F
G
H
I
J
Further remarks:
If entered values are out of range, a warning message box will displayed. After changing a value, a
recalculation can be triggered by clicking the Go button or by pressing <ENTER> in the updated text field.
Calculations can be saved in a file and later be opened again with the Save en Open options in the File
menu. Results can be printed with the Print option in File menu. Core sizes are always listed in ascending
order of effective volume Ve. In cases where the calculated gap would become smaller than the parasitic gap,
the parasitic gap length is taken as default.
E
F
H
I
J
K
A Select a Core Shape from the list according
to the design you want to make.
Definition of terms
Permeability
When a magnetic field is applied to a soft magnetic material, the resulting flux density is composed of that
of free space plus the contribution of the aligned domains.
B = 0 H + J or B = 0 ( H + M )
[1]
B
M
 = 0 1 +  = absolute
H
H
[2]
It is usual to express this absolute permeability as the product of the magnetic constant of free space and
the relative permeability (r).
B
 = 0 r
H
[3]
Since there are several versions of r depending on conditions the index r is generally removed and
replaced by the applicable symbol e.g. i, a, etc.
Initial permeability
The initial permeability is measured in a closed magnetic circuit (ring core) using a very low field strength.
B
1
i =   0 H
( H 0 )
[4]
Effective permeability
If an airgap is introduced in a closed magnetic circuit, magnetization becomes more difficult. As a result, the
flux density for a given magnetic field strength is lower.
Effective permeability is dependent on the initial permeability of the soft magnetic material and the
dimensions of airgaps and circuit.
i
e = G i
1 + le
[5]
where G is the gap length and le is the effective length of magnetic circuit. This simple formula is a good
approximation only for small airgaps. For longer airgaps some flux will cross the gap outside its normal area
(fringing flux) causing an increase of the effective permeability.
Amplitude permeability
The relationship between higher field strength and flux densities without the presence of a bias field, is
given by the amplitude permeability (a).
B
1
a =  0 H
[6]
Since the BH loop is far from linear, values depend on the applied field strength.
Incremental permeability
The permeability observed when an alternating magnetic field is superimposed on a static bias field, is called
the incremental permeability.
1 B
=   0 H H DC
[7]
If the amplitude of the alternating field is negligibly small, the permeability is called the reversible
permeability (rev).
le
 Ae
[9]
l
1
 A
e
[10]
9
2
0 N
1.257 10 N
L =  =  (in H)
l
1
l
1
  A
e
A
e
[11]
The effective area is used to calculate the flux density in a core, for sine wave:
U 2 10
2.25U 10
B =  =  (in mT)
A e N
fNA e
[12]
0.25U 10
B =  (in mT)
fNA e
[13]
IN 2
H =  (A/m)
le
[14]
If the crosssectional area of a core is nonuniform, there will always be a point where the real crosssection
is minimal. This value is known as Amin and is used to calculate the maximum flux density in a core. In well
designed ferrite core a large difference between Ae and Amin is avoided. Narrow parts of the core could
saturate or cause much higher hysteresis losses.
To facilitate inductance calculations, the inductance factor, known as the AL value (nH), is given in each data
sheet. The inductance factor of a core is defined as:
L = N A L (nH)
[15]
The value of AL is calculated from the core factor and the effective permeability:
1.257 e
0 e 10
A L =  =  (nH)
( l A)
( l A)
[16]
N A
L = 0 rod  ( H )
l
[17]
where:
N = number of turns
A = cross sectional area of rod (mm2)
I = length of coil. (mm)
i = 10.000
103
5000
2000
1000
700
500
rod
400
300
200
150
102
100
70
40
20
10
10
10
100
E
G
H
C
F
A
E
Enter the design parameters. Take a reasonable
value for the maximum throughput power, for
instance 2 times the minimum required power, to
limit the choice of suitable core sizes.
B
Make a choice of converter type. Enter the
required creepage distance between windings,
expected copper fill factor and duty cycle, or
accept the default values.
G
Click Graph to view a graph of throughput
power versus frequency for the selected core
type.
H
Check the core families you wish to consider for
your design.
D
Select the material you wish to apply or all to
leave the choice up to the program.
Input data
The requested input data, grouped in 3 sets, can be inserted arbritrary order.
1. Application conditions
Description
Pthrmin
Pthrmax
f
Tamb
T
Forward, Flyback or PushPull
Cr *)
Fw
lg
*) For all core families, except toroids (T, TN, TX, TL, TC), the total creepage distance is the sum of the creepage
distances between winding and the ferrite core. If one choses e.g. a value of 8 mm it is assumed that the distance
between the primary and secundary winding package and the ferrite are 4 mm each. For toroids the creepage distance is the sum of both insulation distances between the primary and secondary winding.
Pthr =
1
T
(Vp Ip)dt = Vp Ip
[1]
The relation of voltage Vp and flux density B is given by Faradays law of induction. Using this for the applied
signals and keeping in mind that 1/T equals the frequency f, and Np stands for the number of primary turns,
this results in:
Vp
= Np Ae
fB
B
dB
= Np Ae
= Np Ae
dt
[2]
Note that B in eq.[2] is referring to the total flux excursion, So, from its minimum to its maximum value.
Substituting eq.[2] for Vp in formula [1] shows that throughput power is proportional to the product of
(f.B), which is interpreted as the material performance factor.
[3]
Pthr = Np Ae fB Ip
Next the current Ip will be worked out in terms of winding losses. For this purpose it is necessary to
consider the effective (or rms) current. This current (Ieffective) is related to power losses in a resistance R by
P = I2R. The effective current for a time varying current I(t) with period T is defined in general as:
T
I2
effective
1
T
I 2 (t) dt
[3A]
Applying this definition to the appropriate current signals we get the following results:
Ipeffective = Ip
[4]
Relating the current Ip to the primary winding losses Pw.pr and primary resistance Racpr gives:
Ip =
Ipeffective
Pwpr
[5]
Racpr
The a.c. resistance of the windings is related to the d.c. resistance by a constant factor FR which is equal
to 1 for a d.c. current. The increase of the a.c. resistance value is caused by the skin and proximity effects.
Normally these effects strongly depend on the arrangements of the windings in the available winding space
and on the frequency of the signals. In literature, methods to calculate the FR value are published (e.g. based
on the theory of Dowell). For these calculations computer programs can be helpfully.
The d.c. resistance Rdc is equal to: Rdc = .Np.Lav/Acopper.
is the copper resistivity in m
Lav is average winding turn length
Acopper is the crosssectional area of the copper wire
Acopper can be expressed in terms of a copper fill factor Fw, which is defined as total area of
copper divided by total winding area, or in symbols : Fw = N.Acopper / Aw
This gives : Acopper = Fw.Aw / N.
Using the quantity FR and the expression for Acopper one can write for the the a.c. resistance in:
Racprim = FR Rdc =
FR Np lav
Acopper
FR Np lav
Fw Awprim
[6]
Ip =
Np
Pwprim Fw Awprim
lav FR
[7]
Ip =
1
2
Np
Pw Fw Aw
lav FR
[8]
If equation [8] for Ip is substituted in [3] the following expression for the throughput power is obtained:
Pthr =
1
2
Ae (fB)
Pw Fw Aw
lav FR
[9]
The same formula is valid for a flyback transformer, however the derivation is somewhat more complicated
due to the triangular current shapes. Due to the influence of the airgap (fringing flux) the throughput power
is about 90 % compared to a forward concept.
For a standard pushpull transformer it can be derived that the throughput power is a factor 2 higher
compared to the forward transformer. For transformers used in other converter topologies only the factor
might change. So in general the througput power factor is equal to:
Pthr Ae (fB)
Pw Fw Aw
lav FR
[10]
P trafo =
T
R th
[11]
Measurements on wire wound transformers resulted in an empirical formula for the thermal resistance
Rth = 1/ (Cth.Ve 0.54 ).
The constant Cth depends on core shape and winding arrangement. For standard wound cores like RM or
ETD and EFD it is about 17. For planar cores with windings integrated in a PCB (epoxy) it is about 24, and
for flat frame and bar cores used for LCD backlighting the value is about 20.
The total transformer losses (in mW) can be related directly to its allowed temperature rise T and
effective volume Ve:
0.54
P trafo = T Cth Ve
[12]
The power loss density (mW/cm3) in a core can be determined with the following empirical fit formula:
y
x
Pcore = C m f Bac ct ct 1 T + ct 2 T = C m C (T) f Bac
[13]
Note that Bac is here the peak flux density, so half the total flux excursion .(Bmax Bmin).
The parameters Cm, x, y, ct, ct1 and ct2 are specific for each power ferrite and often only applicable in a
defined frequency range. Total transformer loss consists of winding loss plus core loss. So, winding loss can
be written as:
0.54
Cm C (T) f B Ve
[14]
If eq. [14] is substituted in equation [10] the result is a long formula with many terms. Denoting some terms
in advance makes it easier to calculate:
C1 =
Ae f
Fw Aw
FR lav
0.54
Ve Fw Aw
FR lav
C2 = T Cth Ve
C3 = Cm C (T) f
[15]
Substituting formula [14] in [10] and using the denoted terms [15] gives:
(C2 C3 Bac)
[16]
The throughput power is now expressed as a function of Bac only because the other terms are considered
as constants.
Remark:
Bac is the peak flux density which is half the value of B as used in equation [10].
The value of Bac for which Pthr is maximum, called the optimum flux density, can be calculated by solving:
d[Pthr(Bac)]/dBac = 0.
Using formula [16], the result for which this differential quotient equals zero is given by:
y
x
0.54
2
T Cth Ve = Cm C (T) f Bac Ve
2+y
[17]
Pcore =
2
Ptrafo
2+y
and/or
Pw =
y P
trafo
2+y
[18]
By isolating Bac from [17] and noting that B = 2.Bac we find for the optimum B:
Bopt = 2
2
2+y
) (
1/y
x/y
0.46/y
T Cth 1/y
f
Ve
Cm C(T)
[19]
T = 393 . 105
T =
1 + T ( T20)
1 + T 76
(T) = (T=100) T
[20]
Eind = B H Ve =
B2
Ve
2
[21]
Writing out eq.[21] for the ferrite part (Ve = Ae.le ) and the airgap (VLg = Ae.lg) gives:
Eind =
B2 Ae le + B2 Ae lg = B2 Ve
2 0 a
2 0
2 0
( 1
lg
le
[22]
Pthr(lg) =
B2 f V e 1 +
a
2 0
lg
le
[23]
The fringing flux has the effect of increasing the airgap area. The reluctance Rg, which is equal to lg/.Ag,
decreases by the fringing flux factor F. Then Rg becomes lg/(.Ag.F). For the calculations it is more
convenient to keep a constant crosssection Ae for the total circuit. Then the effect of the fringing flux on
the effective airgap lg is accounted for by deviding lg by a factor F.
A formula for the fringing flux factor F can be derived with conformal transformations and is equal to:
F=1+
lg
Ae
In
( 2 l Wh )
[24]
Pthr(lg) =
B2 f Ve 1 + lg/F
a
le
2 0
[25]
The throughput power capability of a ferrite core is (for a flyback) equal to:
Pthr =
1
2
Ae (fB)
Pw Fw Aw
lav FR
10
[9]
The result of these substitutions gives for the throughput power capability:
Pthr =
( C 2C )
m (T)
1/y
( )
( ) ( )
(1x/y) (1/y+)
(0.270.46/y) Aw
Cth (1/y+)
Ae Ve
f
T
2+y
Lav
Fw
[26]
FR
Remark :
For a better understanding of this long formula it is useful to have a closer look at its different parts.
1. Circuit dependent part
2. Ferrite dependent part, important is to see how Pthr depends on:
 frequency : Pthr f (1 x/y)
 temperature : Pthr T(1/y + )
3 Core dependent part, known as the core performance factor
4 Winding dependent part
The throughput power in eq. [9] or [26] can, in theory, be equal to the value from eq.[25] when the airgap lg
is given its maximum size. The maximum airgap can be calculated by reworking [25] and using Pthr from eq.
[9] or [26] denoted now as Pthrmax:
lgmax =
( A 2 B f )
0
Pthrmax
le
a
( )
[27]
Remarks :
1. Fringing factor F is ignored
2. The maximum airgap is in principle strongly dominated by the allowed temperature rise T, and is
almost lineair with T.
3. If a larger airgap than lgmax is used the allowed temp. rise T will be exceeded. Magnetically this
means that the transformer is not operating with the optimum flux density as stated in [19]. Larger
airgaps lead to a higher field strength H, which means higher currents and winding losses. In this case
the optimum equilibrium between core and winding losses is disturbed.
4. Even if lgmax is used for the airgap, Pthr will always be somewhat lower (10 to 15 %) than calculated
with eq. [26], due to fringing effects, and additional losses in the windings due to fringing flux.
The sequence to calculate Pthr for a flyback transformer is:
The steps as mentioned in chapter 3; The calculation of Pthr for forward and pushpull
transformers. The values obtained from eq. [10] are interpreted as Pthrmax.
The calculated values for Bopt are used to calculate values for a. For this purpose the graphs a(B) from
our Data Handbook, are approximated by 4 straight lines for each power ferrite.
For each selected ferrite core Pthrmax and other data is used in eq.[27] to calculate lgmax. These are the
maximum values that can be used for the airgap.
The program uses eq.[25] to calculate Pthr for a certain airgap lg. If the desired value for the airgap is too
large for certain cores, automatically the value lgmax is used.
11
[28]
prim sec
and
1
=
2T
f
2
feff =
1 2
[29]
[30]
12
at fn:
[31]
2n 1
f x By 2
2
( )
[32]
[33]
Airgap lg and Np are already fixed. And because V is fixed and since V = LdI/dt ~ dB/dt the slopes I(t) and
B(t) are fixed as well:
For f, the slope B(t) = B(f,)/T
For fn, n the slope B(t) =B(fn,n)/nTn
B (f, ) = B (fn, n) T
= B (fn, n)
nTn
( f nfn)
[34]
Using expression [34] for B(f,) in eq.[32] to find the core losses Pcore(f,) gives:
f x B (fn, n) fn y 2
2
f n
( ) [
)]
[35]
x
y
x
x
y
Pcore(f,) = const. fn B (fn,n) 2n f 2n .fn 2
fn
n.f
2n
2
2n
( )
( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
Pcore (fn, n)
By using the substitution for Pcore(fn ,n) in [36] it can be written as:
13
[36]
yx
fn
f
( )
1x+y
( )
[37]
The winding losses can be expressed in the same way. Since dI/dt dB/dt the function for I(f ,) is similar to
B(f,) in equation [34]:
I (f,) = I (fn, n)
( f
fn
n
[38]
Using expression [38] for I(f,) in eq. [33] to find the winding losses Pw (f,) gives:
fn
n
f
)]
[39]
Pwe(f,) = Pw (fn, n)
( n ) ( fnf )
3
fn 2
f
( ) ( )
[40]
[41]
For the nominal case (fn ,n) as well as for another (f ,) this yields:
Pcore(fn,n) + Pw(fn,n) =
2 P
( 2+y
)
(y )
14
[42]
[43]
Substituting equations [41] and [37] in eq. [43] and comparing with eq. [42] gives:
fn 2
=
f
( ) ( )
( ) ( )
[44]
3
2
yx
1x+y
y
fn
2
( 2+y
) ( fnf ) ( ) Ptrafo + ( 2+y) ( n ) ( f ) Ptrafo= Ptrafo
Pcore (fn, n)
2+y
y 3
fn yx 1x+y
+
n
2+y
n
f
( ) ( ) ( )
fn 2= 1
f
( ) ( ) ( )
[45]
This equation can only be solved numerically. The parameters y, fn and n are known. Frequency f has to be
chosen and can be calculated (or approximated).
