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DYNAMICS ANALYSIS

BASIC DYNAMICS

REVIEW OF FUNDAMENTALS

BASIC DYNAMICS

TABLE OF CONTENTS

Page

SINGLE DOF SYSTEM

1-3

1-5

1-8

1-12

1-18

1-25

1-30

1-34

1-44

BASIC DYNAMICS

Single Degree of Freedom (SDOF) problem

Initially a free vibration model is used to describe the natural frequency

Damping is then introduced and the concept of critical damping and the

undamped solution is shown

Finally a Forcing function is applied and the response of the SDOF is explored in

terms of time dependency and frequency dependency and compared to the

terms found in the equations of motion

BASIC DYNAMICS

Creating a spring element : Step 1

BASIC DYNAMICS

Creating a spring element : Step 2

BASIC DYNAMICS

Creating a spring element : Step 3

BASIC DYNAMICS

Creating a mass element : Step 1

BASIC DYNAMICS

Creating a mass element : Step 5

BASIC DYNAMICS

Creating a mass element : Step 5

BASIC DYNAMICS

10

Creating constraints: Step 1

BASIC DYNAMICS

11

Setting up Analysis: Step 1

BASIC DYNAMICS

12

Setting up Analysis: Step 2

BASIC DYNAMICS

13

Setting up Analysis: Step 3

BASIC DYNAMICS

14

Reviewing Results: Step 1

k

= 100

m

k

= 10 rad/s

n =

m

f = n / 2 = 1.59 Hz

BASIC DYNAMICS

15

Data defined in .NAS file: SOL, Case Control, Parameters and EIGRL

BASIC DYNAMICS

16

Data defined in .NAS file: CELAS2, CONM2, Parameters and EIGRL

BASIC DYNAMICS

17

Spring types

BASIC DYNAMICS

18

Spring types

BASIC DYNAMICS

19

Spring types

Set up in Femap:

CELAS2 DOF Spring

CROD

Spring/Damper

CBUSH

Spring/Damper

with BUSH

formulation

1 DOF element axial stiffness, links to PROD and MAT1 to define AE/L

6 DOF element linked to PBUSH

CELAS1 1 DOF spring element with links to PELAS property definition

Format:

BASIC DYNAMICS

20

Spring types

In general CBUSH is recommended in most cases. It will be used in more advanced

analysis later in the course.

The main advantages are:

Extendable to Frequency dependent and nonlinear

Arbitrary elastomeric center

No errors due to large rotation and other grounding effects

Special purpose 1D version for shock mounts

BASIC DYNAMICS

21

p(t)

m = mass (inertia)

u(t)

m

p = applied force

k

u = displacement of mass

&u& = acceleration of mass

load input p can vary in time

m, k and b are constant with time in linear analysis

BASIC DYNAMICS

22

mu&&(t ) + bu& (t ) + ku (t ) = p (t )

Inertia Force

Stiffness Force

Applied Force

Damping Force

BASIC DYNAMICS

23

of motion reduces to:

mu&&(t ) + ku (t ) = 0

Assume a solution of the form:

u (t ) = A sin nt + B cos nt

This form defines the response as being HARMONIC,

combinations of sine and cosine shape responses with a

resonant frequency of:

BASIC DYNAMICS

24

by:

k

n =

m

Differentiating solution :

u& (t ) = An cos n t Bn sin nt

When t = 0, B n sin( n t ) = 0 thus

u& (t = 0)

u& (0)

A=

u (t ) =

sin nt + u (0) cos nt

BASIC DYNAMICS

25

(Cont.)

The response of the Spring will be harmonic, but the actual form of the

response through time will be affected by the initial conditions:

If u ( 0) = 0 and u& ( 0)

or velocity

If

=0

u&0

Ifu ( 0)

If

phase change), magnitude u0

response is phase and magnitude

dependent on the initial values

BASIC DYNAMICS

26

The graph is from a transient analysis of a spring mass system with Initial

velocity conditions only

k = 100

m=1

T

Amp

u&0 = 1

k

= 10 rad/s

m

f = n / 2 = 1.59 Hz

n

Disp.

Time (Seconds)

BASIC DYNAMICS

27

The results we saw from NEi Nastran had the correct frequency, but how do we

get the displacement value?

u&0

u0

BASIC DYNAMICS

28

energy for a particular unique (or eigen) value solution

(1.0)

BASIC DYNAMICS

29

mu&&(t ) + bu& (t ) + ku (t ) = 0

There are 3 types of solution to this, defined as:

Critically Damped

Overdamped

Underdamped

If the door oscillates through the closed position it is underdamped

If it creeps slowly to the closed position it is overdamped.

