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Circuits
Deanna Sessions
ECEN 248-511
TA: Priya Venkatas
Date: October 2, 2013

Objectives:
The main objective of this lab is to understand different types of adder circuits. In this lab we are
required to set up a half adder, a full adder, and a 2-bit Ripple Carry adder. Each of these builds
on top of the previous ones and I will be able to create a full adder from the concept of two half
adders and the Ripple carry adder from the concept of two full adders. Each of these circuits is
important to circuit/ digital systems design as a whole so it is a skill that we will all have to learn.
Much like the previous lab we had to design our own circuits based on a set of rules and then
implement them once again giving us good practice in designing our own simple circuits.

Design:
Truth Table
X
Y
0
0
0
1
1
0
1
1

Cout
0
0
0
1

S
0
1
1
0

Karnaugh Maps
Sum
Y
X
0
1
0
0
1
1
1
0
Cout
X
0
1

Y
0
0
0

1
0
1

## Logic Expressions with XOR

S= X Y
C=X*Y
Logic Expressions without XOR
S= X * Y + X * Y
C=X*Y
Schematic

Truth Table
Ci
Xi
0
0
0
0
0
1
0
1
1
0
1
0
1
1
1
1
Karnaugh Maps
S
Xi Yi
Ci
00
0
0
1
1
Cout
Ci
0
1

Xi Yi
00
0
0

Yi
0
1
0
1
0
1
0
1

Ci+1
0
0
0
1
0
1
1
1

Si
0
1
1
0
1
0
0
1

01
1
0

11
0
1

10
1
0

01
0
1

11
1
1

10
0
1

## Logic with XOR

S=XYC
C=X*Y+X*C+Y*C
Logic without XOR
S = (X * Y * C) + (X * Y * C) + (X * Y * C) + (X * Y * C)
C=X*Y+X*C+Y*C
Schematic

## Two Bit Ripple Carry Adder

Truth Table (carry digit is the first digit of each sum column)
When
Cin = 0
A0
B0
A1
B1
S0
S1
Cout
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
1
0
1
0
0
0
1
0
0
1
0
0
0
1
1
0
0
1
0
1
0
0
1
0
0
0
1
0
1
1
1
0
0
1
1
0
1
1
0
0
1
1
1
1
0
1
1
0
0
0
1
0
0
1
0
0
1
1
1
0
1
0
1
0
1
1
0
1
0
1
1
1
0
1
1
1
0
0
0
1
1
1
1
0
1
0
0
1
1
1
1
0
0
0
1
1
1
1
1
0
1
1

S0
1
1
1
1
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
1
1
1
1

When
Cin = 1
S1
0
1
1
0
1
0
0
1
1
0
0
1
1
0
0
1

Cout
0
0
0
1
0
1
1
1
0
1
1
1
0
1
1
1

Schematic

Results:
This lab was focused more on testing our skills in reading schematics and building circuits
without any real observations to be made other than building the circuit and testing that it gave
the right output based on the truth tables we had created prior to coming to lab. The pictures
below are the finished products of each of the three adders.

## Two Bit Ripple Carry Adder

Each particular circuit brought its own challenges in creating the proper configuration and
finding out the right spacing that made for the easiest and most efficient wiring job, but overall
the three adders ended up being simple after I had created a schematic and truth table for it.

Conclusion:
This lab had no actual data to be taken, but was rather a test of skills. I learned even more about
how to design efficient circuits after creating a truth table. I also learned that color-coding wires
is very useful because after a while all of them start looking alike. Particularly in the Two-Bit
Ripple Carry Adder where there are many wires coming from the same pin and the pins around
them. The wires are long and get to be very confusing if you dont keep track of what wire is
where on the schematic and what has already been placed and what has been forgotten. This was
a major learning experience after having tried setting up the Ripple Carry Adder and realizing I
had forgotten an entire track of my circuit and I just ended ripping the whole thing out of the
board and starting over which is really the best thing that I could have done.

Questions:
1. All of the design items can be found in the design section of this lab.
2. Worst case propagation delay for a full adder design. Each of the four colored paths
denoted below show the maximum delay path because each gate is a delay unit of 1 and
each of the four paths go through the maximum of three gates.

3. This diagram shows a ripple carry adder diagram using the concept of 4 half adders to
create the same circuit that is shown above in the design section.

Student Feedback:
1. I feel like a real engineer when I work with making my own designs and circuits. This lab
would have been easier if we had shorter wires or wire clippers.
2. Nothing about the lab manual was unclear this week.
3. I really think having wire clippers or shorter wires in the lab would make it much easier
to learn because then we could see our circuits more clearly and actually see the paths
that the wires are taking.