Using eq. [23] and [34], the throughput power as a function of f and can be written as:
2
2
2
Pthr(f,) = const f B(f,) = const f B(fn,n) fn
f n
2
= Pthr(fn,n) fn
n
f
[46]
( )( )
The duty cycle is always 0.5. It is assumed that the nominal duty factor n has the optimum and
maximum value of 0.5 at the nominal frequency fn. Two situations can be distinquished for the new
frequency f:
f > fn
In this case the new duty cycle cannot increase above n but will stay on the maximum value of n = 0.5
Using eq. [23] and [46] shows that in this case we can write the new flux density B(f,) and Pthr(f,) as:
( fnf )
Pthr(f,) = Pthr(fn,n) ( fn )
f
B(f,) = B(fn,n)
[47]
15
f < fn
For this situation the new duty cycle can be lowered by the control circuit with respect to the maximum
nominal value of n = 0.5. The new duty cycle can be calculated by solving numerically equation [45]. By
using eq. [23] and [46] again with n = 0.5 the new flux density B(f,) and Pthr(f,) can be written as:
B(f,) = B(fn,n) 2 fn
f
( )
[48]
( )
Equations [47] and [48] are used to calculate Pthr(f) for a flyback transfomer.
A rough estimation can be made to give some insight in the curve of Pthr as a function of frequency.
The left term in eq [45] is constant if:
fn
f
( ) ( )
=
yx
1x+y
fn (0.45...0.60)
f
( )
[49]
fn
f
( ) ( )
=
2
3
fn
f
( )
0.6
[50]
( n ) ( fnf )
0.6
[51]
n = n
fn
f
( )
0.6
[52]
Using [52] in eq. [46] the approximation for Pthr in the situation : f > fn can be seen as follows:
cannot increase above n. So, Pthr which is a linear function of (f.B2) decreases. Because B decreases with
1/f also Pthr(f) will decrease with 1/f.
16
Using [52] in [48] the approximation for Pthr in the situation: f < fn is:
Pthr(fn,n) = Pthr(fn,n)
fn
f
( )
0.2
[53]
So, for frequencies lower than nominal, Pthr(f) increases with about approximately f 0.2 up to the maximum
for Pthr(f) at fn. For frequencies higher than nominal, Pthr(f) decreases with 1/f.
17
Inductor design
Inductor Design
D
A
B
G
J
I
L
I
Choose the type of inductor to design.
J
Choose the type of coil former to be used.
C
Choose the type of magnetic circuit to be used for
the design.
L
Make a choice from the available core shapes.
F
Choose a ferrite material from the list.
G
Shows the effective initial permeability for this
core / ferrite combination.
H
Shows the usual surface nish for this core / ferrite
combination.
Inductor design
Inductor design
Introduction
The design of an inductor is often done by trial and error. There are many parameters to play with. Current
and inductance value are usually xed, but there is a choice of core types, materials and airgap lengths to
realize the design with.
This program greatly simplies the design procedure by checking all cores in a range for magnetic saturation
and overheating. Then it proposes the smallest possible core size tting all boundary conditions for the
design.
In commonmode chokes, the 2 windings generate counteracting uxes of the same magnitude. The
resulting ux is practically zero, there is no danger of saturation so airgaps are not required.
However, because of the safety isolation requirements there is a certain distance between both windings.
This allows some stray ux to escape from the core before passing through the other winding. This stray
ux is not compensated and will cause saturation at very high current levels. The program accounts for this
effect and proposes the smallest core for the design.
Design procedure
Inductor design
The program starts by checking the cores from the chosen range for energy storage capability using the
following relations:
2
[1]
e 0 E
Ve min = 2
Bsat
The saturation ux density Bsat depends on the ferrite material and the temperature of the core. Initially,
the ambient temperature is taken. The effective permeability e is equal to the material permeability i in
case of a closed core without mating faces or airgaps. In a gapped core it is a variable, mainly controlled by
the length of the airgap.
The iteration start is different for closed and gapped cores.
Closed core
e = i, so Ve.min follows from E and denes the rst core of the range to check.
Gapped core
The iteration is started with the smallest core of the range, so e follows from E and the corresponding
core volume Ve.
When a core with the required Ve is found, the winding is designed by rst calculating the number of turns
N from :
Inductor design
2
L = e 0 N Ae
le
[2]
Then the conductor length (lcopper) and crosssection (Acopper) are derived from the available winding
window (Aw), copper ll factor (Fw) and the average turn length (lav).
Acopper = Fw Aw
N
[3]
lcopper = lav N
R =
lcopper
Acopper
[4]
Since the resistance of copper is a function of temperature, the program takes that into account with the
following formula :
= 20C [ 1 + ( Toperating 20 )]
[5]
where = 0.0039 / C.
The winding losses can now be calculated with :
Pwinding = Ieff R
[6]
Usually this loss is the predominant cause of heat dissipation in the inductor. The temperature rise of the
inductor design is calculated from :
[7]
Rth is the thermal resistance of the inductor which is a function of Ve of the ferrite core and is calculated
with the following empirical equation:
Inductor design
Rth =
1
Cth . Ve
[8]
0.54
The constant Cth depends on core shape and winding arrangement. For standard wound cores like RM or
ETD and EFD it is about 17. For planar cores with windings integrated in a PCB (epoxy) it is about 24.
The final operating temperature of the proposed design can be found by combining eq. [4] to [7], resulting
in a linear equation for Toperating.
With this new temperature, the core is checked for saturation again, using the Bsat value at this
temperature. Bsat(T) is approximated by a piecewise linear function. Also the other boundary conditions
like Tmax and RDCmax are checked. If one of these conditions is not fulfilled the core is found not suitable
and the core with the next larger Ve is taken for a new design cycle. The first core size fulfilling all boundary
conditions is proposed for the the inductor design. All necessary core parameters such as airgap length and
e are given in the output window. For the calculation of this airgap the effect of fringing flux is taken into
account. Also the resulting winding design is presented together with power dissipation and temperature
rise.
In order to finetune the design, the core size can be fixed to find out what happens when a parameter is
adapted manually.
Inductor design
Commonmode Choke
Design procedure
The rst step in the design procedure is to estimate the noncompensated proportion of the ux. The
amount of stray ux is controlled by the geometry of the windings and the number of turns only. The total
generated ux is controlled by the same parameters but also by the core permeability. This means that the
fraction of noncompensated ux only depends on the core permeability. It is approximated by a multistep
function.
This noncompensated ux fraction s is used as input for the design procedure using the same steps and
largely the same formulas as for the normal inductor design.
The stored energy is reduced
[1a]
[3a]
The area Aiso follows directly from the safety isolation distance diso.
The losses double
2
Pcoil = Ieff R
[6a]
Pwinding = 2 x Pcoil
Magnetic Regulator
A
A
Make a choice from the available toroid sizes
D
A list with results for different numbers of
turns is presented in the window
B
Insert design parameters
C
Graph explains the meaning of the
abbreviations used in the output window
Bsr=Vintd/Ae
Br
B=Vintbl/AeN
Bda=Vintb/AeN
Hc
tb
tbl
Hc
Ireset=BdaHcle/(BrN)
The picture above shows the origin of the terms used in the equations that describe the fields and delay
times in the regulator. A summary of the formulas that are valid for the different parts of the BHloop are
quoted below :
Vout T = Vin (t on t bl )
[1]
B Ae N = Vin tbl
Bda Ae N = Vin tb
[2]
[3]
Bsr Ae N = Vin td
Bsr = 11 N
0.235
(I out l e )
[4]
0.235
[mT]
[5]
[6]
Ptotal = T 17 Ve
[8]
Pcore = B
1.7
1.3
[7]
These are the basic equations for a magnetic regulator in which we shall now step by step insert the known
input variables.
List of input variables :
core
magnetic regulator core size
Vin
Input voltage
Vout
Output voltage
Iout
Output current
f ,T
Frequency or cycle period
ton
ontime of the input voltage, related to the duty factor of the input cycle
Ta
Ambient temperature
T
Maximum temperature rise
V
t bl = out T
Vin
[9]
The blocking time is needed when we want to calculate the minimum number of windings Nmin.
First we introduce some constants for convenience :
= 17 Ve
= T
= 8 1012 I out f (t on t bl ) Cu l av
Ve f 1.3
(1 0 . 0048 Ta )
3250
V f 1.3
0.0048
= e
3250
= Ve f 1.3 (1 0.0048 T )/ 3250 = T
=
1.7
V t 10 3
= in bl
Ae
We can now express the formulas for the power losses in a more compact form :
Ptotal =
Pw = N
Pcore = B 1.7
from :
Ptotal = Pw + Pcore
Where Pw represents the winding losses,
we find for the total flux swing :
B =
'
1
1.7
[10]
1.7
2.7
N min
N min
= 0
[11]
J=
1
4
I out
=8
2
d Cu
d Cu =
I out
2
[12]
The effective diameter is calculated with an empirical formula for winding cores. A 5% isolation and pitch of
the winding is incorporated in this equation :
0.921
d eff = 1.05 1.14 d Cu
[13 a]
N max = i 1
d
eff
[14]
Note that dCu from [12] or [13] is a minimum value. The maximum value is calculated with :
d eff ,max = d i (N + )
[13b]
N max
Vin t bl
=
0.235
0.011 Ilou t
Ae
e
( )
1
1.235
[15]
Finally the program iterates N from Nmin to Nmax and calculates B from [2], td from [4] and [5], tb from
tbltd, Ireset and the temperature rise. Ireset is calculated by :
I reset =
H c le
Bda
Br N
[16]
Iteration from Nmin to Nmax gives various values for B from [2] which result in a specific temperature rise.
The temperature rise can be calculated by rewriting [10].
T N
T
B 1.7 + N
T =
+ B 1.7
B 1.7 =
[17]
[from eq. 2]
[from eq.13b]
[from eq.16]
[from eq. 4 & 5]
[tb = tbltd]
[from eq. 9]
[from eq. 17]
A
B
C
D
E
F
G
E
Make a choice between sine wave and
customized waveform
A
Enter the switching frequency
B
Make a choice of ferrite material
F
Press to draw a graph (up to 4 per screen)
C
Enter the AC peak flux density
G
Press to clear the graphs
D
Enter the DC bias flux density
1.Basic formula
The calculation is based on an empirical fit formula for the core loss density of power ferrites:
Remarks
The constants are based on measurements with symmetric sine waveforms (no bias).
Bac is the peak flux density, so half of the total flux excursion : .(Bmax Bmin)
The parameters Cm, x, y, ct, ct1 and ct2 are specific for each power ferrite and often applicable
only in a limited frequency range.
The temperature dependent coefficients ct, ct1 and ct2 are dimensioned in such a way that at
T = 100 C the temperature term (ct  ct1.T + ct2.T 2) is equal to 1.
Example :
For a symmetric (no bias) triangle waveform with its maximum Bm at T, zero at T, Bm at T and zero
again at T, Bw can be calculated with eq. [2] as:

For a symmetric sine wave with the same period and values for Bm the calculation of can Bw can be done by
writing it in a integral representation:
Comparing the end result of equations [3] and [4] shows that the sine wave equivalent frequency of the
triangle form can be given as:
Inserting eq. [6] in eq. [5] gives the expression for the sinus equivalent frequency of a line piece with period
Ti :
Example :
Suppose Ti = 2.5 s. From eq. [7] follows that fsin.eq = 81 kHz.
Ti = 2.5 s corresponds to T = 10 s, so by using eq. [5] we also find fsin.eq. = 81 kHz.
A sine wave with T = 10 s corresponds with fsin = 100 kHz
1.First the DC level of the flux waveform Bdc is determined. This is done by calculating numerically:
2.The begin and end points of the pieces of flux lines are now (numerically) placed at the :
Corners, where the inserted wave form changes from increasing B to decreasing B and vice versa.
Intersections of the inserted wave form with the calculated value for Bdc.
For all periods Ti, which are constructed as explained in chapter 3.2, the equivalent sine wave frequency is
calculated with eq. [7]: fsin.eq = 2/(BTi).
The corresponding fit parameters (Cm, x, y, ct, ct1, ct2) valid for the calculated frequency fsin.eq are now read
from the data base.
The power loss density contribution for each period is now calculated by inserting eq. [7] in eq.[1] and
multiplying it by its weighting factor Ti / T
The total power loss Ptotal( J ) is calculated by taking the sum of the obtained values with formula [9]:
If there is a DC flux density the same correction will be made as explained for the sine waveform in chapter
3.1 . The DC flux density is already calculated as in chapter 3.2. As AC flux density the maximum value of
the waveform with respect to the DC flux Bdc is used. The total losses are in this case:
References
[1] Mulder S.A., 1993, Loss formulas for Power Ferrites and their use in transformer design, Application
note Philips Components.
[2] Brockmeyer A., 1995 Experimental Evaluation of the influence of DC Premagnetization on the
properties of Power electronic ferrites,
Aachen University of Technology.
[3] Durbaum, Th, Albach M, 1995, Core losses in transformers with an arbitrary shape of the Magnetizing
current, 1995 EPE Sevilla.
F
Choose Ferroxcube cores or user
dened cores.
C
Choose a core size.
H
D
The power inductor properties program is a tool to explore the properties of a power inductor in more
detail. One can select various materials for a core shape and it is possible to define an effective permeability,
inductance factor or gap length. All properties are then calculated and displayed in graphs. The plots give
more insight in how the inductor will behave as a function of field strength as well as the energy storage as
a function of gap length.
BHloop
The BHloop of our power materials were measured at three temperatures at field strengths from
250 A/m to 250 A/m. The measurements were carried out on cores without gap. With this design tool one
can calculate the gap length required to get the given effective inductance or permeability or visa versa,
using the relations:
AL = 0 e
Ae
le
[1]
l g Ae
1
1
=
+
e i l e Ag F
F = 1+
2 lleg
ln
l
Ae
g
lg
[2]
[3]
The factor F is the contribution of the fringing flux to the effective permeability.
When a gap is introduced, one can recalculate the BHloop by rescaling the applied field H.
Amperes law for a gapped core can be written as:
NI = Hap l e = H f (l e l g ) + H g l g H f l e + H g l g
H g lg =
Bg
0
lg = B f
l g Ae
0 Ag
l g Ae
NI
= H ap = H f + B f
= H f + H
le
0 Ag l e
Hf = field strength in the ferrite,
Hg = field strength in the gap,
Bf = flux density in the ferrite
Bg = flux density in the gap
H = extra field strength to compensate for reluctance of gap
Hap = applied field strength,
[4]
Br
Br(gap)
Hc
Hap = H f + Bf
1
0
1
1
e i
[5]
This enables the program to draw a socalled sheared BHloop for any gap.
Hap = H f + 12 Bf ,upper
1
0
1
1
1 1
1
+ 12 Bf ,lower
0 e i
e i
[6]
[7]
B f
Hap
[8]
The plot produced by the program gives an indication of the field strength for which the permeability of the
selected ferrite material collapses. This happens when the gapped core is saturated at the given operating
temperature.
AL (gapped) = 0
Ae
le
[9]
From the average field strength H [6] the program calculates NI:
NI = Hap l e
[10]
IL versus NI
Important design parameters for a power inductor are inductance value (L) and the maximum current (I).
This is related to the required energy storage per cycle in the inductor, which can be expressed as IL.
Following the information given in the application section of the FERROXCUBE data book, the program
plots IL as a function of NI.
I 2 L = Hap2 l e2 AL(gapped)
[11]
Important design information can be taken from these graphs. The peak in the curve gives an indication of
the maximum energy storage in the core. If this is too low for the design a larger ferrite volume or another
material is obviously required. The value of NI below the peak gives the optimal number of turns.
Transformer Design
In switching power supplies, problems often arise with the design of the magnetic components, the ferritecored transformers and chokes.The interaction
between electronic and magnetic design deserves particular attention. Firstly,
in switchedmode power supplies (SMPS), the power transformer and choke,
and the electronic circuitry are so interdependent that design is hardly possible
without the magnetic aspects being constantly taken into account. Secondly, by
combining magnetic and electronic design, a far better insight is gained into the
operation of the circuit, with a consequent improvement in the design itself.
