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by Ir. Dr. Gue See Sew & Ir.

Chow Chee Meng


http://www.gnpgroup.com.my

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CONTENTS
INTRODUCTION
OBJECTIVES
SCOPE
INTERPRETATION
- JKR PROBE
- SPT

DESIGN PARAMETERS
LABORATORY TESTS
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INTRODUCTION
NEED
- Neglected topic; only briefly covered in universities
- Danger of using results directly without interpretation
- Decision on choice of values for soil parameters

SCOPE
- Common tests only

PROCESSES
- Specifications, Supervision, Presentation & Interpretation
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Proton Iswara

Ferrari
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OBJECTIVES

Illustrate the importance of


interpretation
Show methods of compiling
results and recognising errors

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SCOPE
- Common field and laboratory tests

FIELD TESTS
- JKR/ Mackintosh probe
- SPT (Standard Penetration Test)

LABORATORY TESTS
- Unconfined compression
- Triaxial Test (CIU with pore pressure measurement & CD)

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JKR PROBE
- Primitive tool
- Limited use
 Shallow bedrock profile (limestone with slump zone)
 Weak zone at shallow depth
 Shallow foundation
No recent fill and future settlement
Structure of low risk
If in doubt use borehole

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Apparatus
Cased hardened steel pointer of
25mm dia. and 60o cone.
22mm outer
dia. coupling

Prevent buckling during driving

28

12mm dia. HY
55C steel rod

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5kg drop
hammer

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CONE PENETROMETER

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For practical application:


- Results of JKR Probe = Mackintosh Probe
- Patented in the early days

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Termination criteria
Blows/300mm
(maximum 400 blows/300mm)

Max 15m depth

Precautionary measures
Free fall and consistent drop height
Components and apparatus properly
washed and oiled
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Typical test results

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Applications

Identifying localised soft/weak or slip plane.


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Applications

Identifying localised soft/weak or slip plane.


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T
T

T = compaction lift

Identifying nonnon-compliance fill.


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Comparison between JKR probe and SPT

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100

JKR Blows
200

300

400
0

12

12

Dep
epth (m)

JKR Plot
SPT'N' Plot
0

10

20

30

40

50

SPT'N'
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100

JKR Blows
200

300

400

De
epth (m)

10

10

12

12

JKR Plot

14

14

SPT'N' Plot
16

16
0

10

20

30

40

SPT'N'
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Depth From Ground Surface In Meter (m)

Number of Blows per 300 mm

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Limitations
 Shallow depth
 Not for gravelly ground
 Human errors (e.g. wrong counting, nonnon-consistent
drop height, exerting force to the drop hammer

 Misleading results at greater depth


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AW Rod

63.5kg Hammer

760mm
Free Fall

450mm

Split-Spoon Sampler
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Split-Spoon Sampler
Driving Shoe

Split Barrel
OD = 50mm
ID = 35mm
Length ~ 650mm
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SPT
SPT--N Value

Seating
drive

Test
drive

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5 - 10 - 30 - 20/30cm
Seating
drive

Test
drive

(30 + 20)
SPTSPT-N =
x 300 = 143
(75 + 30)

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Soil
Soft rock

Maximum blows to be applied


In seating drive
In test drive
25
50
25
100

MS 1056 : Part 9

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?
?

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LABORATORY TESTS

- Why?
- Types of Tests!
- How?
- Specifications?
(Load, Pressure, Time)

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SPECIFICATIONS
a) Triaxial test
1) For triaxial tests
- Strain rate
- Back pressure

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Special Attention
Triaxial Compression Test
-

No/Minimum Trimming

No Side Drains

No Multistage

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G&P-Form6 (Rev3)

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(Geotechnical Consultants)
LABORATORY TEST SCHEDULE
Project No : ..

Lab. Schedule No. ..

Project : ..

BOREHOLE

SAMPLE
NO.

TOT AL

Requested

DEPTH
m

M/C

A.L.

B.D.

S.G.

Direct
Shear
Box

SIEVE ANALYSIS
Mech.

Hydro.

Requested by :

Date : ..

Reviewed by : ...

Date :

CONSOLIDATION
Std.

Rapid

S.S.

TRIAXIAL
CIU

UU

CHEMICAL ANALYSIS
UCT

OR GANIC
CONTENT

PH

SULPH ATE
CO NTENT

CHLO RIDE
CONT ENT

Performed
Note :
1) CIU

Isotropic Consolidated Undrained Triaxial Test with pore pressure measurements


Use 70mm diameter sample (i.e. untrimmed Mazier sample)
Sample should not have side filter during consolidation
Shearing strain should be calculated using Cv values calculated during consolidation
stage.
Multi-stage testing not allowed
P-Q Stress Path Plotting shall be submitted.
2) For CIU Tests, stress path and other relevant data shall be submitted in Hard Copy (Plots and Tabulated
Data) and Soft Copy (Computer files data). Cell confining pressure of 0.5 v , 1.0v , 2.0v shall be adopted
for the CIU test, where v is the total vertical in-situ stress.
3) UU
Unconsolidated Undrained Test (at total overburden pressure of the sample)
4) UCT Unconfined Compression Test (untrimmed sample)

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5) To determine Cv from Consolidation Tests :Use Square-Root Time Method to determine d0.
Then use Log-Time Method to determine d100
6) Direct shear box test - Three (3) reconstituted specimens (60mm x 60mm x 20mm thick) shall be used.
- Applied normal stress pressure of 0.5 v, 1.0v , 2.0v shall be adopted for the
shear box test, where v is the total vertical in-situ stress.
7) All specimens for triaxial or consolidation tests shall be obtained from center of the recovered samples in
UD sampler.
8) 2 moisture content tests shall be carried out on soil immediately besides the specimens retained for
triaxial or consolidation tests.
9) Bulk density, particle size distribution and Atterberg Limit tests shall be carried out on every specimen
after the triaxial or consolidation tests.