If it closes in the minimum possible time, with no overswing, it is

critically damped.

BASIC DYNAMICS

30

decay from the initial conditions:

u (t ) = ( A + Bt )e bt / 2 m

The damping in this case is defined as:

b = bcr = 2 km = 2m n

A system is overdamped when b > bcr

We are generally only interested in the final case - underdamped

BASIC DYNAMICS

31

For the underdamped case b < bcr and the solution is the form:

u (t ) = e bt / 2 m ( A sin d t + B cos d t )

d

d = n 1 2

b

=

bcr

In most analyses

BASIC DYNAMICS

d n

32

The graph is from a transient analysis of the previous spring mass system with

damping applied

Frequency and

period as before

Amplitude is a

function of damping

Disp.

5% Damping

2%

Damping

Time

BASIC DYNAMICS

33

note that

p sin t

The solution consists of two terms:

The initial response, due to initial conditions which decays rapidly in the presence of

damping

The steady-state response as shown:

u (t ) = p / k

sin(t + )

(1

) 2 + (2 / n ) 2

BASIC DYNAMICS

34

dynamic characteristics:

Phase lead of the response relative to the input

(see next page)

u (t ) = p / k

and dominates as tends

to 0.0

sin(t + )

(1

) 2 + (2 / n ) 2

response to 0.0

the scaling of the response

At = n this term = 0.0

With no damping present this

results in an infinite response

BASIC DYNAMICS

Magnification Factor 1/2

35

= tan

2 / n

BASIC DYNAMICS

36

Summary:

For

<< 1

n

Magnification factor

Phase angle

For

>> 1

n

Magnification factor

Phase angle

For

1 (static solution)

360 (response is in phase with the force)

0 (no response)

180 (response has opposite sign of force)

1

n

Magnification factor

Phase angle

1/2

270

BASIC DYNAMICS

37

forcing function we will use a Frequency Response

Analysis

This method allows us to compare the response of the

spring with the input force applied to the spring over a wide

range of input frequencies

It is more convenient in this case than running multiple

Transient Analyses, each with different input frequencies

We will apply the input load as 1 unit of force over a

frequency range from .1 Hz to 5 Hz

Damping is 1% of Critical

BASIC DYNAMICS

38

Static Response = p/k = .01

Peak Response = .5 at 1.59 Hz

Note:

Use of a Log scale helps identify low

order response

Displacement

Frequency

BASIC DYNAMICS(Hz)

39

and we will cover these in a later section

For now, note the response is as predicted by the equation of motion

At 0 Hz result is p/k

At 1.59 Hz result is p/k factored by Dynamic Magnification

At 5 Hz result is low and becoming insignificant

In phase up to 1.59 Hz

Out of phase180 Degrees after 1 .59 Hz

BASIC DYNAMICS

40

We now try a Transient analysis with a unit force applied to the spring at 1.59

Hz

Again damping of 1% Critical is applied

The result is shown on the next page:

The response takes around 32 seconds to reach a steady-state solution

After this time the displacement response magnitude stays constant at .45

units

The theoretical value of .5 is not reached due to numerical inaccuracy (see

later) and the difficulty of hitting the sharp peak

BASIC DYNAMICS

41

Displacement

Time

BASIC DYNAMICS

42

If we plot input and output at the steady-state period, we can see that the input signal is

not very accurate hence our problem finding the exact magnification factor

We can also see the phasing between input and output is around 90 degrees as expected

at resonance

output

input

Lead = 0.18 sec (approx)

=103 degrees (approx 90)

BASIC DYNAMICS

43

1.

2.

3.

4.

5.

6.

7.

8.

9.

10.

11.

12.

13.

R. W. Clough and J. Penzien, Dynamics of Structures, McGraw-Hill, 1975.

S. Timoshenko, D. H. Young, and W. Weaver, Jr., Vibration Problems in Engineering,

4th Ed., John Wiley & Sons, 1974.

K. J. Bathe and E. L. Wilson, Numerical Methods in Finite Element Analysis, PrenticeHall, 1976.

J. S. Przemieniecki, Theory of Matrix Structural Analysis, McGraw-Hill, 1968.

C. M. Harris and C. E. Crede, Shock and Vibration Handbook, 2nd Ed., McGraw-Hill,

1976.

