter. Its function is to release chemicals that reduce
inflammation; attacks certain worm parasites.

 Agranulocytes have two kinds:

• Lymphocytes
- Round nucleus; cytoplasm forms a thin ring around the nucleus; 6-14 mcm in
diameter. Its function is to produce antibodies and other chemicals responsible
for destroying microorganisms; contributes to allergic reactions, graft
rejection, tumor control and regulation of the immune system.

• Monocytes
- Nucleus round, kidney, or horse shoe shape; contains more cytoplasm than
does lymphocyte; 12-20 mcm in diameter. Its function is to phagocyticizes
bacteria, dead cells, cell fragments and other debris within tissues.
o Platelets

Thrombocytes are cell fragments surrounded by a plasma membrane and they also
contain granules.2-4 mcm in diameter. Their main function is to prevent blood loss by
forming platelet plugs which seal holes in small vessels and form clots which help seal
off larger wounds in vessels.

Blood Grouping
Not all human blood is the same. A person in need of a blood transfusion (transfer of
blood from an individual to another) cannot be given blood from a randomly selected
donor. Incompatibility of blood types is due in part to antigens. An antigen is a protein on
cell surfaces that can stimulate the immune system to produce antibodies, which fight
foreign invaders. Antibodies are very specific, meaning each antibody can combine only
with a certain antigen. When the antibodies in the plasma bind to the antigens in the
surface of the red blood cells, they form molecular bridges that connect the red blood
cells together. As a result agglutination or clamping of the cells occurs. This also initiates
the action hemolysis or rupture of the red blood cells. The debris formed from the
ruptured red blood cells produce clotting within the small blood vessels as a result of
these changes, tissue damage or death may occur. The antigen on the surface of red blood
cells have been categorized into blood groups, these are:
o ABO Blood Group

The most important blood group system is the ABO system. ABO antigens are
carbohydrates. There are three alleles at the ABO locus on the long arm of
chromosome 9: A, B and O. The A gene results in the expression of A antigen on the
red cells and the B gene results in the expression of B antigen. The O gene does not
produce a detectable blood group antigen.

o Rh blood group

The Rh blood group system is the second most important system and is the most
complex. It is important because it is associated with hemolytic transfusion reactions
and with development of severe hemolytic disease of the newborn (HDN). Rh
antigens are proteolipids and lack carbohydrate.

Blood Vessels and Circulation

Functions of the Peripheral Circulation
1. Carry the blood.
2. Exchange nutrients, waste products and gases.
3. Transport.
4. Regulate blood pressure.
5. Direct blood flow.
General features of Blood Vessel Structure
o Arteries

- (Resembling a windpipe) are blood vessels that carry blood away from
the heart.
o Elastic Arteries

- The largest diameter arteries and have the thickest walls. A greater
proportion of their walls is elastic tissue, and a smaller proportion is
smooth muscle compared with other arteries.

o Muscular Arteries

- Frequently called distributing arteries.

- Medium sized and small diameter arteries. The walls of the medium-
sized arteries are relatively thick compared with their diameter.
 Vasoconstriction- is the contraction of the smooth muscle in blood
vessel, decreases blood vessel diameter and blood flow.
 Vasodilation- is the relaxation of the smooth muscle in blood vessels,
increases blood vessel in diameter.

 Capillaries
- (Resembling fine hairs), where exchange occurs between the blood and
tissue fluid. Capillaries have thinner walls. Blood flows through them
more slowly, and there are far more of them than any other blood vessel
- Capillary walls consist of endothelium which is a layer of simple
squamous epithelium surrounded by a delicate loose connective tissue.

 Precapillary Sphincters
- Located at the origin of the branches. It regulates blood flow by
smooth muscle cells.

 Veins
- Blood vessels that carry blood toward the heart.

 Venules
- are tubes with a diameter slightly larger than that of capillaries and
are composed of endothelium resting on a delicate connective tissue

 Small Veins
- are slightly larger in diameter than venules. All three tunics are
present in small veins. The tunica media contains a continuous layer of
smooth muscle cells, and the connective tissue of the tunica adventitia
surrounds the tunica media.
 Medium Sized Veins
- collect blood from small veins and deliver it to large veins. The three
thin but distinctive tunics make up the wall of the medium-sized and
large veins.
- The tunica media contains some circular smooth muscle and sparsely
scattered elastic fibers. The predominant layer is the outer tunica
adventitia, which consist of primarily of dense collagen fibers.

Blood Vessels of the Pulmonary Circulation

The pulmonary circulation is a circuit of blood circulation in the cardiovascular system,
serving exclusively the lungs, where red blood cells pick up oxygen and release carbon dioxide
during respiration.

