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Lab 3: Logic

Minimization with
Karnaugh Maps
Deanna Sessions
ECEN 248- 511
TA: Priya Venkatas
Date: September 24, 2013

Objectives:
The objective of this lab is to be able to simplify a calculator circuit by the usage of Karnaugh
Maps and truth tables. This means that after being given a basic set of rules for a profit calculator
on a farm we are able to create a truth table and convert the profit to binary. This is then used to
create a set of Karnaugh maps that are used to simplify the logic terms in a way that allow for a
simpler circuit to be made. The circuit is then created and the binary numbers are represented by
LED lights either turned on (high) or off (low) that will notate what the profit is. This is
using a series of skills that we have learned in lab and class to be able to create this logic table
and the corresponding schematic and circuit. In experiment 2, the objective is to be able to
properly configure a seven segment decoder in combination with a seven segment display. With
this we were able to learn how to have binary numbers decoded and sent to a display that shows
the decimal number the binary represents.

Design:
Experiment 1:
Karnaugh Maps
P2
I
0
0
1
1
P1
I
0
0
1
1
P0
I
0
0
1
1

S
0
1
1
0

S
0
1
1
0

S
0
1
1
0

CH
00
0
0
0
0
CH
00
0
1
1
0
CH
00
0
0
1
1

01
0

11
1

1
X
0

X
X
X

01

11
1
X
X

1
0
X
1

01
1
1
X
1

10
1
1
X
0

10
0

1
X
1

11
1
X
X
X

10
0
1
X
1

Truth Table for Experiment 1 from Pre-Lab


Decimal
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15

I
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1

S
0
0
0
0
1
1
1
1
0
0
0
0
1
1
1
1

C
0
0
1
1
0
0
1
1
0
0
1
1
0
0
1
1

H
0
1
0
1
0
1
0
1
0
1
0
1
0
1
0
1

P2
0
0
1
1
0
1
1
x
0
0
0
x
0
x
x
x

P1
0
1
0
1
1
0
1
x
0
1
1
x
1
x
x
x

Decimal
Profit
0
3
4
7
2
5
7
0
1
3
3
0
3
0
0
0

P0
0
1
0
1
0
1
1
x
1
1
1
x
1
x
x
x

Truth Table for Experiment 1 with the actual values for the Dont Cares
S.NO
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16

0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1

0
0
0
0
1
1
1
1
0
0
0
0
1
1
1
1

0
0
1
1
0
0
1
1
0
0
1
1
0
0
1
1

0
1
0
1
0
1
0
1
0
1
0
1
0
1
0
1

P2
0
0
1
1
0
1
1
1
0
0
0
1
0
1
1
1

P1
0
1
0
1
1
0
1
0
0
1
1
1
1
0
1
1

P0
0
1
0
1
0
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1

Schematic

Equations derived from the Karnaugh Maps


P2 = C * ~I + H * S
P1 = ~S * H + S * ~H + C * I
P0 = I + H + C * S

Experiment 2 (image from the Lab 3 Worksheet):

SEVEN SEGMENT DISPLAY


INPUTS
A
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
segment a

B
0
0
0
0
1
1
1
1
0
0
0
0
1
1
1
1

C
0
0
1
1
0
0
1
1
0
0
1
1
0
0
1
1

00

01

11

10

00

01

11

10

CD

AB

D
0
1
0
1
0
1
0
1
0
1
0
1
0
1
0
1

a
1
0
1
1
0
1
0
1
1
1
X
X
X
X
X
X

b
1
1
1
1
1
0
0
1
1
1
X
X
X
X
X
X

c
1
1
0
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
X
X
X
X
X
X

OUTPUTS
d
1
0
1
1
0
1
1
0
1
0
X
X
X
X
X
X

e
1
0
1
0
0
0
1
0
1
0
X
X
X
X
X
X

f
1
0
0
0
1
1
1
0
1
1
X
X
X
X
X
X

g
0
0
1
1
1
1
1
0
1
1
X
X
X
X
X
X

segment b
AB

00

01

11

10

00

01

11

10

00

01

11

10

00

01

11

10

00

01

11

10

00

01

11

10

00

01

11

10

00

01

11

10

CD

segment c
CD

AB

segment d
CD

AB

segment e
CD

AB

segment f
AB

00

01

11

10

00

01

11

10

00

01

11

10

00

01

11

10

CD

segment g
CD

AB

Results:
Experiment 1:
Through the usage of the tables and schematic shown in the design section I was able to create
the three parts of the profit calculator. Each segment is shown below and each segment
represents one bit of binary code and when all three segments are placed together they create a
full binary number that can be fed into a seven segment three input decoder that is shown in
Experiment 2 of this lab. However, these are not strung together and just turn an LED light on or
off depending on what the binary digit of the segment would be (lit for 1 and off for 0.) These
circuits all performed the way that they were supposed to, some took a bit of reconfiguring to
figure out what pins should be wired to certain things.
Segment 1:

Segment 2:

Segment 3:

Experiment 2:
By using a seven segment decoder I was able to set up a seven segment display and have it
display the proper number that was sent to it in binary. If this were attached to the three segments
from Experiment 1 then it would display the profit calculated about farm data. This circuit
behaved the way that I had expected however it took a couple of tries to get it in the proper
configuration. Shown below are two views of this circuit.
Top View:

Side View:

Conclusion:
In this lab I was able to successfully design and implement a circuit just by having a set of rules.
This taught me a lot about how real systems are designed and implemented because it had me
think about the goal at hand and then design a circuit that best fit those needs. I was able to look
at my set of needs for the profit calculator and create a truth table with three outputs representing
the binary profit that would happen in each of the scenarios in combining the four animals. From
there I was able to create Karnaugh maps for each of those binary digits (P2, P1, P0) and group
them to simplify each of them using Boolean Algebra. With this minimized form I was able to
design a circuit that fit the needs and then create it on a bread board. This means that I was able
to see the creation of this from start to finish and I think that is a pretty important thing to learn
how to do as a student of engineering. All of these skills will be useful in later labs because it
was the concepts of basic circuit design that can be used to build upon.

Questions:
1. This table is shown in the design portion of the lab.
2. The two tables are shown in the design portion. These values for the dont cares show
up to be values that would be invalid in the profit calculator because they are the binary
numbers 101 and 111 (decimal equivalent of 11 and 16.) If has these as the values
because they werent accounted for in the circuit design and they are invalid numbers that
cannot even be displayed on the Seven-Segment Display because they have too many
digits.
3. Y = M(1,2,4,7) = (A + B + C)*(A + B + C)*(A + B + C)*(A + B + C)
4. Open-collector outputs are used a lot in summing which is what I assume is why this
question is in this lab. I did a bit of research on this form of output and found that it is a
way to do level-shifting and interfacing between different types of logic (or to other
circuits.) In this case it takes 3 inputs and creates seven outputs to be connected to the
seven segment display to create the decimal number.
5. Diagrams are included throughout the lab.

Student Feedback:
1. I felt like an actual engineer even if it was just a simple circuit. This is the first lab where
I have actually felt like I was doing what I came to college to do. I was a part of every
part of the design of the circuit and I had the guidance of a great TA who was there to
answer any questions that I had. Not really anything I can say I disliked.
2. I didnt think anything was particularly unclear about the lab manual.
3. No improvements are needed in this particular lab assignment in my opinion.