L. Meirovitch, Analytical Methods in Vibrations, MacMillan, 1967.

L. Meirovitch, Elements of Vibration Analysis, McGraw-Hill, 1975.

M. Paz, Structural Dynamics Theory and Computation, Prentice-Hall, 1981.

W. T. Thomson, Theory of Vibrations with Applications, Prentice-Hall, 1981.

R. R. Craig, Structural Dynamics: An Introduction to Computer Methods, John Wiley

& Sons, 1981.

S. H. Crandall and W. D. Mark, Random Vibration in Mechanical Systems, Academic

Press, 1963.

J. S. Bendat and A. G. Piersel, Random Data Analysis and Measurement Techniques,

2nd Ed., John Wiley & Sons, 1986.

BASIC DYNAMICS

44

BASIC DYNAMICS

45

TABLE OF CONTENTS

Page

2 DOF EQUATIONS OF MOTION

1-47

1-73

LANCZOS METHOD

1-83

MASS REPRESENTATION

1-84

1-86

1-87

1-89

1-101

BASIC DYNAMICS

46

K

DOF: 1

2M

3

K

4

K = 1000 lbf/in

M = 20 lb

BASIC DYNAMICS

47

OVERVIEW

of a spring mass system.

In this section we will look at Normal Modes analysis

of Multi Degree of Freedom problems

The steps we will follow are:

Building a 2 DOF equation of motion using engineering

approach.

Summarizing some important ideas about Normal Modes

that emerge.

Setting the same problem using a Matrix approach.

BASIC DYNAMICS

48

ENGINEERING APPROACH

x1

k

x2

k

2M

First, set up free body diagrams for the masses.

kx1

k(x2-x1)

k(x2-x1)

2M

m&x&1

kx2

m&x&2

For 1st mass:

M&x&1 = kx1 + k ( x2 x1 )

2 M&x&2 = k ( x1 x2 ) kx2

BASIC DYNAMICS

49

x1 = A1 sin t

This means they vibrate at the same frequency but have

different

amplitudes A.

x2 = A2 sin t

We want to find what the frequency is, and the amplitudes.

Now

&x&1 = 2 A1 sin t

&x&2 = 2 A2 sin t

Then putting the harmonic terms into the free body equations.

For the 1st mass:

So

(2k M 2 )A1 kA2 = 0

2

so

kA1 + 2k 2 M 2 A2 = 0

BASIC DYNAMICS

50

we have:

(2k 2 M )

A1 0

=

(2k 2 M ) A2 0

amplitudes

A

1

A2

BASIC DYNAMICS

51

above equation, letting 2=.

Two roots of the equation are found as 1 and 2.

These roots are called Eigenvalues.

k

1 = 1 = 0.634

m

2

2 = 2

k

= 2.366

m

balance are 1 and 2.

BASIC DYNAMICS

52

into the equations of motion.

In turns out we can only solve for the ratio of the

amplitudes.

1

A1

= 0.731

A2

A1

= 2.73

A2

normal modes. We do not know the absolute

amplitudes, only relative amplitudes.

BASIC DYNAMICS

53

the relative amplitudes as Mode Shapes or

Eigenvectors.

2

A1 2.73

=

A

1

.

00

A1 0.731

=

A

1

.

000

2

0.731

1.000

-2.731

Mode 1

1.000

Mode 2

BASIC DYNAMICS

54

harmonic.

Resonance is found at a set of Natural Frequencies

where the Inertia terms balance the Elastic terms.

The Natural Frequencies are calculated by an

Eigenvalue Method

The relative amplitude, or mode shape, is found for

each natural frequency.

BASIC DYNAMICS

55

Solution.

k

DOF: 1

2M

and [K3] are:

1 1

[K ] = [K ] = [K ] = k

1

BASIC DYNAMICS

56

the individual element stiffness matrices [K1],[K2],

and [K3]:

1

2

3

4

DOF:

1 1

1 1 + 1 1

[K ] = k

1 1 + 1 1

1

1

0.0

2 1

[K ] = k

1

2

and

1 0

[M ] = m

0 2

BASIC DYNAMICS

57

[M ]{&x&} + [K ]{x} = 0

If we substitute in

{x} = { }e

{&x&} = { }e

[M ]{ } + [K ]{ } = 0

i t

And

Then

So

it

{} , which varies sinusoidally with a

frequency .