In the following sections these problems are tackled. Design procedures are
explained with the help of many useful formulas and graphs.
Each Part contributes to an overall, stepbystep design procedure. Use of the procedure requires only a general electronic engineering background. Before entering
intothe procedure, a choice of converter type must have been made.
Part 1
+
D
Vi
Io
Vo
Figure 2 shows the voltage waveform across the inductance and the associated current waveforms.
VL
Vi  Vo
time
Vo
IL
Io
2Iac
time
/f
(1)/f
1/f
Part 1
Minimum choke inductance
For continuousmode operation (uninterrupted current flow through the choke)  otherwise regulation
deterioratesoutput current Io must always be greater than half the choke ripple current 2Iac. This is ensured
by using a minimum value for the choke inductance
Vo
Lmin = 1
2f Io min
( 1 max
Vi min
Vi max
[2]
An increase in as a result of a sudden load increase will cause a temporary increase in choke ripple
current. As long as the ripple component is much smaller than the d.c. component, which is usually the case,
this does not affect the design of the choke.
Choke design
Output choke L carries a direct current equal to the d.c. current in the load. Thus, to avoid saturation, an air
gap is required in the core. The design steps are:
 determine IM = Io max + Iac
 calculate I2MLmin
 proceed to Part 4 of this series.
For core loss, see Part 2.
V1 aux
Vo
D
V2 aux
Part 1
In order to store sufficient energy in the choke to supply an auxiliary load, inductance Lmin calculated from
Eq. 2 must be increased to Laux. This might lead to the use of a larger core: see Part 4. The relationship
between Lmin and Laux is
Laux
Lmin
>
1
[4]
(0.3 to 0.4)
1 max
The factor (0.3 to 0.4) corresponds to an auxiliary load being 20 to 30% of the total. If output ripple is not
important, a higher proportion of auxiliary load can be drawn.
The turns ratio
Vo
Vaux
ND
Naux
[5]
During forward conversion, during the period /f the input power is: Pin = ViIo
Similarly, the throughput power is: Pth = VoIo
The difference is the power stored in and then removed from the choke: PL = Pin P = Io ( Vi Vo )
From Eq.1: PL = Io ( Vi Vi ) = ViIo ( 1 Vi ) = Pin ( 1 )
If, during flywheel period (1 )/f, the choke current is divided between output and flywheel diodes as
indicated in Fig.4 by line a, Paux is maximum, Paux max . The current below a is that through the flywheel diode
of the primary output. Fig.5 shows some waveforms. Due to leakage induction, flywheel diode current does
not begin at A, but at Imax as the auxiliary output currents are then zero. This decreases the value of Paux
rnax . If the current is shared according to line b in Fig.4, Paux = kPaux max, where k = 0.5. In practice, k will be
somewhat higher: a value of k = 0.7 is reasonable.
L = Lmin
Imax
L = Laux
a (k=0.5)
k = 0.7
A
a (k=1)
time
(1)/f
Part 1
If L = Lmin, no auxiliary power can be drawn. From these considerations it follows that the auxiliary power
that can be obtained is limited and depends on k, and L, such that
Paux
k(1)(1
Lmin
Laux
) Paux
Laux
Lmin
>
1
Paux
k Ptot (1 max )
V
I
Fig.5 Oscillogram of choke waveforms (a) L> Laux and (b) L < Laux>
Part 1
1.2 Single forward converter with isolating transformer
Principle of operation
The outline circuit of a forward converter with mains isolation is given in Fig.6. The magnetic energy stored
in the transformer while S is ON must be removed while S is OFF, otherwise the energy stored and
removed during a complete switching cycle would not be zero and the transformer core would rapidly
saturate. A solution involving minimum power loss is to add a winding, closely coupled to the primary, and a
diode D3 such that a flow of magnetizing current is ensured while S is OFF.
D1
+
Vi
C
D2
Vo

D3
The operation of the transformerisolated forward converter is described by the same basic expression, Eq.
1, as was used for the nonisolated version. The transformer also adds an extra degree of freedom of choice
of output voltage for practical values of . This output voltage becomes Vo = Vi / r
Voltage and current waveforms for a transformerisolated forward converter are given in Fig. 7
VL
Vi /r  Vo
time
Vo
IL
Io
2Iac
time
/f
(1)/f
1/f
Part 1
Duty factor
The maximum allowable duty factor at which the core will not saturate due to flux staircasing depends
on r and m:
max < 1
m
m+r
[7]
The maximum voltage across the power switch (here, a transistor) is then
VCEM = Vi max m + r
m
[8]
When using a transistor with VCESM = 850 V in a forward converter with a maximum (rectified) input voltage
of 375 V, it is usually adequate to limit VCE to 2 x 375 = 750 V. Thus, with m = r, there is 100 V to spare for
ringing and integrated supplyvoltage surges.
The effective duty factor depends on frequency, turns ratio r, rated load current, the leakage inductance of
the transformer and the inductance of the leads to the output diodes. As a guide for mainsoperated SMPS,
decrease the conduction time so that
e =  rI
o
f
f
109
1.2
[9]
The inductance of the leads to the output diodes is reflected into the primary as the square of the turns
ratio. With large turns ratios, combined with high switching currents, the loss due to commutation delay
becomes substantial. The effect is as if the available duty factor is decreased. This problem is discussed
in greate detail in Ref. 3.
An example is given in Fig8a. The commutation delay is: tc IorLs / Vi .
Now, Ls is about 1 nH/mm of leads and, for a 220 V mains supply,Vi min 200 V.
With the shortest possible leads to the output diodes, experiment shows that the commutation delay is
tc 1.2Ior 109
This is an important reason for not operating lowvoltage highcurrent SMPS at high frequencies, but, rather,
to use a frequency just above the audible range.
Io
Ls
I2Ls
Io
Io /r
0
time
tc
e/f
I Ls
(a)
(b)
Fig.8 Effect of stray inductances in the output circuit of an isolated forward converter: (a)
inductance in the secondary is reflected back into the primary as the square of the turns ratio;
(b) there is a commutation delay tc during which neither output diode conducts.
Part 1
Preliminary turns ratio and core selection
The preliminary turns ratio is
r' =
e max Vi min
Vo max + VF + VR
[10]
Multipleoutput transformers
Additional outputs at any d.c. Ievel can be obtained simply by adding further secondaries of the appropriate
number of turns to the output transformer. The regulation of the additional outputs will be better than
with a flyback converter. However, each output needs two diodes and a power choke, against the single
diode needed with a flyback converter.
Warning: the flywheel diode must always conduct when the forward diode does not. Otherwise, peak
forward conversion rectification occurs and the output voltage could rise to the peak value of the forwardconversion voltage, which might be much higher than the nominal voltage, with disastrous results. So, ensure
that the appropriate minimum load is always present at each output.
With several different outputs, it is necessary to find that value of voltsperturn for the transformer that
allows each output voltage to be obtained within the permitted tolerance with an integral number of turns.
The procedure for this is described in Part 3.
Control method
The function of the control circuit is to stabilize the output against variations in input voltage and load
by adjusting the duty factor of the switching device. However, the effect of step load changes cannot be
corrected immediately because some time is needed for the current through the choke to assume the new
value of the load current. A momentary change in output voltage is thus inevitable. The time required for
resumption of the desired level of output voltage after the sudden load change depends greatly on the
properties of the control system. Two basic control characteristics can be distinguished: Fig.9; these are
discussed in greater detail in Ref.2.
Vi
max Vi max
max
Vi min
10% feed
forward
min
Vi
1.1Vi
Vi bo
Vi
0
Vi bo Vi min
Vi max
time
Part 1
Feedback:
A step increase in load current causes the powerswitch duty factor to increase instantly to its maximum
value max regardless of the level of input voltage. It is, thus, possible for Vi max = max Vi max.
Feedforward:
A step rise in load current causes the powerswitch duty factor to increase to a value x % higher than its
steadystate value for a constant load. The Vi max product in response to a step load increase will be
higher with feedback control. This results in a shorter delay in adjusting to the new load because the choke
current is forced to increase at a maximum rate. However, the output transformer must be so designed that
it is able to cope with the product max Vi max without saturating.
With feed forward control,
Vi max
= (1+
x
100
) minVi max
1+
x
100
Difficulties may be encountered with converter starting at full load with minimum mains voltage (15 %
below nominal). If the duty factor is close to maximum, all the output current will flow into the load
and little or no current will be available to charge the output capacitor. Starting will be improved if the
steadystate value of the duty factor is, say, 10 % below its maximum allowable value.
One disadvantage of feedback control is that a larger transformer core is generally required to avoid
saturation. The transient response time resulting from the method of control is discussed at the end of
Section 1.2.
L1 = 0 a n1 Ae
le
[11]
where the value of a is obtained from the core data. The maximum, peak, primary magnetizing current is
I magM =
( Vi) max
[12]
L1 f
I magM = 1
f
( Io +
I o min
2
+ I magM
[13]
Part 1
L1
+
Vi
Primary inductance L1 together with slowrise dV/dt capacitor C (Fig. 10) across the switch forms a
resonant circuit with a natural frequency
fr =
[14]
2 (L1 C)
The value of C used should satisfy the relationship
10
Part 1
For these small values of air gaps, the value of e ( and, thus, L1 ) can be obtained for cores of constant
crosssectional area from
s = le
2
1  1
e a
[16]
If it is not possible to decrease L1 sufficiently to make fr > f, the addition of a sensor winding on the
transformer to generate a signal to prevent premature switchon should be considered. (20)
Transformer currents
The ripple in the output choke is, in general, only a few percent of the d.c. load current. For this reason, the
transformer current can be regarded as a square wave for the purposes of winding loss calculation.
The maximum r.m.s. current values are given, approximately, for the primary and secondary by
I
Ie 1 = o
r
o max = Ie 2
r
[17]
where
o max = max
Vi
[18]
Vi av min
Duty factor omax is used in these calculations for the following reason.
For 220 V mains, the minimum line voltage is roughly 185 V r.m.s. Using an input filter capacitor of about
2 uF/W (to cope with a mains dropout of 10 ms), the peaktopeak ripple at 185 V mains input is about 20 V.
Under these conditions the minimum average (steadystate) input voltage
Vi av min =
[19]
= 252 V
However, max is set so that the converter can handle a 10 ms drop out. But mains drop out is not a
steadystate condition, so that omax should be used to calculate Ie and, thus, the loss and consequent
temperature rise of the transformer.
Choke design
To determine the minimum required choke inductance and for the choke design, see Section 1.1.
tr =
Io L
( Vo + VF + VR ) (tr/  1 )
11
[20]
Part 1
1.3 The double forward converter
Principle of operation
The equivalent circuit diagram of a double forward converter is shown in Fig. 11. It comprises two forward
converters in parallel, with flywheel diode D and filter LC common to both. Switches S1 and S2 operate
alternately, which doubles the ripple frequency of the choke current. Since energy is pumped twice per
converter period, the output voltage is Vo = 2 Vi
S1
L
+
+
S2
Vi
Io
Vo
Choke inductance
The minimum choke inductance is calculated in a similar way to that for the single forward converter.
However, since there are now two charges and two discharges per converter period
L>
Vo
4fIo min
2max Vi min
[22]
Vi max
r' =
e max Vi min
Vo max + VF + VR
[23]
tr =
Io L
2(Vo max + VF + VR) (tr/ 1)
12
[24]
Part 1
Vo =
[25]
Vi
D

Vi
Vo
Io
The voltage waveform across inductance L and the associated current waveforms under steadystate
conditions are given in Fig. 13.
VL
Vi
time
Vo
IL
2Iac
D
Io
time
/f
(1)/f
1/f
Fig. 13 Voltage and current waveforms for the choke of a nonisolated, inverting flyback converter.
13
Part 1
Power inductor
The minimum inductance required to ensure continuous mode operation at minimum load Po min is
L >
( min Vi max )2
2fPo min
[26]
IM =
Po max
V
+ max i min
max Vi min
2fL
[27]
( min Vi max )2
L >
2fPo min
[28]
and
IM = 2
Po max
max Vi min
[29]
14
Part 1
Vi
1
Vo =
The voltage waveform across inductor L and the associated current waveforms under steadystate conditions are shown in Fig. 15
D
+
Vi
Vo
Io
VL
Vi
time
Vo Vi
IL
2Iac
Io
time
/f
(1)/f
1/f
Fig. 15 Voltage and current waveforms for the choke of a boost flyback
converter.
15
Part 1
Power inductor
The minimum inductance required to ensure continuous mode operation of the choke at load Po min is
L >
2
27
Vo2
[30]
fPo min
I maxM =
Po max
Vi min
max Vi min
2fL
16
[31]
Part 1
r:1
Vo
Vi

Io
Turns ratio
In order to protect the switching devices, the turns ratio
r <
VCESM  ( Vi max + Vr )
Vo + VF + VR
[32]
At high voltages, such as rectified mains, a good compromise between inductor size, switchingtransistor
peak current, and diode peak current can usually be obtained by one of the following procedures.
At moderate inputvoltage range, say
Vi max
Vi min
<2
max =
1
1 + 7/3 ( Vi min / Vi max )
[33]
so that
r' =
3/7 Vi max
Vo + VF + VR
Vi max
> 2
Vi min
17
[34]
Part 1
take
r' =
Vo + VF + VR
[35]
This yields
1
Vi max
min =
1+
[36]
r'(Vo + VF + VR)
Note: If dmin > 0.3, take dmin = 0.3 and proceed as for a small inputvoltage range, otherwise
1 = 1 + (1  ) Vi min
min
max
minVi max
A voltage limiting winding with turns ratio between primary and limiting winding r/m limits switchingdevice
voltage to Vi max The maximum duty factor must then be such that
max < 1
[37]
whence
min =
1+
(1  max) Vi max
[38]
max Vi min
and
r' =
min Vi max
( 1 min) (Vo + VF + VR)
[39]
with
m =
r
1
[40]
18
Part 1
Power inductor
To ensure continuousmode operation, design the choke primary for minimum load. (See also Section 2.1.)
L <
( min Vi max )2
2 f Po min
[41]
I maxM =
Po max
max Vi min
max Vi min
2fL
Proceed with Part 4. The number of turns on the choke secondary, together with r, are found in Part 3.
Multiple output
Additional output voltages at any d.c. level can be obtained by simply adding additional secondaries of the
appropriate numbers of turns. Note that, if the range of d.c. output voltages is large, leakage inductance will
increase and regulation deteriorate. The design procedure is given in Part 3.
Effective currents
The maximum value of the r.m.s. current through the primary winding is
I e1 =
Po max
0 max
1+ 1
3
0 max Vi min
Po min
Po max
[42]
I ex =
1+ 1
3
P
)
( Poo min
max
where
0 max =
1+
Vi av min
r (Vo + VF + VR)
19
[43]
Part 1
S1
L1
C1
T1
Nt
D1
Nt
C2
S2
S1
D3
C3
D2
D4
S3
L1
T1
Nt
Nt
S4
S2
D1
D3
S1
C3
D2
D4
L1
C1
T1
1/3Nt
1/3Nt
C2
C3
1/3Nt
S2
S1
S3
L1
T1
1/3Nt
Nt
S2
C3
1/3Nt
S4
S1
L1
T1
1/3Nt
1/3Nt
1/3Nt
D1
S2
D3
S1
D2
C3
D4
L1
T1
1/4Nt
1/4Nt
1/4Nt
1/4Nt
C3
S2
20
Part 1
Vo =
z Vi
2
[44]
For full bridge and conventional pushpull converters, z = 4; for half bridge pushpull converters z = 2.
The voltage waveform across the choke and the associated current waveforms are shown in Fig. 18.