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Interpretation of Laboratory Tests

Strength Parameters :
- Stability Analyses of Slopes & Embankment.
-

Bearing Capacity Analyses for Foundation.

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Strength Parameters

(A) Effective Stress :


-

For Long Term & Permanent Conditions.

Fully Drained Conditions.

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Typical Set-up of Triaxial Test

a)Base

b
d

b)Removable cylinder and


top cap
c)Loading ram
d)Rubber membrane

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Effective Stress Strength


Parameters c &

(i)
(ii)

 Interpretation from

Isotropic Consolidated Undrained Triaxial Test,

CIU + U

Isotropic Consolidated Drained Triaxial Test,

CID

(iii) Laboratory Shear Box Test (at v. slow


rate)

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MohrCoulomb

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STRESS PATH INTERPRETATION


Two types of Plot

(i)

MIT Stress Path Plot

The vertical axis :

t = (
1 - 3)/2

(T.W. Lambe of MIT, 1967)

= (
1 - 3)/2

The horizontal axis :

s = (
1 + 3)/2

s = (
1 + 3)/2

&

(ii) Cambridge Stress Path Plot

(Roscoe, Schofield and Wroth (1958) at the Cambridge, England)


The vertical axis :

q = 1 - 3

= 1 - 3

The horizontal axis :

p = (
1 + 2 + 3)/3

&

p = (
1+ 2+
3)/3

Terminology & Interpretation


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MIT & Cambridge Stress Path Plot


Tan = t / s
Tan = Sin
K
= c Cos
K
C =
Cos
Tan = q / p
Sin = (3 ) / ( 6 + )
r
= c (6 Cos ) / (3 Sin )
C

r (3 Sin )
6 Cos

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Scattered CIU Results


0

50

100

150

200

250

300

350

400

450

500

500

500

450

400

350

t' = (
1' - 3')/2

= sin-1 m

BH1 UD2
BH2 UD1
BH2 M1
BH3 UD2
BH4 UD1
BH5 M1
BH6 M1
BH6 M2
BH9 M1
BH10 UD1
BH10 UD3

300

c = a / (cos )
400

350

Proposed Design Line

Upper Bound
c = 5 kPa,
= 39

150

300

c = 3.5 kPa,
= 32

250

200

450

250

200

1
150

Lower Bound
c = 0 kPa,
= 29

100

50

100

50

0
0

50

100

150

200

250

300

350

400

450

500

s' = (1'+3')/2
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Correlations for
Preliminary Assessment of

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Values vs Clay Content (Skempton, 1964)

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vs % of Fines
35
30
25

Figure 3 : peak versus Percentage of Fines in Residual Soils

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c vs % of Fines

Figure 4 : c versus Percentage of Fines in Residual Soils


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Ring Shear test on sand-bentonite mixtures


(after Lupini, Skinner & Vaughan, 1981)
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YOU PAY FOR SOIL


INVESTIGATION
WHETHER YOU
CARRY OUT OR
NOT
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REFERENCES
ASTM, (1986)
Standard Test Method for Deep Quasi-static, Cone and Friction Cone
Penetration Tests of Soil, D3441-86, ASTM Committee D-18 on Soil and
Rock, USA

Dobie, M.J.D., & Wong, J.T.F. (1990)


Piezocone testing; Interpretation in Malaysia Alluvial Clays Geotechnical
Aspects of the North-South Expressway, PLUS & PL, Kuala Lumpur

Fleming, W.G.K. et al (1985)


Piling Engineering Survey University Press, Glasgow

Head, K. H (1984)
Manual of Soil Laboratory Testing

International Society for Soil Mechanics and Foundation (1988)


International Reference Test Procedure, ISSMFE Technical Committee on
Penetration Testing, Proposal to ISSMFE, Orlando, USA
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REFERENCES
Meigh, A.C. (1987)
Cone Penetration Testing: Methods and Interpretation, Construction
Industry Research and Information Association, CIRIA Ground
Engineering Report: In-site Testing, London

Proceedings of 1st International


Symposium on Penetration Testing/ ISOPT I/Florida, USA, 1988

Proceedings of 2nd European


Symposium on Penetration Testing/ ESOPT II/ Amsterdam/ May 1982

Robertson, P.K. and Campanella, R.G. (1988)


Guidelines for using the CPT, CPTU and Marchetti DMT for Geotechnical
Design, U.S. Department of Transportation, Federal Highway
Administration, Office of Research and Special Studies, Report No. FHWAPA-87-023+84-24
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Sanglerat, G, (1972)
The Penetrometer and Soil Exploration, Elsevier Publishing Company,
Amsterdam, Netherlands

Teh, C.I. and Houlsby, G.T. (1991)


An Analytical Study of the Cone Penetration Test in Clay, Geotechnique,
Vol. 41, No. 1, pp: 17-34

Gue, S.S. & Tan, Y.C. (2003)


Current Status & Future Development of Geotechnical Engineering
Practice in Malaysia, 12th ARC on Soil Mechanics & Geotechnical
Engineering, Singapore
Gue, S.S. & Tan, Y.C. (2006)
Landslides: Abuses of the Prescriptive Method, International
Conference on Slopes, Malaysia

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