([K ] [M ]){ } = 0

2

2 1

0

2 1

k

1 2 m 0 2 { } = 0

BASIC DYNAMICS

shape, {}, and frequency where

the inertia terms and elastic terms

balance

58

in our case)

Then we have n sets of unique Eigenvalues i2 and

eigenvectors {i}

where i = 1 to n

For each of these sets, the inertia terms balance the elastic

terms and this is the definition of resonance.

BASIC DYNAMICS

59

So at

k

m

0.731

{1} =

1

.

000

1.000

2

frequency

BASIC DYNAMICS

60

Let k = 1000 units of force / length

Let m = 20 units of mass

Then

k

1 = 0.634 = 5.629 rads s = 0.896 Hz

m

k

2 = 2.366 = 10.875 rads s = 1.731Hz

m

(Hertz)

f

2

BASIC DYNAMICS

61

forces at DOF 2 and 3 we will get a displacement

response which is a combination of the two mode

shapes we calculated.

n

So {x(t )} = {i }i(t)

i =1

in our case

{x (t )} = 11 (t ) + 2 2 (t )

called the Modal Displacements. We will return to

this when we apply loading in later sections.

0.731

{x(t )} =

1.000

1(t)

BASIC DYNAMICS

-2.731

1.000

2(t)

62

DOF: 1

2M

3

K

4

K = 1000 lbf/in

M = 20 lb

BASIC DYNAMICS

63

definition of the CELAS2 elements

BASIC DYNAMICS

64

elements, there is one for each mass point.

BASIC DYNAMICS

65

The NEi Nastran Solution , Case Control,

Parameter and EIGRL definition:

BASIC DYNAMICS

66

The NEi Nastran results showing first and second

natural frequencies

BASIC DYNAMICS

67

The meaning of the Generalized Mass and Stiffness

will be discussed in the next few pages.

1 = 0.796

k

= 5.629rad / s = 0.896 Hz

m

2 = 1.538

k

= 10.875rad / s = 1.731Hz

m

BASIC DYNAMICS

68

The NEi Nastran mode shape results:

BASIC DYNAMICS

69

calculation and Nastran is interesting:

In the hand calc we normalized displacement at Grid 3 to 1.000

quite arbitrarily

2.731

{2 } =

1

.

000

means the maximum value in the e-vector list is set to modal mass

1.000 for each e-vector, so

.19858

{2 } =

.07268

This emphasizes that all we know about the e-vectors in a Normal

Modes analysis is their relative values we know the shape, but

not the amplitude.

The commonly used normalization method called Mass

normalization is discussed over page.

BASIC DYNAMICS

70

Eigenvector because it can be thought of as a

universal standard.

We scale {} so that for each mode:

{ }T [M ]{ } = [I ]

{i }T [M ]{i } = 1.0

analyses, or even to test data, then it becomes

meaningful to compare the mass normalized

eigenvectors as:

{MODEL1}T [M ]{MODEL 2 }

{MODEL }T [M ]{TEST }

BASIC DYNAMICS

71

The term {}T [M]{} is called the Generalized Mass.

It is clearly orthogonal if we can equate it to an Identity

matrix in Mass Normalisation.

In general, orthogonality is defined as:

{i }T [M ]{i } = mi

{i }T [M ]{ j }= 0.0

similar way:

{i }T [K ]{i } = ki

{i }T [K ]{ j }= 0.0

BASIC DYNAMICS

72

Normal Modes of Multi Degree of Freedom (MDOF)

BASIC DYNAMICS

73

Beam Section properties:

BASIC DYNAMICS

74

Analysis Results:

First 10 Natural Frequencies range from 166 Hz to 2764 Hz

Generalized Mass is 1.0 in all modes due to Mass Normalization

BASIC DYNAMICS

75

Analysis Results:

It is very important to identify each mode by shape as well as by frequency. Only by

doing both will an unambiguous definition of the response be made.

For example the frequencies could easily shift to switch Mode 9 and 10. Only by

description or plot can we confirm which is which

Mode

Frequency

Description

166.75

xz plane bend 1

409.17

xy plane bend 1

454.60

xz plane bend 2

878.67

xz plane bend 3

1033.28

xy plane bend 2

1427.49

xz plane bend 4

1842.85

xy plane bend 3

2089.58

xz plane bend 5

2761.51

axial

10

2764.00

xy plane bend 4

BASIC DYNAMICS

76

XY plane Modes

BASIC DYNAMICS

77

XZ Plane Modes

BASIC DYNAMICS

78

Axial Mode

BASIC DYNAMICS

79

Remember, we defined the contribution of each mode as the modal

displacement:

So

{x(t )} = { }

i =1 to n

{x(t )} = 11 + 2 2

loading in the XZ plane using the first three modes. The assumption is that

the higher modes do not contribute significantly to the solution.