Deoxygenated blood is pumped out of the right ventricle of the heart into the pulmonary trunk,
then to the pulmonary arteries and into the lungs. Via pulmonary veins, oxygenated blood is then
drained into the left atrium. Blood is then circulated in the systemic circulation.
Blood Vessels of the Systemic Circulation: Arteries
o Systemic Circulation

- Flow of the blood through the system of blood vessels that carries
blood from the left ventricle of the heart to the tissues of the body and
back to the right atrium. Food products enter the system from the
digestive organs into the portal vein. Waste products are removed by
the liver and kidneys. All systems ultimately return to the "right heart"
via the inferior and superior vena cavae.
o Aorta

- The largest artery in the body, the main artery for systemic circulation,
carries blood from the left ventricle of the heart and passes through the
thorax and abdomen.

Three Parts of Aorta

 Ascending Aorta- branches into the "arch of the aorta."

 Aortic Arch- the "brachiocephalic artery," which supplies blood to the

brain and head, the left common carotid artery and the left subclavian
artery originates here.

 Descending Aorta- Although the descending aorta is positioned to the left

of the body's midline, it gradually descends to directly in front of the
vertebral column at the left of the 12th thoracic vertebra. The portion of
the descending aorta above the diaphragm is called the "thoracic aorta"
and gives off branches into the thoracic wall. These branches, the
bronchial, pericardial, and esophageal arteries, supply blood to the organs
for which they were named. Below the diaphragm, the descending aorta
becomes the "abdominal aorta," stemming off into branches which reach
the abdominal wall and various tissues and organs of the abdomen

o Arteries of the Head and Neck

 Brachiocephalic artery

 Common Carotid Artery

 Internal Carotid Arteries

 External Carotid Arteries

 Vertebral Artery
o Arteries of the Upper Limbs

- The arteries of the upper limbs are named differently as they pass into
different body regions, even though no major branching occurs.

• Subclavian artery- located deep to the clavicle.

• Axillary artery- in the axilla(armpit)

• Brachial artery- located in the arm

• Ulnar artery supply blood in the forearm and hand

• Radial artery
o The Thoracic Aorta and Its Branches

- Branches of the thoracic aorta divided into two groups.

• Visceral Arteries- supply thoracic organs such as esophagus, trachea,

parietal pericardium, and part of the lung.
• Parietal arteries- supply the thoracic wall.

 Posterior intercostals arteries- arise from the thoracic aorta and

aorta and extend between the ribs. It supply intercostals muscles.
 Superior phrenic arteries- supply the diaphragm

 Internal thoracic arteries- branches of the subclavian arteries.

 Anterior intercostals arteries- extend between the ribs to supply
the anterior chest wall.
o The Abdominal Aorta And its Branches

- There are two types of branches of the abdominal Aorta like those of
the Thoracic Aorta.
• The Visceral and Parietal groups.
- The Visceral Arteries are divided into Paired and Unpaired Branches

 3 major Unpaired branches

 Celiac trunk
- supplies blood to the stomach, pancreas, spleen, upper duodenum, and

 Superior Mesenteric Artery

- supplies blood to the small intestine and the upper portion of the large

 Inferior Mesenteric Artery

- supplies blood to the remainder of the large intestine

 3 paired branches

 Renal Arteries

- supply blood to the kidney

 Suprarenal Arteries (superior to the kidney)

- supply the adrenal glands

 Testicular Arteries

- supply the testes in males

 Ovarian Arteries
- supply the ovaries in females

• Parietal Branches
- supply diaphragm and abdominal wall

 Inferior Pyretic Arteries

- supply diaphragm
 Lumbar Arteries
- supply the lumbar vertebrae and back muscles

 Median Sacral Artery

- supplies the inferior vertebrae

o Arteries of the Pelvis

- The abdominal aorta divides at the level of the fifth lumbar vertebra
into common arteries. Each common iliac artery divides to form:

• External Iliac Artery

- Enters lower limb

• Internal Iliac Artery

- Supply the pelvic areas

- Supply organs such as urinary bladder, rectum, uterus, and vagina

- Supply blood to the walls and floor of the pelvis; the lumbar, gluteal, and
proximal thigh muscles; the external genitalia
o Arteries of the Lower Limbs

- Like the arteries in the upper limbs, arteries of the lower limbs are named
differently as they pass through different body regions:

• Femural Artery
- Located in the thigh

• Popliteal Artery
- Located at the posterior regions of the knee.
- The popliteal artery branches slightly inferior to the knee to give off the
Anterior Tibial Artery and Posterior Tibial Artery.

 Anterior and Posterior Tibial Artery

- Supply blood to the legs and feet

 The anterior Tibial Artery becomes the Dorsal Pedis and the Posterior
Tibial Artery gives rise to the Fibular, or peroneal, Artery.