VL
Vi
r  Vo
time
IL
Vo
Io
2Iac
time
/f
1/2f  f
1/f
Duty factor
With the equal conduction times per converter cycle, the maximum allowable duty factor is 0.5, but a more
practical value is 0.45. In practice, wiring and transformer stray inductances result in a finite commutation
time between output diodes. As a result, the interval during which energy is supplied to the output is
shorter, and the effective duty factor smaller. This effective duty factor depends on operating frequency,
transformer ratio, load current, and the stray inductance of the leads to the rectifier diodes.
To compensate for the increased commutation time, the energy transfer period /f should be decreased
to about
e =  rI
o
f
f
1.2
109
21
[45]
Part 1
Transformer turns ratio
The preliminary turns ratio is
r' =
2e max Vi min
Vo + VF + VR
[46]
L >
Vo
4fIac
( 1  2max
Vi max
Vi min
[47]
here,
I ac =
I o min
I magM
[48]
and
I maxM =
r max Vi min le
2n21 0 e Ae f
[49]
During transistor conduction, Fig.19, the magnetizing current changes from + I magM to  I magM. While both
transistors are off, during the interval (l/2f  /f) the transformer primary is open circuit. This forces the
magnetizing current to flow through the output diodes in series. Thus, the load and magnetizing currents
reinforce in one diode and cancel in the other.
22
Part 1
2Iac
IL
Io
Im1
ID1
Im
ID2
/f
1/2ff
1/2f
S2 ON
S1 ON
D1 ON
D2 ON
1/f
If, at low output current, one diode ceases to conduct, there is no path for the magnetizing current, which
is then diverted through the conducting diode and the output choke to the output capacitor. This causes
the output voltage to rise. From this, it follows that the minimum load current that can be drawn from the
converter without one diode ceasing to conduct in this way is
I o min = I magM
I ac
I maxM =
max Vi min r
2 L1 f
where
2
I maxM =
2n1 0 e le
Ae
These two expressions together yield Eq. 49. From Fig.19, the peak current through the power choke is
I M = (I o max
I o min + I magM )
23
[50]
Part 1
3.3 Transformer currents
In a pushpull transformer, only one half of the double winding conducts at a time. The peak current through
each half of the double winding is
I 1M = I M
[51]
I e1
Io
I e2
Io
o max
[52]
o max
[53]
where
o max = max
Vi min
Vi av min
tr =
Io L
2 ( Vo max + VF + VR ) (tr/  1 )
24
[54]
Part 2
Part 2
Pth
range of Pth
for good, practical
designs
10
100
f(kHz)
The actual throughput power obtainable with a given core depends to a large extent on the following
characteristics:
flux density sweep (Section 2)
the winding configuration (simple or split/sandwiched windings, sensor or demagnetization windings)
conductor type (solid, strip, Litz)
single or multiple output
mains insulation requirements.
Part 2
The upper limit of the shaded area for each core refers to a transformer design with optimized fluxdensity
sweep, maximum use of the winding window, and Litz wire for minimum a.c. resistance.
The lower limit refers to a design with 8 mm creepage distance for IEC 435 mains insulation, optimized fluxdensity sweep, a (1 + 2) winding configuration (Part 1), and optimized but solidwire windings. In addition,
the following general conditions were assumed in the calculation of both boundaries :
the hotspot (peak) temperature of the core is 100oC; the temperature rise is 40 K
the maximum fluxdensity sweep is limited to 1/1.72 of the maximum permissible flux density for the
core material (0.32 T for 3C94) to cope with transient conditions.
the thermal behaviour of wound cores, but without potting or additional heatsinking was assumed.
core flux densities are calculated assuming minimum cross section areas.
Where the ambient temperature is lower than 60oC, when feedforward is used to ease the restriction on
maximum flux density, or when heatsinking or potting are employed to improve heat transfer, throughput
power capacity will be increased.
It may happen that, at a given power level, more than one type of the core may be used. The following
criteria may be used to make a choice :
copper foil secondary windings are preferable for lowvoltage, highcurrent supplies; thus, for ease of
winding, a core with a round centre pole should be chosen.
coil formers and mounting hardware are not available as standard for all core types.
production logistics may be improved if one core type is used for both transformer and choke.
Where these considerations do not apply, the choice of the core should be guided by the discussion
of Section 2.
Part 2
H
(a)
B
2Bac
2Bac
2Bac
H
(b)
H
(c)
The maximum operating flux density depends on the protection circuitry. One source of unbalance is
unequal flux linkage between two halve of a centretapped winding. For this reason, bifilar windings are to
be preferred. However, this is not possible in mainsfed supplies since the voltage across the winding might
be greater than the maximum voltage between adjacent turns.
The major reason for asymmetry is unequal conduction times or saturation voltages of the power switches
in a pushpull converter. Storage effects can result in different switchoff delays. Core saturation occurring
due to a delay decreases the primary inductance so that the magnetizing current rises steeply. This may
lead to the destruction of the power switches. As a further safeguard, the maximum operating flux density
should be decreased by an additional factor that depends on the efficiency of the protection circuit.
A pratical guide is a 15% allowance for a fully protected converter (unbalance factor = 1.15), but a 100%
allowance unbalanced pushpull converter ( = 2).
In forward converters, remanence should, in theory, also be allowed for. However, to obtain the correct
primary inductance, some airgap is often useful. This airgap, together with the slowrise capacitor (Part 1),
results in the whole first quadrant of the BH loop being useful in practice, as is shown in Fig. 2.
Part 2
Bac
(mT)
7Z90894
400
saturation
limit
300
200
pushpull
150
1
2
100
90
80
70
60
3
4
forward
50
40
30
10
15
20
30
40
50 60 70 80 90 100
f (kHz)
Bac
(mT)
7Z90895
400
saturation
limit
300
200
pushpull
150
1
100
90
80
70
60
2 forward
3
4
5
6
7
8
50
40
30
10
15
20
30
40
50 60 70 80 90 100
f (kHz)
Pth/Pth max
Bac
(mT)
7Z90893
400
1
saturation
limit
300
200
0,9
pushpull
150
0,8
100
90
80
70
60
forward
1
2
3
4
50
0,8
40
30
10
15
Curve 1
Curve 2
Curve 3
Curve 4
20
30
40
50 60 70 80 90 100 150
f (kHz)
0,9
1,1
1,2
B/Bopt
ETD34
ETD39
ETD44
ETD49
Part 2
Where feedforward control is used, the transient factor can be reduced considerably and a higher fluxdensity sweep can often be applied. The actual transient factor is determined by the feedforward percentage
used. Note, however, that application of feed forward reduces the transient response of the power supply.
TABLE 2 Maximum Values of fluxdensity sweep for various converter types and control circuitsboundary conditions
0.16
0.32
at transient factor
0.32
2
0.32
0.32
with x% feedforward
0.32
2(1 + x/100)
0.32
(1 + x/100)
0.32
(1 + x/100)
Practical flux density and sweep limits are summarized for various converter types in Table 2. The curves of
Fig. 3, show the optimum flux density sweep, where throughput power is maximum, for a range of cores in
the frequency range 10 kHz to 100 kHz. Horizontal lines indicate the maximum allowable sweep for various
converter types. Further lines can be added for other boundary conditions with the aid of Table2. The given
curves are calculated for a transformer temperature rise of 40 K.
The converter operating frequency is set by the required output voltage and current, and by the type
of switch to be used. One this frequency is known, the optimum fluxdensity sweep can be found for
any core type.
Where the frequency is more or less fixed, and two core types could be used (Section 1), preference should
be given to that core type for which the intersection of the optimumsweep curve with the set frequency is
closest to the maximum flux density sweep.
Where frequency can be chosen freely, the frequency corresponding to the intersection of the optimumsweep curve with the line for the maximum fluxdensity sweep represents the optimum use of the core
material.
Operation at the optimum sweeps represented by the curves of Fig. 3 means that core loss and
permissible winding loss are in optimum proportion of core and winding loss, results in a lower throughput
power.When the design is limited by saturation flux density, deviation is inevitable. The effect of deviation
from the optimum flux density is plotted in Fig. 4.
This plot, which applies to any frequency, gives a rough indication for the reduction in throughput power
from the optimum value. Once the optimum flux density sweep has been determined for the core and
converter combination, the number of turns can be calculated as shown in Section 3.
Part 2
It may happen, however, especially in ringing choke flyback converters, that the fluxdensity sweep is
comparable to that in forward converters. Core loss is not then negligible and should be calculated as
shown in Section 4.
Once core type, spacer thickness, and number of turns have been established, the peak flux density sweep
can be calculated:
Bac max =
L Iac
Nprim Amin
where Iac is found during the design process (Part1). In case of a flyback transformer, all quantities refer to
the primary. If Iac is relatively high, core loss will be significant.
3. Number of turns
Once the fluxdensity sweep is known, the number of turns can be determined.
n2 min =
Vi
Part 2
4. Core loss
Core loss has two main components: hysteresis loss and eddycurrent loss. The hysteresis loss in a typical
low frequency power ferrite is for instance:
Ph 8 f1.3 B2.5ac Ve
Both coefficients of f and B are frequency dependent. In the design tools software this type of formula is
used to predict core losses during transformer design.
The eddycurrent loss for a ferrite, under the same conditions, is:
Pe 0,8 f2 B2ac Ae Ve /.
For cores of about constant cross sectional area, such as ETD, and most E and U cores, Bac max and Bac are
similar in value, but they differ significantly for EC cores.
Part 2
5.Thermal resistance
In order to determine the maximum permissible dissipation of a transformer or choke, its thermal behaviour
must be know. This depends on core size, conductor form, and insulation requirements. For standard, more
or less cubical transformers based on cores like E or ETD the constant Cth is about 50. Very flat designs like
Planar E cores have much better thermal properties, the constant is around 25. (Ve is in cm3).
These thermal resistances were measured with the transformer mounted on a printed circuit board with no
local heat sources. They are referred to the hotspot temperature in the middle of the centre leg of the core
(as deducted from the measured value on the ferrite surface).For hotspot temperatures up to 100oC, the
maximum permissible winding dissipation may be obtained from :
Pw =
Rth
 Pc
This expression may be used for any ratio of core to winding dissipation.
In a choke with a large d.c. component of current, where core loss is negligible, P w = T / Rth.
The temperature rise should be checked again once the winding design is complete. Winding design is
treated in part 3 for transformers and Part 4 for chokes. If the actual temperature rise is too high, the
estimated throughput capacity was optimistic and a larger core should be used.
Part 2
Flyback transformers
core types (Part 4)
coil former dimensions
number of primary turns (Part 4)
preliminary turns ratio (Part 1)
operating frequency (Part 3)
primary and secondary currents and wave forms
other winding  sensor or auxiliary outputs
winding dissipation permitted (Section 5)
core loss (Section 4)
mains insulation requirements (Section 1.1.)
10
Part 3
BCF
bw
c/2
HCF
c/2
H
screen
CL
7Z80234
Winding breadth bw follows from coil former breadth BCF and the required creepage allowance c as set by
the insulation standard. Available winding height is the height of the winding window HCF in the coil former
Part 3
less the height occupied by the screens with the insulation, and the auxiliary windings (control windings not
taking part in power transfer.) The available height should accommodate the powertransfer windings. It is
not possible to determine beforehand the maximum height of individual windings.
Part 3
3. Design procedures
The design process is organized in the following five phases.
I
II
III
Their evaluation for winding loss and required height. (According to the result, the design
process then branches to Phase IV of Phase V, or a new start is required.)
IV
Determination of the optimum combination of nonideal designs that will fit into the
available height.
Design finalization.
Note: here, the term ideal is used to describe windings designed for minimum loss regardless of the height
of coil former required. Nonideal windings have a height less than that required for ideal windings and the
lowest possible loss that this height permits.
3.1. Phase I :
Collect the boundary conditions
3.1.1. Given boundary conditions
Collect the given boundary conditions as set by circuit requirements and the core selected.
1. Core related :
operating frequency
maximum permissible winding loss Pw max
preliminary primary to secondary turns ratio r.
For forward and pushpull transformers:
number of turns in secondary Nsec
full load r.m.s. secondary current Ie 2 .
For flyback transformers:
number of turns in primary N1
fullload r.m.s. primary current Ie 1
fullload r.m.s. secondary current Ie 2.
2. Circuit related :
in the case of mains isolation, creepage distance c
data on windings other than power windings,
such as demagnetizing and sensor windings
single or multiple secondaries.
Part 3
3.1.2. Chosen boundary conditions
1. Winding configuration:
Choose between the simple configuration (where C = 1) or the split/sandwiched configuration (where
C = 2), see Sects 4.1.1 and 5.1. In the latter case, decide which winding will be split, and which sandwiched.
(It is usual to split the winding with the larger number of turns.) Sketch the complete winding arrangement
(not to scale), including any auxiliary or multipleoutput windings, as in Fig. 4, 19, and 20. Draw also the
leakage flux (or NI) diagram and determine for each of the power windings the value of , the ratio of
minimum to maximum leakage flux density over the height of the winding. Normally = 0, but in multiple
output transformers it occurs that 0, see Sect. 4.5.1.
In the case of a flyback transformer, draw the leakageflux diagram for both the period of primary
conduction and the period of secondary conduction, see Sect. 4.5.3. For pushpull transformers see
Sect. 4.5.2.
2. Conductor form :
Assume single round wire initially. The results thus obtained will guide the final choice of conductor.
Part 3
Multipleoutput windings (see alsoSect. 4.5.1)
Calculate for the output with the lowest voltage, that is, with the smallest number of turns, and
round up to the next integer.
To obtain the number of turns for the other outputs divide the required output voltage by
the voltsperturn value for the lowestvoltage winding. Round the numbers of turns of all output
to the nearest integer.
Check whether the various output voltages are within the required limits with these numbers
of turns.
If not, increase the number of turns of the lowestvoltage winding by one, and repeat the
calculations, starting with the volts per turn.
When the numbers of turns for the correct output voltage have been established, correct the
number of primary turns using the voltsperturn value last found.
4. Winding window
Winding breadth bw = BCF  c, see Fig.1.
Available height: the height available for the complete power windings is HCF less
 an allowance for imperfect contact between layers, interleavings and screens;
 the height of screens and their insulation (C times), see Sec. 4.5.3;
 the height of auxiliary windings handling little or no power, such as :
a sensor winding on the primary side of the screen that may also supply a little power for
the control circuitry.
a demagnetizing winding.
Such windings are not designed for minimum loss. To save height, single layers are assumed of winding pitch
t = bw/(N + 1).
Choose a wire size such that tmin t and d e. Then with an interleaving of thickness i suitable for the
winding pitch, the required height is
H = do + i.
The height that remains after all deductions divided by C is Ha, the height available for one primary and
one secondary winding portion.
Part 3
3.2. Phase II:
Determine the ideal power windings
For pushpull multiple output and flyback transformers, first see Sect. 4.5.
Not yet knowing the value of p, multilayer windings are assumed initially If, during the design procedure ,
this assumption proves incorrect, the design procedure switches to that for singlelayer windings. Follow the
procedure below for all power windings.
d =
17.1 bw
N fe
2. If = 0, read Cp for the table below. If p is not known, p = 1.5 for a sandwiched winding or
p = 2 in other cases.
p
Cp
1.5
1.06
2
1.03
2.5
1.02
3 to 4.5
1.01
>4.5
1
if p > 3check
for errors
If 0, calculate
1
(1  3)1/3
Cp =
Then calculate did = d Cp.
3.Select the nearest standard wire size from a wire table (see page 49) and note d, do, tmin and rdc.
4.Number of layers
a
Pid =
N
bw / tmin  1
Note: this expression is valid only for tmin from Step 3. If Pid 1.5 a strip or foil alternative may be
preferable, see Sect. 3.2.23.
If = 0 and pid 1, the expression for d in Step 1 is not valid. Go to the singlelayer winding procedure,
Sect. 3.2.2.
b. Find p by rounding up Pid to the next suitable value: to a multiple of 0.5 for a sandwiched winding,
and to an integer in other cases.
c. Calculate Nl = N / p. If that value is not an integer, consider an adaptation of N to facilitate manufacture.