This is a significant advantage of modal methods, the response of the

beam, {x(t)}, has 222 physical degrees of freedom.

But we can represent the response by 3 Modal DOF, i

EXTREME CARE must be taken when assuming which modes contribute and

we will discuss this more in later sections.

As a taster consider the following over page

BASIC DYNAMICS

80

Possible Problems with 3 modes only:

If we have loading in the XY plane, the response will be represented by first

order bending and will therefore be limited in accuracy

If the XZ loading excites at multiple inputs as shown, then the first two

modes may not represent the response, and the third order mode may be

needed

BASIC DYNAMICS

81

Repeat the example with different element sizes:

Frequency Description

Mode

Frequency Description

Frequency Description

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

9

10

BASIC DYNAMICS

82

LANCZOS METHOD

Defines data needed to perform real eigenvalue (vibration or buckling)

analysis with the Lanczos method.

Many advanced settings, basics covered here

BASIC DYNAMICS

83

MASS REPRESENTATION

parameter - what does this mean?

Nastran requires consistent units.

Some systems of Units (including the US system) define density as

being a Weight Per Unit Volume (eg. lbs/in3).

This is not a consistent unit if used with loads of lbf and dimensions of

inches.

units to mass units by scaling by the appropriate units of

acceleration due to gravity.

PARAM,WTMASS,0.00259 converts the mass of the structure to

the correct units of (lbf/in/s^2).

Some industries also mix SI units for convenience, so density may

be given in N/m3 instead of the correct term Kg/m3

In this case PARAM,WTMASS,0.102 will scale by g = 9.81m/s^2

BASIC DYNAMICS

84

MASS REPRESENTATION

measured in mm for convenience, but still want to apply forces

in N.

When converting a non-standard system of units the golden rule

is to apply Newtons Law of Motion and then dimensional

equivalence

Force = Mass * Acceleration

N = (mass units) * mm/s2

Kg *m/s2 = (mass units) *mm/s2

Kg *m/s2 = (Kg*103) * mm/s2

Tonnes/mm3 and these units should be used in the model

In this case if units of Kg mass and Kg/mm3 density are used in the

model PARAM,WTMASS,0.001 will scale the mass and density

units correctly.

BASIC DYNAMICS

85

allows a Rigid Body Mode (stress-free mode) or a mechanism.

There should be six Rigid Body Modes.

A later section is devoted to discussion of Rigid Body Modes

BASIC DYNAMICS

86

and normal modes of structures

To assess the dynamic characteristics of a structure.

For example, if a structure is going to be subject to rotational or cyclic

loading input, to avoid excessive vibrations, it might be necessary to

see if the frequency of the input is close to one of the natural

frequencies of the structure.

Rotational speed of an automobile wheel

Rotational speed of a lathe

Vortex shedding or flutter of bridge and deck structures

Assess the possible dynamic amplification of the loads.

If a structure is loaded near a natural frequency with an input that

matches that frequency then the dynamic amplification can be

significant for a lightly damped structure, perhaps being an order of

magnitude higher than an equivalent static loading

can exceed static loading

Dynamic response of Tacoma Narrows bridge, runaway

loading

BASIC DYNAMICS

87

subsequent dynamic analysis

We will see later that we have a class of transient and frequency

response analysis methods that use modal techniques, using

Modal data.

For Transient response, calculate time steps based on the highest

frequency of interest

For Frequency response, calculate the range of frequencies of

interest

Identify optimum location of accelerometers, etc.

Avoid overstressing of components

A normal modes analysis will give a clear indication of of frequency

shifts, changes in mode shapes to allow an early judgment on

effect of design changes to be made

BASIC DYNAMICS

88

mesh density

element type

mass distribution

detail of constraints

detail of joints

BASIC DYNAMICS

89

MESH DENSITY

Mesh Density

The mesh must be fine enough to permit a representation of the of the

highest mode considered

In the case of the beam, we assumed the second order mode was

sufficient. The mesh is adequate for this.

However, if the higher order mode shown is required, then the mesh is

inadequate.