 Dorsalis Pedis
- Located at the ankle
 Fibular Artery
- Supply the lateral leg and foot

o Veins of the Upper Limbs

• Deep veins-drains the deep structure of the upper limbs, follow the same course
as the arteries.
 Brachial veins-the only noteworthy deep veins; accompany the brachial
artery and empty into the auxiliary veins

• Superficial veins-drain the superficial structure of the upper limbs and then
empty into the deep vein.
 Cephalic vein-toward the head; empties into the auxiliary vein and basilic
vein, which becomes the auxiliary veins are the major superficial vein.

 Median cubital vein-connects the cephalic vein or its tributaries with the
basilic veins.
o Veins of the Thorax

- 3 major veins return blood from the thorax to the superior vena cava

• Left brachiocephalic vein

• Right brachiocephalic vein

• Azygos veins
-blood drains from the anterior thoracic wall by way of the anterior intercostal veins.
These veins is empty into the internal thoracic veins, which empty into the brachiocephalic veins.
-blood from the posterior thoracic wall is collected by posterior intercostal veins; which
drains into the azygos vein.

o Veins of the Head and Neck

• External and internal Jugular veins

- 2 pairs of major veins that drain blood from the head and neck.

 External Jugular Veins

- More superficial of 2 sets
- They drain blood from the posterior head and neck.
- Empty primarily into the Subclavian Vein.
 Internal Jugular Veins
- Much larger and deeper
- They drain blood from the brain and the anterior head, face and neck.

Internal Jugular Veins join Subclavian Veins on each side of the body and form
Brachiocephalic which then joins to form the Superior Vena Cava
Veins of the lower limbs

The veins on this part were just like in the upper limbs for it also consists of
deep and superficial groups.

- consist of:
• Great Saphenous Veins:
- Originates over dorsal and medial side of the foot and ascends along
the medial side of the leg and thigh to empty into femoral vein.
• Small Saphenous Veins:
- Begins over the lateral side of the foot and joins popliteal veins, in
turn, becomes femoral vein. The femoral vein empties into external
iliac vein.

Veins of the Abdomen and Pelvis

Blood from the posterior abdominal wall drains through ascending lumbar
veins into azygos veins. Blood from the rest of the abdomen and from the pelvis
and lower limbs returns to the heart trough the inferior vena cava. The gonads
(testes or ovaries), kidneys, adrenal glands and liver are the only abdominal organs
outside the pelvis from which blood drains directly into inferior vena cava. The
internal iliac veins drain the pelvis and join the external iliac veins. The
common iliac veins combine to form the inferior vena cava. Blood from the
capillaries within most of abdominal viscera, such as stomach, intestines, pancreas,
and spleen, drains through a specialized system of blood vessel to the liver. The
liver is the major processing center for substances absorbed by the intestinal tract.
A portal system is a vascular system that begins and ends with capillary beds and
has no pumping mechanism such as the heart between them. The hepatic portal
system begins with capillaries in the viscera and ends capillaries in the liver. The
major tributaries of the hepatic portal system are the splenic vein and the
superior mesenteric vein. The inferior mesenteric vein empties into the
splenic vein. The splenic vein carries blood from the spleen and pancreas. The
superior and inferior mesenteric veins carry blood from the intestines. The splenic
vein and the superior mesenteric vein join to form the hepatic portal vein, which
enters the liver.
Blood from the liver flows into hepatic veins, which joins the inferior vena cava.
Blood entering the liver through the hepatic portal vein ir rich with nutrients
collected from the intestines, but it may also contain a number of toxic substances
harmful to the tissues of the body. Within the liver, nutrients are taken up and
stored or modified so they can be used by other cells of the body. Toxic substances
are converted to nontoxic substances and are removed from the blood or are
carried by the blood to the kidneys.

The term hematopoiesis refers to the formation and

development of the cells of the blood. In humans,
this process begins in the yolk sac in the first weeks
of embryonic development. By the third month of
gestation, stem cells migrate to the fetal liver and
then to the spleen (between 3-7 months gestation
these two organs play a major hempatopoietic

Next, the bone marrow becomes the major

hematopoietic organ and hematopoiesis ceases in
the liver and spleen.

Every functional specialized mature blood cell is derived from a common stem cell.
These stem cells are therefore, PLURIPOTENT.
It has been estimated that there is approximately 1 stem cell per 104 bone marrow cells.
These stem cells represent a self-renewing population of cells. These cells also must
have the potential to differentiate and to become committed to a particular blood cell

Due to the low frequency of these cells and the inability to culture these cells in vitro,
stem cells have been very difficult to study.
Rizal's European experience was complete with hanging out in
bistros and cafes, sharing beer at country inns, and dressing for
elegant balls, masked or otherwise. Photo shows Rizal (left) be-
turbanned for a party with friends Paz Pardo de Tavera, Luna, Nelly
Bousted, [emphasis - rly], Felix Resurreccion Hidalgo and two
unidentified ladies." In Excelsis: The Mission of Jose P. Rizal,
Humanist and Philippine National Hero by Felice Prudenta Sta. Maria