Start again with the new value of N.
Part 3
d. If = 0, check the value of p used equals that assumed in Step 1. If not, repeat from Step 2 using
the correct value of p.
5. Determine the winding pitch
t = bw /( Nl + 1 ) = pbw / ( Nl + p ).
Nl may not be the same in all layers (Step 3c); this will result in different values of t. Remember that all layers
should occupy the breath bw. do not allow a difference greater than one turn in Nl.
6. Select a suitable interleaving, thickness i, for the winding pitch and calculate the required height
Hid = p ( do + i )
7. Resistance factor FR = 1 + 1/2 (d /did)6 when d/did < 1.25. But when p = 1.5, this expression holds
only for d/did < 1.15.
8. AC resistance per metre length of wire rac = FR . rdc.
9. Winding loss of a complete winding ( of C portions ) Pw = C I2e N lav rac, taking for the average turn
length lav the value for a fully wound coil former in m.
Having found the ideal designs for all power windings using this procedure, proceed to Sect. 3.3 (Phase III).
Part 3
3.2.2. Single and halflayer windings of solid round wire
This procedure applies only when = 0.
Arriving form Step 4a of the previous procedure, take p = 1.
1. Winding pitch t = pbw /( N+p).
2. Select from a wire table the thickest standard wire for which tmin t and note d, do and rdc. Also choose
a suitable interleaving, thickness i.
3. H = p (do + i).
4. = (0.124 fe d3/t),
(fe in kHz, d and t in mm).
Note : If fe differs from the switching frequency, use the lower value of frequency.
FR
7Z89843
4
3
2
1,5
1,2
p=1
p = 0,5
1,1
1,05
1,02
1,01
0,5
10
Part 3
3.2.3. Ideal strip or foil windings
1. If = 0, read CN from the table below.
N
CN
0.5
1.69
1
1.19
1.5
1.06
2
1.03
2.5
1.02
3 to 4.5
1.01
5
1
If 0, calculate
4
CN =
(1  )3
1  3
Part 3
3.3. Phase III
Evaluate the desigh with respect to winding loss and height.
The success of a design attempt is judged on the basis of windingloss margin Pm and remaining free height
Hr. The windingloss margin is calculated from Pw max and the total loss of the power windings as found in
Sect. 3.2.1. (Step 9), Sect. 3.2.2 (Step 7) and Sect. 3.2. (Step 5). The remaining free height is calculated from
Ha as found in Sect. 3.1.3 (Step 4b), and the heights of the power windings found in Sect. 3.2.1 (Step 6),
Sect. 3.2.2 (Step 3) and Sect. 3.2.3 (Step 6).
There are four possible results of the evaluation:
 Pm and Hr both positive : design attempt successful, proceed to Sect. 3.6 (Phase V),
 Pm and Hr both negative : boundary conditions do not permit a successful design. Make a fresh
start with a higher operating frequency or a larger core, for example.
 Pm positive and Hr negative : a frequent occurrence, especially at lower frequencies.
Try nonideal winding designs requiring less height, Sect. 3.5 (Phase IV).
 Pm negative and Hr positive : reconsider the chosen boundary conditions and start again.
The background of Sect. 5 may be useful; some basic considerations are :
Split/sandwiched designs of offer lower loss than simple ones, specially at higher
frequencies.
Strip or foil windings tend to have lower losses than (single layer) wire windings.
If Hr is large, try replacing a singlewire winding by a multiplewire or bunchedwire
winding.
Design procedures are given ins Sect. 3.4. A Litzwire winding may also be possible If Hr is
particularly large. Evaluate the result again.
If adoption of one of these measures results in both Hr and Pm being positive, the design is successful; if not,
try a higher operating frequency or a larger core in a new design.
10
Part 3
3.4.2. Ideal bunchedwire windings
Bunched wire consists of a few strands of insulated wire twisted together to form a bunch. The strand
diameter is not so mall that eddycurrent loss is negligible. For background see Sect. 5.2.3.
The minimum winding pitch of a bunched wire of ns strands is nttmin, and the layer height without
interleaving is nhtmin, where tmin is the minimum winding pitch given in the wire tables (page 27) for a single
strand.Values of nt and nh for crude experimental bunches are given for guidance in the table below.
nS
10
nt
nh
2,45
2,31
2,94
2,69
2,98
2,93
3,11
2,93
3,61
3,16
3,89
3,16
4,34
3,26
1.5
1.06
2
1.03
2.5
1.02
3 to 4.5
1.01
>4.5
1
if p > 3check
for errors
If 0, calculate
1
(1  3)1/3
Cp =
Then
3
did =
17.1 bw
ns N f e
3. Select the nearest standard wire size from a wire table (page 27) and not d, do, tmin and rdc.
4. Number of layers
a.
Pid =
N
bw / (nt tmin)  1
Note: the expression holds only for tmin from the previous steps. If Pid 1, the expression in Step 2 does
not apply: go to Sect. 3.4.2.2.
b. Find P by rounding Pid up to the next suitable value. For sandwiched windings, round to multiples
of 0.5 ; in other cases, round to integers.
11
Part 3
c. Calculate.Nl = N / p If this does not yield an integer, consider adapting N to facilitate
manufacture. Start again using the new value of N.
d. If = 0 check, that the value of p found is that assumed in Step 2. If not, repeat from
Step 2, using the correct value of p.
5. Winding pitch t = bw / (Nl + 1) = pbw / (N + p).
Nl may not be the same in all the layers. This will result in different values of t, since all layers should occupy
the full winding breath. Do not permit differences of more than one turn in Nl.
6. Select a suitable interleaving, thickness i, for the winding pitch. The required height H = p(nhtmin + i)
where nh is given in table in Sect. 3.4.2.
7. Resistance factor FR = 1+1/2(d/did)6.
8. Resistance per metre length of bunch rac = FRrdc / ns where rdc is the resistance per metre length
of strand.
9. Pw = ci2enlavrac, where lav in m.
12
Part 3
3.4.3. Litzwire windings
Litz wire is here taken to be a kind of unched wire in which the strands are so thin (d < e) that
the eddycurrent effects can be neglected. It mains drawback is its low space (copper) factor, often only
25% to 30%.
Litz wire is standardized and commercially available. The Standards specify numbers of strands, strand
diameter, overall diameter and d.c. resistance (see also Sect. 5.2.4).
Mechanical stress deforms the funch so that the breath in the layer and, thus the minimum winding pitch
are greater than the overall diameter of the bunch, but the height of the layer is smaller.
1.Knowing the winding current IX, select a bunch of strand diameter d and number of strands ns such that
d2ns IX. The resulting current density will be about 4 A/mm2.
2. Due to deformation, the winding pitch t 1.2do, where do is the overall diameter of the bunch.
3. Provisional number of layers p' = Nt/(bw  t).
4. If p' is within 10% of the next lower integer, the winding may be feasible with care with this lower value.
Otherwise, take for p the next higher integer. Then calculate n's = ns(p/p')2.
5. Select a standard Litz wire with the same strand diameter, and a number of strands as large as possible,
But lower than n's.
6. The required height of the winding will be less than H = p(do + i), where i is the thickness of the
interleaving.
7. The d.c. resistance per metre length is usually given for 20oC, multiply that value by 1.3 to get the
resistance at 100oC. Then calculate Pw = CI2eNlavrdc, using lav in m. Note: If all windings in the transformer
are of Litz wire, the split/sandwiched winding configuration does not lead to lower losses.
If a suitable Litz wire is not readily available, the above procedure can be adapted to use multiple Litz wire
using similar methods to those for multiple wire, Sect. 3.4.1.
13
Part 3
3.5. Phase IV
Determine the optimum combination of nonideal designs
When ideal designs overflow the winding space, nonideal designs must be used. First, collect a few
nonideal versions of, if possible, primary and secondary. The accommodation procedure will then show
which combinations fit into the available height. The one having the lowest loss can then be used as
the final design.
14
Part 3
Having collected several versions of, as far aspossible, all power windings, follow Procedure 3,5.4. Example:
In this table of design versions, the 3layer version is the ideal design, the others are derived using the
procedure above.
3
57
0.670
0.450
0.223
0.430
1.728
2
58
0.447
0.355
0.414
0.225
1.144
0.257
0.505
0.06
0.948
15
1
57
0.231
0.180
0.222
0.873
1.002
0.875
1.688
0.06
0.282
Part 3
3.5.2. Nonideal design versions of strip or foil windings
Here, the required reduction in height is obtained by using thinner conductor.
1. Note, for the coil former, bw and lav, and for the ideal design N, Ie, hid (before rounding ) h, i, rac, H and
Pw. Set out a table in the form shown below.
2. For h, take the next available size below that used in the last design, and select a suitable interleaving
thickness in i.
3. Resistance factor FR = 1 + (1/3) (h/hid)4.
4. Resistance per metre length of conductor rac = FR/(45bwh) .
5. Winding power loss Pw = CI2eNlavrac .
6. Required height H = N(h + i) .
For each successive version, repeat from Step 2 onward.
0.2
0.1
0.0104
0.286
1.20
0.15
0.06
1.069
0.0122
0.335
0.84
0.1
0.06
1.014
0.0173
0.475
0.64
0.073
0.04
1.004
0.0235
0.646
0.452
Once several versions of, preferably all power windings have been collected, follow the procedure in
Sect. 3.5.4.
16
Part 3
3.5.3. Alternative winding designs with reduced height
Multiple wire:
To change ns follow the procedure in Sect. 3.4.1. It is difficult to predict the value of ns that is the best
starting point for the following procedure when the loss margin is positive.
 If pid > 1, use the procedure in Sect. 3.5.1, but divide t (Step 3) and rdc (Step 4) by ns.
 For a sandwiched winding, if pid 1, use procedure 3.2.2 to design a halflayer winding, again dividing
t (Step 1) rdc (Step 2) by ns.
Bunched wire:
Use the procedure in Sect. 3.4.2.1 as follows.
 If pid > 1, commence with Step 4b and continue with values of p < pid.
 For a sandwiched winding, if pid 1 and p = 1, use the procedure in SEct. 3.4.2.2 with p = 0.5.
Litz wire:
Use the procedure in Sect. 3.4.3 with lower values of p.
Having collected several versions of, preferably, all power windings, follow the procedure in Sect. 3.5.4.
17
Part 3
Table illustrating the accommodation procedure for Ha = 1.778 mm and Pw max = 1.23 W.
primary versions
(split. single wire)
see Sect. 3.5.1
p1
pw 1 (W)
H1 (mm).
3
0.430
1.728
2
0.505
0.948
1
1.688
0.282
Height available
For secondary
H2max
0.050
0.830
1.496
Secondary versions
(Sandwiched. strip)
see Sect. 3.5.2
H2 (mm)
h (mm)
pw 2 (W)
0.84 0.64
0.15 0.1
0.335 0.475
1.20
0.20
0.286
Remaining height
Total winding loss
Hr (mm)
pw (W)
0.01 0.19
0.840 0.980
0.296
1.974
Since the maximum permissible winding loss is 1.23 W, the 2layer primary combined with the secondary
using 0.1 mm strip results in a satisfactory design. There is no need to consider the secondary using 0.15
mm strip, although the excess height of 0.2 mm (C = 2) could, perhaps, be accommodated by careful
manufacture.
Note: The example is for a split/sandwiched winding configuration (C = 2), so that winding heights are
for one portion of each winding.
3.6. Phase V:
Finalizing the design
In order to prepare the transformer design for production, four further steps are necessary.
1. Check that the design route followed was the correct one, and that the correct value of windingconfiguration factor C was used throughout.
2. Make a dimensioned sketch of a crosssection through the windings in the winding window. Calculate the
conductor lengths required for each winding, using the actual average turn lengths. For wire windings, check
that Nl turns of the wire selected will fit into the winding breadth, that is, that bw (Nl + 1) tmin.
3. Prior to prototype evaluation, make a final estimate of the transformer temperature rise using winding
losses recalculated from the actual winding lengths obtained in the previous step.
4. In preparation for manufacture, collect all required information about core and coil former, windings and
interleavings, screens and their interleaving, interwinding insulation, and terminations. Specify winding pitches
for wire windings: windings are generally not closepacked since all layers should be of equal breadth.
This concludes the practical design procedures.
The following sections contain supplementary information only.
18
Part 3
4. Background
The essential difference between a designer and a computer is creative thinking. Thus, a true designer will
find no lasting satisfaction in following design procedures that resemble computer flow charts.
He cannot help asking why the procedures are as they are, and how they can be extended to solve
related problems. This Section seeks to answer these and other questions with a view to avoiding mistakes
due to misinterpretation of the instructions. It is mainly qualitative in nature : mathematics have been
reduced to a minimum, and higherorder effects, although included in the formulas behind the design aids,
are generally not discussed.
7Z80235
0N2I2/b
secondary
H1
primary
0N1I1/b
C
L
(b)
(a)
Consider a flux path crossing the winding window at a distance x from the wall of the coil former. Fig. 3a.
Assuming that the current density over the height of the primary is constant,
19
Part 3
B ds = NI
0
x
H1
where B is the flux density, s is the distance along the flux path, and NIx / H1 is the number of ampereturns
enclosed. The field strength is negligible in the (highpermeability) core, and is assumed constant over the
winding breadth, so that the leakage flux density
B = 0 N I x
b
H1
where b is the flux path length outside core material.
Figure 3b shows how B varies over the height of the wound area. There is a good case for arguing that,
if bw is smaller than the width of the winding window (perhaps due to creepage allowance), b should be
taken equal to bw (Ref. 2, page 355). Note that leakage flux is not due to imperfect core material, but is
an intrinsic property of a winding.
The leakage flux through the windings gives rise to eddy currents in the conductors. In a transformer
of normal construction, the leakage flux lies parallel to the layers of the winding and roughly normal
to the turns.
Note that the leakage flux density varies from layer to layer and the leakage flux density is proportional
to the sum of the ampereturns in that layer and the ampereturns in the layer between that layer and the
nearest point of zero flux density. The average flux density and, thus, the eddycurrent losses, can be reduced
by suitably mixing primary and secondary windings. One result of this process is the split/sandwiched
configuration of fig. 4b.
7Z80236
primary
(a)
secondary
B
primary/2
(b)
secondary
primary/2
B
Figure 4a again shows the leakage flux distribution of a basic transformer winding arrangement.
In Fig. 4b, the primary winding is split into halves, with the secondary sandwiched between them.
This halves the peak flux density.
To make this construction possible, the split winding must have an even number of turns, and an even total
number of layers. The sandwiched winding, although physically one unit, can also be regarded as consisting
20
Part 3
of two portions; its leakage flux distribution is shown in more detail so that it can be seen that it may
have an odd number of layers. Then, each portion contains a half layer ; a layer having half the height
of a normal layer. Similarly, a portion of a sandwiched winding may contain a half turn if the half layer
has an odd number of turns.
Due to the symmetry of the split/sandwiched configuration, only one portion of each winding need be
considered in calculating the eddycurrent effects.
The splitting and sandwiching process could, of course, be repeated to further reduce eddycurrent
loss. However, this quickly becomes unpractical: each interface between primary and secondary portions
requires extra insulation, usually including screens to reduce radiofrequency interference. Their presence
reduces the space (copper) factor attainable in the winding window, eventually to such a degree that an
improvement is either lost or not worth the extra complication.
A distinction can thus be made between
simple windings as in fig. 4a.
split windings, such as the primary in fig 4b
sandwiched windings, such as the secondary in fig.4b.
The design process of Sect. 3 deals exclusively with winding portions:
a complete simple winding
one half of a split winding
one half of a sandwiched winding.
In the split/sandwiched winding configuration, the number of turns in a winding portion is half that in the
complete primary or secondary.
21
Part 3
4.1.2. Penetration of an electromagnetic wave into a conductor
Eddy currents are induced in a conductor exposed to an elctromagnetic wave. They oppose the penetration of the wave and, in resistive conductors, transform electromagnetic energy into heat.
Let plane x = 0 be the surface of a conductor of infinite depth. The electric and magnetic fields of a plane
electromagnetic wave propagating in the nonconducting semispace above the conductor, and incident
perpendicularly upon it, are tangential to the surface and mutually perpendicular. If the positive x axis is into
the conductor, the penetrating wave can be described by
{  x + j ( t  x + )}
Constant A and (part of the incident energy is reflected from the surface) are not of interest here.
The amplitude of the wave decays within the conductor as ex/, where depends on the properties of
the conductor and the frequency of the wave.
At a depth x = , the amplitude of the wave has decreased to 1/e of its value at the surface and the phase
is delayed by one radian. At a depth equal to a small multiple of , there is almost no field in the bulk of the
conductor and, consequently, no induced current.
At x = 2 where the phase delay is just 2 radian, the field strengths decay to the negligible value
e2 = 0,0019. This is at a depth one wavelength of the penetrating wave.
Ix
B= 0 2
2r
x
7Z80237
22
Part 3
The field is tangential to the surface of the wire. This field induces eddy currents that oppose its
penetration, enhacing the current flow near the surface and reducing it near the centre of the wire as
shown in Fig.6.
eddy
currents
magnetic
flux
I
7Z80238
As was the case with the penetrating electromagnetic wave, there is a tendency for current to flow only
near to the surface of the wire: the skin effect. Figure 7 shows the current distribution carrying the same
alternating current at various frequencies. As frequency increases, reduces and d/ increases.
This current redistribution results in the a.c. resistance of the wire being greater than its d.c. resistance.
The voltage is constant over any crosssection of the wire normal to its axis since there can be no
radial current flow. In general, the voltage across a length of the wire is the sum of resistive and induced
voltage drops. With a relatively thick wire (d/ >> 1), the voltage drop near the centre is mainly induced
by the eddy currents, whereas, near the surface, where the current density is high, the voltage drop is
mainly resistive.
If the wire is replaced by a tube of the same material and diameter, such that the tube has the same d.c.
resistance as the wire for a.c., its wall thickness will be equal to , provided that the curvature of the
surface is negligible (d >> ). For this reason, is known as the (equivalent) skin thickness.
The term penetration dept is often used for , but some authorities prefer this term for the wavelength
(2) of the penetrating wave discussed above. The (uniform) current density in the equivalent tube is equal
to that at the surface of the wire it replaces. The ratio of a.c. resistance to d.c. resistance due to skin effect
can be deduced from the relative crosssectional areas of wire and tube :
FR d , ( d >> 1, in practice FR 1 ( d + 1 ) if d 5 )
4
The a.c. resistance per meter length of wire is proportional to d1, although the d.c resistance is
proportional to d2.
23
Part 3
7Z89855
4
d/ =
20
3
10
7
5
2
4
3
1
0
d
0 r f
The current redistribution establishes an equilibrium between inductive and resistive voltage drops. Increasing the frequency does not alter the flux density at the surface because the current remains constant, but
does cause an increase in the induced voltage which results in a smaller skin thickness and, thus, a higher
current density. This, in turn results in a higher resistive voltage drop which opposes the concentration of
current at the surface. A new equilibrium is achieved at a skin thickness proportional to 1/ f.
Similar reasoning can be established for the effect of r and .
The skin thickness itself is independent of the current carried by the wire. Because the wire is immersed in
its own field, there is a fixed relationship between average current density and magnetic flux density.
24
Part 3
4.1.4. Proximity effect
A different class of eddy currents is found in wire exposed to an external alternating magnetic field
normal to the axis of the wire. In that case, eddycurrent flow in opposite sides of the wire is in opposite
directions, Fig. 8.
external field
field due to
eddy currents
eddy
currents
7Z80239
Eddycurrent flow is confined to a skin below the conductor surfaces that are tangential to the external
field. No net current flow is assumed in the wire. To avoid the complications of a curved surface, a
rectangular conductor is shown in Fig. 8.
The situation resembles that of a turn in a winding exposed to leakage flux of the type described in
Sect. 4.1.1. The essential difference is that the turn carries an alternating current, and that the leakage
flux density is proportional to this current. The relationship between current and leakage flux is not
the same all over the winding, but depends on the position of the layer which contains the turn under
consideration.
Because the leakage flux to which the turn is exposed originates from other turns in proximity to it, the
eddycurrent phenomenon is known as the proximity effect in this case.
(a)
(b)
7Z80240
25
Part 3
Figure 9a represents a section through a few turns in a layer with the concentric flux paths associated
with an isolated wire. Between the turns, however, individual flux lines, which are roughly perpendicular to
the layer, oppose and so tend to cancel. The result is the flux pattern of Fig.9b. Such flux patterns from a
number of layers result in the flux distribution of Figs. 3 and 4.
The difference between the two types of eddycurrent effect is now evident.
Skin effect: tendency for the current to flow near the conductor surface, no current reversal and thus
no increase in current flow.
Proximity effect: there are two skin regions below the surfaces tangential to the magnetic field: besides
the tendency for the main current to flow in the skin region where the magnetic field is highest, the skin
regions carry opposite eddy currents that increase the effective current flow.
The leakage flux density varies from layer to layer, but is constant over the breadth of each layer (Figs 3
and 4). The proximity effect is greatest in the layers at both sides of the interface between primary and
secondary, where the leakage flux density is greatest. The simplest case is that of a strip or foil winding,
where each layer has only one turn. The number of layers (and turns) is thus known at the start of the
design process. Figure 10, which is based on normalised conductor height, shows the relationship between
proximity effect and leakage flux density.
The proximity effect in a wire winding depends not only on wire diameter, but also on the layer space
(copper) factor. The main geometrical parameters of a turn in a wire winding are wire diameter d and
winding pitch t. Of course, t do . A useful simplification is to regard a round wire as a square wire of equal
cross section and, thus, equal current density, Fig. 11. Then, h = d (/4) 0.886d. Extending this model
allows a layer to be regarded as a strip of thickness h and layer space (copper) factor Fl = h / t carrying a
current Nl times greater than that in the wire. The leakage flux is the same as that of the wirewound layer,
but the current density is 1/Fl times greater
1stlayer
2ndlayer
3rdlayer
4thlayer
5thlayer
=0,59
(a)
1,01
1,09
1stlayer
1,25
1,49
1,82
2ndlayer
3rdlayer
1stlayer
2ndlayer
3rdlayer
4thlayer
5thlayer
=8
50
10
25
300
3000
3
200
(c)
5thlayer
20
(b)
4thlayer
=2
1,33
1,9
8,4
21,4
40,9
100
5
4
3
2
1
0
1
2
3
5
4
3
2
1
0
1
2
3
7Z89852
2000
66,9
7Z89853
40
105
202
331
27,9
1000
0 137
5
4
3
2
1
0
1
2
3
7Z89856
Fig. 10 The proximity effect in a winding of 5 layers. Effective conductor heights are = 0.59 (left), = 2 (centre) and
= 8 (right). Sections through the ends of the layers of the winding are shown, hatched.The layers are of strip conductor,
but could also be Nl turns of rectangular wire.The current density distribution is plotted in (a).The full line is the
amplitude, the broken line the real part, and the dotted line the imaginary part.The losses are plotted in (b).The loss
distribution (solid line) is proportional to the square of the current density amplitude.The broken line shows the average
loss in each layer, and the dotted line the average loss in the complete winding. Since the scale calibration is multiples of
the d.c. loss, the dotted line shows the value of FR. (c) is the leakage flux diagram, obtained by integration of the current
density. Scale divisions are layer current; line types are as in (a).
26
Part 3
The equivalent conductor height = h/ for strip or foil windings, and = (h/)Fl = (d/)(Fl4/)
1.128 (d/)Fl for windings of solid round wire
Comparison of h/ for strip with (h/) Fl for wire indicates that the skin dept in wire seems 1/Fl
times greater than in strip. This can be understood by remembering that is proportional to and
that increasing or increasing the current density has the same effect on the resistive voltage drop on
which the equilibrium depends.
do
(a)
h
h
(b)
7Z80241
27
Part 3
Figure 12 is most useful for determing the a.c. resistance of a winding of known geometry. However, it is not
a convenient basis for optimizing winding geometry itself.
7Z89845
FR 1000
p=
10
500
200
100
4
3
50
2,5
2
20
1,5
10
1
5
0,5
1
0,1
0,2
0,5
10
28
Part 3
4.2.3. Windings of strip of foil conductor
The geometry of windings of fullwidth strip or foil conductors is completely estblished once strip thickness
h is known. Strip breadth is bw, and the number of layers is equal to the number of turns in the
winding portion. These are all set by the boundary conditions, so that the only parameter remaining to
the determined is thickness. Since rac is proportional to FR/, its value can be derived from Dowells
chart, Fig. 12.
bwh
thus
rac bw = FR
Therefore, it is sufficient not plot FR/ against as in Fig. 13. There, the straight, dashdot line labelled
FR = 1 represents rdc. Since rdc is proportional to 1 its slope is 1.
Each curve in Fig. 13 has a minim, marked by a dot. Each minimum occurs at the normalized, ideal strip
thickness hid/ and the lowest possible value of racbw/ from which the value of rac id can be calculated.
The term 'ideal' is used in preference to 'optimum' since the former implies desirability but not necessarily
feasibility. A thickness other than hid may have to be used due either to conductor or space availability
limitations.
rAC
bW
7Z89844
20
N = 20 15 10 8
5
4
10
3,5
2,5
2
1,5
0,5
0,5
FR= 4/3
FR= 1
0,2
0,1
0,2
0,5
10
h/
29
Part 3
As, for a given , strip thickness increases beyond hid eddycurrent loss increases more quickly than d.c. loss
decreases. Note that hid is independent of winding current because leakage flux density is proportional to
current density. All minima in Fig. 13 lie close to the straight line FR = 4/3, although some deviation can be
seen at low values of N. In the practical design procedure, in Sect. 3.2.3, hid is found assuming this straight
line, but a correction factor CN has been added for the deviation that occurs when N < 5.
since, usually h hid, the approximation
FR = 1 + (1/3) (h/hid)4
is included in the design procedure to give the a.c. resistance.
Foil or strip conductor is only recommended for sandwiched windings, not for split or even simple windings.
There is no guarantee that current distribution is uniform over the breath of a strip. In fact, there is a
tendency for current density to be higher near the edges of a strip when << (bwh), which is invariably
the case (Ref. 3). Nonuniform current density cannot occur when the leakage flux is truly parallel to
the layers, so advantage should be taken of the repulsive forces between the leakage flux of primary and
secondary (Sec. 4.1.1). Sandwiching a strip winding between two portions of a wire winding, whose current
density must be uniform over the layer breadth, ensures that there are strong repulsive forces on both sides
of the strip winding, where leakage flux density is maximum.
= h
b
t
2
2
and FR = rac 2 t = rac t
h
2 rdc h b
= h
b =
t
3/4
( )
d =
t
d
t
3/2
F R = r 2 t = r 2 t
ac
ac
d
h
2
is proportional to rac.
Here, rdc 2 so that the line FR = 1 has a slope of  2. Whereas Fig. 13 gave the solution of the design of
a strip winding, where the number of layers and conductor breadth were known, the plot of Fig. 14 does not
contain the solution for wire windings. The number of layers is still not known.
The winding breadth is introduced in the form of the winding breadthtoturns ration T = bw/N.
Physically, T is the winding pitch in a singlelayer winding containing all N turns. Note that at the interface
between primary and secondary, the leakage flux density B = 0 I/T, Sect. 4.1.1 and also that T is known
at the start of the design process.
30
Part 3
Since t = pT, for a rectangular wire
= h
b
pT
FR/2
3/4
( 4 )
d
pT
7Z89846
100
50
20
p=
10
10
5
6
2
4
1
3
2,5
0,5
2
1,5
0,2
FR= 1
0,1
0,1
0,2
0,5
1
0,5
5
10
31
Part 3
4.2.4.1. Closepacked windings of round wire
For closepacked windings, rac2/ can be plotted against T/, Fig. 15; this gives better access to the design
problem. In closepacked wire windings, t = do, so the layer space (copper) factor depends on the ratio d/do
for the wire. This ratio is not constant : standardwire tables show that d/do is smallest for fine wire, but the
rate of change is rather low. If. Fig. 14 were replotted to give rac2/ against, t, the calibration for the axes
would , of course, change, but the shape of the curves would hardly be affected because the rate of change
of d/t is so low. In order to replace t by T, the values for each of the curves must be divided by p, since T =
t/p. This shifts every curve horizontally a distance log p.
The introduction of T is an important step forward: knowing T/, it is possible to read the lowest possible
value of rac2/, the optimum number of layers, and, finally, from do = t = pT, the optimum wire size
can be determined.
In order to plot Fig. 15, values of d/do and its variation with wire size were estimated. So, although the
plot of Fig. 15 is adequate for illustrating the theory, its accuracy is not sufficient for practical design
purposes.
rAC2
7Z89847
4 3
87
p=
0,5
0,5
0,2
simple, split or sandwiched
sandwiched only
0,1
0,05
0,1
0,2
0,5
10
20
T/
32
Part 3
4.2.4.2. Spaced windings of round wire
Windings are also possible with a pitch greater than the overall wire diameter: spaced windings. This
introduces an additional degree of freedom that can be exploited to achieve a further reduction in a.c.
resistance. This is illustrated by the plof of Fig. 16.
The solid curves in Fig. 16 are for closepacked windings (t = do), as in Fig. 15. The dashdot curves are for
windings of two layers, in which t > do. These show that there is a range of T/ where spacing results in
lower values of rac. However, spacing should not be excessive : better performance is always possible if a
smaller number of layers can be used.The straight dashed lines in Fig. 16 are in further addition : they show
that spacing displaces the curves so that similar points lie on a line of slope 2/3. They also show that the
curves for p < 1 are so steep that spacing brings no improvement.
In effect, spacing allows designs intermediate between closepacked versions.
rAC2
7Z89848
p=3 p=2
p=1
0,5
0,2
0,1
0,2
0,5
10
T/
33
Part 3
Further inspection reveals that :
 for T/ greater than about 2, the optimum design is a singlelayer winding but, in sandwiched designs, when
T/ is greater than about 6, the optimum is a halflayer winding
 for T/ less than about 2, the optimum design has more than one layer.
Both the full and the broken lines for p > 1 show that the resistance minima occur generally for spaced
windings (Sect. 4.2.4), so that it is important to include in the manufacturing instructions a specific statement
that windings should not be close packed. The curves for p 1 have a slope of about 1, indicating that
FR 1, so that they belong to the region of sin conduction (Sect. 4.2.1.). Moreover, they are, in principle,
closepacked windings (Sect. 4.2.4.1). It is clear that multilayer (p > 1) windings and those with p 1 will
require different design methods.
rAC2
7Z89849
7
8
4 3 2 1,5 1
p=0,5
1
0,5
0,2
0,1
0,05
0,1
0,2
0,5
10
20
T/
7Z89850
d/ 10
5
1
8
7 5 4 3
0,5 6
0,1
0,2
He/
2 1,5
0,5
p0,5
1
10
20
T/
7Z89851
10
8 7
6 5
4,5 4
5
3,5
1
3
2,5
2
1,5
p=0,5
2
1
0,1
0,2
0,5
10
20
T/
Fig. 17 Basic design charts for wire windings: (a)Rac2/ , (b) (a)
d/, and (c) He / versus T/ with p as a parameter. He is the
required height excluding interteaving. Knowing T/ , the ideal
winding geometry and the resistance per meter length of wire
can be determined.
34
Part 3
4.2.5.1. Multilayer windings (p > 1)
The full lines in the chart for rac2/ and d/. Fig. 17, consists of several sections, each for a particular value
of p. Together for p > 1, they form nearly straight lines.
The ideal values of d an rac are, thus, generally independent of p. There is only a slight deviation for the
lower values of p: it can be seen that the lines for p = 1.5 do not coincide with those p = 2.
The resistance factor for optimum or ideal design FR id 1.5, which means that the eddy current loss is half
the frequencyindependent resistive loss, also called d.c. loss.
The slope of the straight liens indicates that rac id (T /)2/3 and did (T / )1/3.
Since rdc d2, FR = rac/rdc must be constant.
If the actual wire diameter d deviates from the ideal diameter did, the estimated resistance factor becomes
FR = 1 +
( ddid )6
This approximation, derived form the first two terms of the series expansion of Dowells expression, Ref. 3
is sufficiently accurate for values of FR 2. In an ideal winding, where d = did, FR < 1.5.
The expression is not valid in the region of skin conduction. To find the ideal wire diameter for windings
having a large number of layers, the expression d/ = 1,45 (T / )1/3can be used. In a more practical
form this expression reads
3
d =
17.1 bw
N fe
The ideal wire diameter for a practical winding, did, is then obtained using the correction factor Cp.
This factor corrects for the effect of the small steps between the line sections for practical numbers of
layers. Using these expressions, ideal designs can be obtained by simple calculation.
Once knowing did the winding geometry can be determined. After rounding did to the nearest standard
wire size, do is known. Following the design rules in the practical sections, the number of layers and the
required height are easily found. Knowing rdc of the selected wire, rac can be estimated after calculation
of FR.
35
Part 3
The remaining problem is the estimation of rac. To solve that, calculate
3/4
( 4 )
d
pT
or, alternatively,
0.124 fe d3
t
36
Part 3
4.3.3. Accommodation
Once a few design version (the ideal design and one or more nonideal versions) of the primary and
secondary have been collected, selection of the most suitable combination is made by an accommodation
procedure.The accommodation procedure is given in detail in Sect. 3.5.4.
It comprises the following basic steps:
 list the design versions obtained, the height they require and their losses.
 make combinations of primary and secondary designs having a total height not exceeding the
available height, and note the winding loss of each.
 finally, select the lowestloss combination.
Demagnetizing and control windings are usually designed for minimum height rather than minimum loss,
since they do not take part in power transfer. Their height is taken into account in determing the height
for the power windings.
37
Part 3
4.5. Some notes
4.5.1. Multipleoutput transformers
Figure 18 shows a possible winding arrangement and leakage flux density distribution for a multiple output
transformer. In both primary and secondary 2, the flux density varies from zero to maximum, so these
can be designed using the present methods. That is not possible for secondary 1 because its leakageflux
distribution does not agree with the assumptions. The ratio for leakageflux density to number of turns is
much higher than has been assumed so far.
N
0 sec2 Isec2
bw
N
0 sec1 Isec1
bw
secondary 2
secondary 1
sreens
primary
b
N
0 prim Iprim
bw
7Z80242
The ideal wire diameter for an infinite number of layers d in the winding exposed to the higher leakage
flux calculated as normal, but the layer correction factor becomes
1
(1  3)1/3
Cp =
where is the ration of minimum to maximum leakage field over the height of the winding. In secondary
1 of Fig. 18, = (Nsec 2Isec 2) / (NprimIprim). The factor Cp is always less than unity and decreases with
increasing . The higher leakage field is compensated for by using thinner wire. As is usual ( = 0) for wire
windings, FRid 1.5; the formula for FR still applies. Similarly, for strip conductor,
4
CN =
(1  )3
1  3
As normal for strip windings FRid 4/3. To obtain lowest total winding loss, the layout of
the secondary windings ( 2 or more) in the winding window must be considered carefully.
 Secondaries of the same conductor type, either wire or strip: exposing the winding carrying the
smallest current, that is, the one using the thinnest conductor, to the highest leakage field will
result in lowest loss. Remember that the eddy current loss increases in proportion to 4 ,
Sect. 4.2.1.
 Secondaries of different conductor type (wire or strip): the optimum arrangement is not easy to
predict. Work out the possible layouts and select for lowest total loss.
38
Part 3
4.5.2. Pushpull transformers
In pushpull transformers, Fig. 19, not all windings carry current at the same time. The operation of
pushpull converter is explained in part 1 of this series of publications. Here it is sufficient to split up one
converter operating period into
 interval a : N1A and N2A are conducting, other windings carry no current.
During this interval the current waveforms in N1A and N2A are the same.
 interval b: N1B and N2B are conducting.
 interval c, occurring twice per period: N1A and N1B are nonconducting, N2A and N2B carry
equal and opposite flywheel currents about half as great as the secondary currents during intervals
a and b (magnetizing current neglected). The closer intervals a and b approach a half period (at
full load) the shorter this interval will be. Whether or not the flywheel current pules have an
influence on winding, design depends on the winding arrangement.
N1A
N2B
N1B
N2A
7Z80245
Bilifar windings are often used to achieve close coupling between winding halves. Figure 20 shows a crosssection through the windings and the leakage flux diagrams during the three intervals. If wire windings are
used the flywheel currents during interval cancel (higher order effects neglected). That is not quite so if
bifilar strip windings are used (two fullbreadth strips and interleaving wound simultaneously). The peak
flux density is then about 1/(2N2) times that during interval a or b. Since the eddy current loss in interval
c may be negligible if the halfsecondaries have at least a few turns. It might not be possible to ignore the
contribution of the flywheel currents to that d.c. loss unless interval c is very short.
screen
N2A+N2B
bifilar
N1A+N1B
bifilar
B
interval a
interval b interval c
interval c
(wire windings) (strip windings)
(N2A=N2B=3)
7Z80246
During intervals a and b, eddy currents are generated in both the conducting and the nonconducting
windings. Both windings of a pair are exposed to the same leakage flux and have about equal eddycurrent
loss. Only one of these has d.c. loss at a time. For minim loss (ideal designs), the ratio of eddycurrent
39
Part 3
loss to d.c. loss remains one half for wire windings and one third for strip windings. That requires thinner
conductors than in nonbifilar windings have equal numbers of turns, and winding pitch or strip breath.
For multilayer wire windings, the reduction is 21/6 = 0.89 (one step in the wire table), and for strip
windings, 21/4 = 0.84
The reader can adapt the design procedures of Section 3.2 to cope with bifilar windings.
Multilayer wire windings, procedure 3.2.1:
 in step 2 multiply d by 0.89
 in step 4 use 2tmin in the expression for Pid
 in step 9 calculate the loss in a winding pair.
Singlelayer wire windings, procedure 3.2.2.:
 in step 2, use 2tmin rather than tmin
 in step 6, calculate rac = (2FR  1) rdc
 in step 7, estimate the loss of a winding pair.
Strip or foil windings, procedure 3.2.3:
 in step 1, multiply CN by 0.84
 in step 5, estimate the loss of a winding pair.
Bifilar windings are not possible if the wire insulation cannot safely withstand at least twice the peak voltage
across a winding half. The transformer of Fig. 21 differs from the previous one in that the primary winding
halves do not share the same space. The leakage flux diagrams show an asymmetry. During the interval a
winding N1B, although not conducting is subjected to a high leakage flux and has about three times the eddy
current loss of the conducting winding N1A, because the average of the r.m.s. flux density squared in N1A is
one third of that in N1B. In interval b, however, N1A has no eddy current loss. The primary winding halves
thus have different a.c. resistance due to a difference in eddycurrent loss by a factor of four. Moreover, the
leakage inductance is greater in N1A. The energy stored in the leakage field can be expressed as LI2or as
VB2/O, where L is the leakage inductance and V the filed volume (here proportional to the area of the
flux diagram times the average turn length).
screen
N2A=N2B
bifilar
N1B
N1A
B
interval a
B
interval b
7Z80246
By arranging the windings as in Fig. 22, only a minor asymmetry due to different turn lengths remains and
eddy current loss in the nonconduction primary is eliminated. In this arrangement the coupling between
the primary winding halves will be less close and the stray capacitance across the secondaries, now situated
between two screens, will be increased.
40
Part 3
N1B
screen
N2A=N2B
bifilar
N1A
B
interval a
B
interval b
7Z80248
In Fig. 23, the secondaries are also divided: nonconducting windings are not exposed t leakage flux.
Now eddy current loss during interval c occurs in the secondaries. This indicates the effect of different
current waveforms in primaries and secondaries, which means hat their effective frequencies are different
(see Section 6).
For split/sandwiched configurations, similar considerations apply as indicated above for simple configurations. Here, also, leakage flux diagrams will be a great help in the analysis. The discussion in this Section
clearly illustrates the general risk of overlooking important parameters in striving for an optimum in a
particular respect.
N1B
screens
N2B
N2A
N1A
B
interval a
interval b
interval c
7Z80249
41
Part 3
4.5.3. Flyback transformers
In a flyback transformer, current conduction in primary and secondary occurs alternately. When the primary
conducts, there is no current in the secondary, and vice versa. Two different leakageflux density diagrams
are, thus, required, Fig. 24.
outer winding
inner winding
B
7Z80243
The flux diagrams shown do not pretend to be accurate. In drawing the fullline portions tight coupling
to the core and a leakage flux parallel to the layers were assumed. However, since the repulsion between
primary and secondary flux does not exist, the latter assumption is an idealization. The broken lines
are speculative. It is therefore recommended that the outer winding has the thinner wire. The winding
arrangement is recommended for the reasons given in Sect. 4.5.2. The leakage flux generated by the current
in the inner winding also induces eddycurrents in the outer winding.
As a practical guide, it is recommended that the outer winding be wound with a wire one size smaller
than that calculated using the procedures given in this article. The estimated winding loss will then probably
prove slightly optimistic.
Although the present design methods are not as accurate for flyback transformers as they are for forward
and pushpull types, their use is helpful in preventing excessive eddycurrent loss.
Strip or foil windings: since the leakage flux might not be truly parallel to the layers we should not be
surprised if the losses are higher than calculated. The current density near the edges of the conductor
might be considerably higher than that near the middle of the breadth. That effect is nearly independent
of the conductor thickness. The use of multiple wire, bunched or Litz wire might be a better solution
for lowvoltage windings.
4.5.4. Screens
Eddy current losses will also occur in the screens between primary and secondary. Screens are always
situated in positions of maximum flux density Screens should not be thicker than necessary; there should
be the minimum of overlap of the ends. copper is not the most suitable material : a (nonmagnetic)
conductor of higher resistivity is preferable. Eddycurrent loss is directly proportional to conductivity, and
proportional to the thickness cubed. Thus, screens, should be as thin as possible (UL1244 specifies a
minimum of 0.15 mm).
Although its low resistivity makes copper the natural choice for the winding conductor, it is not the first
choice for screens. Phosphor bronze CuSn8 has a conductivity 10.9% of that of copper at 20 oC and 13.8%
at 100 oC. The use of such material reduces losses in proportion.
Additional loss can be caused by the capacitance of the overlap at the ends of the screen, which causes the
screen to act as a shorted turn. This overlap should be as small as possible.
42
Part 3
43
Part 3
5.2. Conductor form
The designer can choose between solid round wire, strip or foil conductor, multiple wire, bunched wire
and Litz wire.
7Z80244
The design procedure for solid round wire windings can easily be adapted for multiplewire.
In the basic design chart of Fig. 17, after dividing T/ by ns, read did /, pid and He id / as usual. The value of
rac id 2/ for the single strand must be divided by ns to find the resistance of the multiple wire.
In effect, a singlewire winding is designed with a layer breadth bw /ns or alternatively, the winding geometry
is determined as if there were nsN turns. T/ and rac are thus 1/ns times those for a normal wire winding.
Compared with normal, singlestrand, multilayer windings (more than one layer per portion, T/< 2), rac id
and did decrease about ns1/3 and He increase about ns1/3.
44
Part 3
With 2 parallel strands, Fig.26, the reduction in rac id and did is about 20%: the height increase is roughly 25%.
With 3 parallel strands, the reduction in rac id and did is about 30%: the height increase is roughly 45%.
If the increased height does not permit the use of the ideal design of a multiplewire version, the singlestrand winding will often have a lower resistance. More than 3 parallel strands are not often used due to
winding difficulty, or inadequate height.
rac id
7Z80250
5
ns=
1
2
3
2
1
0,5
0,2
1,
1T
,1
0,1
0,05
0,1
0,2
0,5
10
20
T/
In the region of T/ > 2 it is usual to try to use strip or foil conductor. If that is not possible, multiplewire
may be considered. Strip conductor, although promising lower resistance, cannot always be used: because of
uneven current distribution over the layer breadth, for example or due to constructional problems.
If T/ > 2ns lower resistance cannot be achieved, Fig. 26, but a multiplewire winding design might be justified
by reduced winding height, the use of thinner, more flexible wire, and saving in copper.
The curve for p = 1 Fig. 17 ends at T/ = 6 only for practical reasons. There is no theoretical limit: the
resistance remains inversely proportional to T/. If p = 1 and T/ > 2ns, or if p = 0.5 and T/ > 6ns, the
overall wire diameter and, thus, the winding height, will be found to reduce in inverse proportion to ns.
In order to understand how less copper can have equal resistance, it is necessary to realize that this is in the
region of pure skin conduction ( >> 1). The breadth of a turn (either a single wire or ns strands) and, thus
the skin area remains the same. Stranding reduces the amount of useless conductor in the winding.
45
Part 3
5.2.3. Bunched wire
Bunched wire comprises three or more enamelled wires, twisted around each of other to form a bunch.
Here a distinction is made between bunched wire and Litz wire, which latter is discussed in the next Section.
The difference is in the strand diameter: in bunched wire it is of the order of magnitude of , whereas
in Litz wire the strands are much finer. In the literature, the term bunched wire is sometimes used for
what is here called Litz wire.
In both bunched and Litz wire the strands undulate within the height of the layer. This ensures equal
current sharing between the strands, because, on average, the position of each strand is in the middle
of the layer height. Bunchedwire windings are designed in much the same way as single wire windings
have Nns. turns, but adaptations of the procedures are required for the determination of winding pitch
and layer height.
Practical design guidance is given in Sect. 3.42.
46
Part 3
fe = 1
2
i
I
where I is the r.m.s. winding current; i is the r.m.s. value of dI/dt, the first derivative of the current
waveform. This expression does not apply in the region of skin conduction, where the eddycurrent loss
is proportional to or f.
It is apparent that i contains no contribution from the d.c. component and a more pronounced contribution
from the harmonics, since d (sin nt) /dt = n cos nt. The rise and fall items of the current pulses
have a considerable effect on the value of i. Moreover, some (if not all) of the higher harmonics lie in
the region of the skin conduction.
A simple method of determining fe has not yet been found: fe can be expected to be lower than the
switching frequency f, but higher than f Ie ac/Ie Where Ie ac = (I2e I20) is the r.m.s. value of the a.c.
component and I0 is the d.c. component. The use of this effective frequency, despite its not being valid in the
region of skin conduction, will yield the optimum winding geometry.
Singlelayer windings are chose if pid 1 since fe is valid for determing pid the choice between multilay
er and singlelayer windings is clear. Both single and halflayer windings are closepacked, inc principle, so
their layer geometry is independent of frequency.
Since the effective frequency for the skinconduction region is not known, winding loss cannot be accurately
estimated, and, consequently, a reliable choice between a single and a halflayer winding cannot always be
made. In most practical cases, however, these problems do not occur because, in any case, strip windings
are preferable in this region.
For use in choke design an expression for fe has been derived and simplified, but due to the large variation
47
Part 3
in conditions it is impossible to give a typical example for transformer design.
For the waveform of Fig. 27, provided that the rise and fall times are between 15% and 85% of the
repetition period,
1.3 f
fe
[ 1 + 3 ( Io / Iac )2 ]
and the effective current
Ie = ( I2o + I2ac / 3 )
fe =
[ 1 + 2 ( Io / Iac )2 ]
and
Ie = ( I2o + I2ac / 2 )
I
Iac
Iac I
M
I0
1/f
7Z89485
References
1.
Dowell, P.L. 1966, Effects of eddy currents in transformer windings. Proc. IEE, 113 No. 8 (August)
2.
Snelling, E.C. 1969. Soft Ferrites, properties and applications. Iliffe Books Limited, London
3.
Casimir, H.B.G. and Ubbink, J. 1967. Skin effect I.Philips Technical Review 28 No.6.
4.
IEC Publication 31711 Bunched enamelled copper wire with silk covering.
48
Part 3
Appendix: Exaple of tables of standart wires sizes
Enamelled dround coper winding wire, IECgrade 2
nom.resistance
nominal diameter
d (mm)
0.040
0.045
0.050
0.056
0.063
0.071
0.080
0.090
0.100
0.112
0.125
0.140
0.160
0.180
0.200
0.224
0.250
0.280
0.315
0.355
0.400
0.450
0.500
0.560
0.630
0.710
0.800
0.900
1.000
1.120
1.250
1.400
1.600
1.800
2.000
2.240
2.500
max. overall
nominal
minimum
diameter
d o (mm)
crosssect.
area (mm2)
winding pitch
t min (mm)
at 100oC
r dc (/m)
0.054
0.061
0.068
0.076
0.085
0.00126
0.00159
0.00196
0.00246
0.00312
0.059
0.066
0.073
0.082
0.091
17.68
13.97
11.32
9.022
7.129
0.095
0.105
0.117
0.129
0.143
0.00396
0.00503
0.00636
0.00785
0.00985
0.102
0.112
0.125
0.137
0.152
5.613
4.421
3.493
2.829
2.256
0.159
0.176
0.199
0.222
0.245
0.0123
0.0154
0.0201
0.0254
0.0314
0.169
0.187
0.210
0.234
0.257
1.811
1.444
1.1052
0.8733
0.7074
0.272
0.301
0.334
0.371
0.414
0.0394
0.0491
0.0616
0.0779
0.0990
0.284
0.315
0.348
0.387
0.431
0.5639
0.4527
0.3609
0.2852
0.2245
0.462
0.516
0.569
0.632
0.706
0.126
0.159
0.196
0.246
0.312
0.481
0.538
0.593
0.659
0.736
0.1768
0.1397
0.11318
0.09022
0.07129
0.790
0.885
0.990
1.093
1.217
0.396
0.503
0.636
0.785
0.985
0.823
0.922
1.032
1.139
1.268
0.05613
0.04421
0.03493
0.02829
0.02256
1.351
1.506
1.711
1.916
2.120
1.227
1.539
2.011
2.545
3.142
1.408
1.569
1.783
1.996
2.209
0.01811
0.01444
0.011052
0.008733
0.007074
2.366
2.631
3.941
4.909
2.465
2.742
0.005639
0.004527
Remark: Values of tmin are based on recommendations for mass production of one particular manufacturer.
Other manufacturers may use different values.
49
Part 3
Medium enamelled copper wires  AWG (B. & S.)
(diameters based on BS 1844: 1952  mediun covering)
AWG
(B. & S.)
nominal copper
diameter (d)
inch
mm
max. overall
diameter
(d o )
mm
nominal
crosssect.
area
mm2
nominal
resistance at
at 100oC (r dc )
/m
minimum
winding pitch
(t min)
mm
44
43
42
41
40
0.00198
0.00222
0.00249
0.00280
0.00314
0.0503
0.0564
0.0633
0.0711
0.0798
0.06604
0.07366
0.08128
0.09144
0.1041
0.00199
0.00250
0.00314
0.00397
0.00500
11.190
8.899
7.073
5.594
4.448
0.071
0.079
0.087
0.098
0.111
39
38
37
36
35
0.00353
0.00397
0.00445
0.00500
0.0056
0.0897
0.1008
0.1130
0.1270
0.1422
0.1143
0.1295
0.1448
0.1626
0.1778
0.00631
0.00799
0.01003
0.0127
0.0159
3.519
2.783
2.215
1.754
1.398
0.122
0.138
0.154
0.172
0.188
34
33
32
31
30
0.0063
0.0071
0.0080
0.0089
0.0100
0.1600
0.1803
0.2032
0.2261
0.2540
0.1981
0.2235
0.2489
0.2743
0.3048
0.0201
0.0255
0.0324
0.0401
0.0507
1.105
0.8700
0.6853
0.5527
0.4386
0.209
0.236
0.261
0.287
0.319
29
28
27
26
25
0.0113
0.0126
0.0142
0.0159
0.0179
0.2870
0.3200
0.3607
0.4039
0.4547
0.3404
0.3759
0.4191
0.4699
0.5232
0.0647
0.0804
0.1022
0.128
0.162
0.3435
0.2762
0.2175
0.1735
0.1369
0.356
0.393
0.438
0.491
0.547
24
23
22
21
20
0.0201
0.0226
0.0253
0.0285
0.0320
0.5105
0.5740
0.6426
0.7239
0.8128
0.5817
0.6502
0.7214
0.8052
0.8966
0.205
0.259
0.324
0.412
0.519
0.10860
0.08586
0.06852
0.05399
0.04283
0.608
0.679
0.754
0.841
0.937
19
18
17
16
15
0.0359
0.0403
0.0453
0.0508
0.0571
0.9119
1.024
1.151
1.290
1.450
1.003
1.118
1.247
1.389
1.557
0.653
0.823
1.040
1.308
1.652
0.03403
0.02700
0.02137
0.01699
0.01345
1.048
1.168
1.303
1.452
1.627
14
13
12
11
10
0.0641
0.0720
0.0808
0.0907
0.1019
1.628
1.829
2.052
2.304
2.588
1.737
1.943
2.172
2.431
2.720
2.082
2.627
3.308
4.168
5.261
0.010670
0.008460
0.006717
0.005331
0.004224
1.815
2.030
2.270
2.540
2.842
Remark: Values of tmin are based on recommendations for mass production of one particular manufacturer. Other manufacturers may use different values.
50
Part 4
Powerinductor design
A power smoothing choke which is to carry a significant direct current component or to have a welldefined
inductance is usually wound on a core whose magnetic circuit includes an air gap. The reluctance (magnetic
resistance) of the air gap reduces the effective permeability of the core: either to increase the ampereturns
at which saturation occurs, or to reduce the effect of variations in the permeability of the core material
on the inductance of the choke.
The traditional rout to the design of a choke with a gapped core involves the use of Hanna curves, or
some derivative of them. (Ref. 1, 2, 3). This design route has a number of disadvantages and limitations.
Initial core selection is uncertain and designs may have to be made using a number of cores before the
optimal solution is found. The design procedure involves considerable calculation and iteration, and the
effects of changes in core operating conditions and mechanical tolerances, especially on the airgap, are
not readily predicted.
To simplify the design of power chokes we have devised a method based on computergenerated charts. The
first step in the design is the selection of a suitable core: this selection usually proves to be final.
Design method
Starting with the peak current IM that the choke is required to pass without saturating the core, and
the minimum inductance required Lmin, the designer obtains directly all the information necessary for
the construction of the choke. Core size, airgap, number of turns, and winding geometry are derived by
straightforward procedures. Of especial interest to those engineers to whom the subject is a black art: the
magnetic properties of the core do not enter into to process at all.
Part 4
Core operating conditions
The selection and design charts are constructed for cores in the power ferrite materials 3C90 or 3C94
operating at a temperature of 100oC. Operation at lower temperatures leads neither to core saturation
nor to inductances lower than Lmin. The design peak flux density BM is 0.32 T, however, the charts can
be used for a lower value by designing for a peak current 0.32I/M/BM. Symbols used in this text are
listed and defined in the Table, symbols for currents are illustrated by Fig. 1. Note that in the equations
the unit of frequency is kHz, not Hz, and the unit of length mm. Some constants in the equations are
based on these units.
I
Iac
Iac
IM
I0
1/f
7Z89485A
unit
definition
AL
bw
mm
BM
mm
do
mm
kHz
frequency
fe
kHz
FR
mm
mm
winding height
Ha
mm
mm
thickness of interleaving
Ie
IO
I ac
IM
inductance
number of layers
PW
winding loss
R ac
a.c. resistance
R dc
d.c. resistance
mm
spacer thickness
Part 4
I2L
(J)
E71/33/32
E65/32/27
101
E55/28/25
E80/38/20
E46/23/30
E55/28/21
E56/24/19
E42/20
E47&50
E42/21/15
E36/21/15
E41/17/12
E30&31&32&34
102
E30/15/7
E25/13/7
E19/8/9
E25/6
E20/10/6
E20/10/5
E19/8/5
E13/6/6
103
E16/8/5
E13/7/4
104
101
10
airgap (mm)
Selection procedure
The selection graphs included at the end of this part are used to select a suitable core size for the
intended application.
An example of such a graph is given above. The selection charts are used as follows:
Knowing the value of peak choke current IM and the minimum inductance required Lmin, calculate
the value of I2L.
Choose the shape of core based on application considerations. Draw on the appropriate selection
chart a horizontal line at the level of the calculated I2L.
A core whose curve intersects this horizontal line can be used for the application. The airgap length
corresponding the intersection is, however, only an indication of the final value.
Nmax =
[1]
I2AL
Nmin =
Lmin
[2]
AL
Winding design
The loss due to eddycurrents in a winding carrying a.c. increase rapidly with conductor size (ad d4 for wire),
but resistive losses in a conductor decrease with increasing size (as d2 for wire). It follows, therefore, that
there must be a frequencydependent ideal conductor size at which losses are minimum. (This is discussed
fully in Ref. 5). This sets the upper limit to conductor size; there is no reason to increase losses by using a
thicker conductor. The use of a thinner conductor is sometimes tolerable (low current density) or necessary
(inadequate space).
The procures that follow allow the ideal number of layers and wire size, or the thickness of strip, to be
determined for chokes with an operatingcurrent waveform similar to that shown in Fig.1. They also indicate
the course of action in the event of the available winding window being insufficient to accommodate the
ideal winding.
Copper conductors are assumed here and the operating temperature is taken to be 100oC, so that conductor
resistivity is 1/45 mm2/m (30% higher than that at 20oC). Symbols used are defined in the table and Fig. 1.
1.3 f
[3]
[ 1 + 3 ( Io / Iac )2 ]
Part 4
In design for class I applications fe may be only a few kilohertz. Eddycurrent effects are then negligible so
that windings can be designed as if they are to carry d.c. only. Remember to use the correct value for d.c.
resistivity. For the waveform of Fig.1, the effective current Ie is given by
[4]
Ie = ( I2o + I2ac / 3 )
fe =
[5]
[ 1 + 2 ( Io / Iac )2 ]
and
[6]
Ie = ( I2o + I2ac / 2 )
did = 2.6
( bNfwe )
1/3
[7]
2. Select the nearest standard wire size (for d and do) from a wire table such as that for IEC grade
1 winding wires.
3. The ideal number of layers is now
pid =
N
bw/do  1
[8]
Part 4
 If Pid 1, the expression for did in step 1 is not valid: go to the singlelayer winding procedure.
Find p by rounding pid to the next highest integer. This rounding increases the spacing between turns.
4.
6.
7.
2.
FR = 0.33 d fe 1/2N(N + 1), only if pid 1 in step 3 of the last section.FR has no upper limit here.
3.
Part 4
hid = 3.1
Nfe
[9]
hmax =
[10]
Ha  i
N
[11]
Choose a value for i that suits a strip thickness about Ha/N. if hmax < hmin, try a wire winding
4. Select a strip thickness h such that hmin h < hmax. Aim for h = hid.
FR = 1 + 1/3
( hhid )4
[12]
Check that FR < 1,8; if not, reduce h when h = hid, FR = 1.33; when h <0,6 hid,FR 1.
6.
Part 4
Design example
A choke of 30mH minimum inductance is required for a peak current of 1A at 100 kHz with a waveform
as shown in Fig.1 IacIo = 0.1.
Core selection
The value of I2MLmin = 3 x 102 J. A Horizontal line of this value drawn on the E core selection chart
intersects the curve or the E55/28/21 core at an airgap length of about 1.5 mm.
Nmax =
0.036
371.109
= 311.5 turns
[13]
= 284.4 turns
[14]
Nmin =
0.03
371.109
Since Nmax is, at it should be, greater than Nmin, the design is successful so far and a number of turns can
be selected between these limits.
Winding design
The effective operating frequency for the core is given by Eq.(3),
fe
1.3 100
= 7.5 kHZ
[15]
[ 1 + 3 ( 10 ) ]
At this effective frequency, eddycurrent effects can be neglected, and the winding can be designed to fit the
space available, allowing for the coil former wall thicknesses.
Part 4
CBW319
I2L
(J)
E71/33/32
E65/32/27
101
E55/28/25
E80/38/20
E46/23/30
E55/28/21
E56/24/19
E42/20
E47&50
E42/21/15
E36/21/15
E41/17/12
E30&31&32&34
102
E30/15/7
E25/13/7
E19/8/9
E25/6
E20/10/6
E20/10/5
E19/8/5
E13/6/6
103
E16/8/5
E13/7/4
104
101
10
airgap (mm)
Part 4
CBW320
I2L
(J)
E64/10/50
101
E58/11/38
E43/10/28
E38/8/25
E32/6/20
102
E22/6/16
E18/4/10
103
E14/3.5/5
104
101
10
airgap (mm)
10
Part 4
CBW321
I2L
(J)
101
EC70
EC52
102
EC41
EC35
103
104
101
10
airgap (mm)
11
Part 4
CBW322
101
I2L
(J)
102
EFD30
EFD25
EFD20
103
EFD15
EFD12
EFD10
104
105
101
10
airgap (mm)
12
Part 4
CBW323
101
I2L
(J)
102
EP20
EP17
103
EP13
104
105
101
10
airgap (mm)
13
Part 4
1
I2L
(J)
101
ER48 & 54 & 54S
ER42
ER42A
ER40
ER35
ER28 & 28L
102
ER14.5
ER11
103
ER9.5
104
101
10
airgap (mm)
14
Part 4
1
I2L
(J)
101
ETD59
ETD54
ETD49
ETD44
ETD39
102
ETD34
ETD29
103
104
101
15
10
airgap (mm)
Part 4
CBW326
101
P66/56
I2L
(J)
P42/29
P36/22
P30/19
102
P26/16
P22/13
P18/11
103
P14/8
P11/7
P9/5
104
P7/4
105
101
10
airgap (mm)
16
Part 4
CBW327
101
I2L
(J)
P26/16/I
102
P22/13/I
P18/11/I
P14/8/I
103
P11/7/I
104
105
101
10
airgap (mm)
17
Part 4
CBW328
101
I2L
(J)
PT30/19
102
PT26/16
PT23/11
PT18/11
103
PT14/8
104
105
101
10
airgap (mm)
18
Part 4
CBW330
I2L
(J)
101
PQ35/35
102
103
104
101
10
airgap (mm)
19
Part 4
CBW331
101
I2L
(J)
RM10
102
RM8
RM6S&R
RM5
103
RM4
104
105
101
10
airgap (mm)
20
Part 4
CBW332
101
I2L
(J)
RM14/I
RM12/I
102
RM10/I
RM8/I
RM7/I
RM6S/I
103
RM5/I
RM4/I
104
105
101
10
airgap (mm)
21
Part 4
CBW333
101
I2L
(J)
RM14/ILP
RM12/ILP
102
RM10/ILP
RM8/ILP
RM7/ILP
RM6S/ILP
103
RM5/ILP
RM4/ILP
104
105
101
10
airgap (mm)
22
Part 4
CBW334
I2L
(J)
U93/30
U100/25
U93/76/16
101
U67/27/14
U30/25/16
U25/20/13
U33/22/9
102
U20/16/7
U25/16/6
U15/11/6
103
U10/8/3
104
101
10
spacer thickness (mm)
23