BASIC DYNAMICS

90

SIZE

Rectangular plate.

The coarse mesh (2 x 1)is unable to represent any higher order bending or torsional

modes, so it drops these and finds higher frequency in plane extensional and

shearing modes

Mode

133.1

Mesh 1a (10 x 4)

Description

Mode

120.1

348.7

821.4

2043

Mesh 1b (2 x 1)

Description

Mode

133.6

395.7

689.6

624.5

832.8

1003.

2133.

2278.

2144.

2332.

2358.

8722.

2358.

3705.

9988.

4051.

4344.

16667

4552.

4763.

Bending

20793

5633.

Bending

10

5569.

Bending

10

22799

10

6433.

BASIC DYNAMICS

Description

91

ELEMENT TYPE

Element Type

The type of element chosen is very important in dynamic

analysis, in that it can control the stiffness representation

and to a lesser extent the mass distribution of the structure.

Examples of poor choices are:

Using TET4 elements to model solid structures. If they are used

in relatively thin regions that have plate or shell the results can

be very poor. TET10 or preferably HEXA are a better choice.

If RBE2 is used instead of an RBE3 on a flexible structure such

as a satellite platform then it may over stiffen the structure and

influence the frequencies badly.

different elements.

BASIC DYNAMICS

92

Bracket Example

Bath Tub Fitting ( Tension to Shear Load transfer )

The geometry is found in the Femap examples folder.

Constrain as shown

Apply Material as shown

Mesh with TET10s; fine, coarse TET4s; fine , coarse

BASIC DYNAMICS

93

Bracket Example

Bath Tub Fitting ( Tension to Shear Load transfer )

Fine mesh TET10 model is assumed as baseline.

A very coarse TET10 mesh has maximum errors of 15.8%

A very coarse TET4 mesh has maximum errors of 135%

A fine mesh TET4 has maximum errors of 7.7%

TET10

fine

Mode

coarse

TET4

v coarse

fine

coarse

v coarse

difference 105259 DOF difference

3291 DOF difference 1216 DOF

difference

1

793

808

1.98

918

15.80

854

7.69

1274

60.77

1867

135.53

2

873

885

1.46

1007

15.42

935

7.15

1349

54.60

1917

119.70

3

2628

2653

0.95

2805

6.73

2770

5.40

3493

32.93

4760

81.13

4

3949

4065

2.92

4503

14.03

4209

6.57

5783

46.45

8115

105.49

5

5696

5613

-1.47

5772

1.32

5884

3.30

7171

25.88

10708

87.98

6

5860

6078

3.71

6770

15.53

6277

7.12

8065

37.63

10981

87.38

7

6910

6960

0.72

7094

2.66

7063

2.22

9302

34.61

12932

87.16

8

6995

7207

3.03

7819

11.78

7324

4.71

9535

36.31

14794

111.49

9

9491

9740

2.63

10562

11.29

9925

4.58

13279

39.92

18702

97.06

10

10046

10250

2.03

11294

12.43

10679

BASIC DYNAMICS

6.30

14778

47.10

20044

99.53

94

We are interested in the first elastic mode of the tuning fork. The theoretical value is

440 Hz, and is known as the A above middle C musical note.

As an aside, it is interesting to note that the vertical translation of the stem

is what excites an instrument or another object that the tuning fork is placed

against.

Import the Femap geometry

Test the first natural frequency

Adjust the length of the tuning fork to get a better match

BASIC DYNAMICS

95

MASS DISTRIBUTION

Mass Distribution

A poor stiffness representation can influence a structure

badly and a poor mass representation can also have the

same effect.

The mass values may be wrong due to user error. The

values can be checked in the Nastran output file

There are two forms of mass representation in Nastran

lumped and coupled. Differences may occur in the analysis

depending on which is selected.

BASIC DYNAMICS

96

DETAIL OF JOINTS

Detail of Joints:

Is the joint flexibility correct?

For example a corner of a formed sheet structure will have an

internal radius which increases its torsional stiffness. It may be

important in this case to include the torsional stiffness via ROD

element.

bolt stiffness may play an important role in dynamic analysis.

CQUAD4

CROD

CQUAD4

BASIC DYNAMICS

97

DETAIL OF CONSTRAINTS

Detail of Constraints

When we idealize a structure we always make assumptions about

the connection to an adjacent structure or to ground.

Hence if a panel is surrounded on all sides by reinforcing structure, do

we represent that as fully built in, simply supported, or model an

equivalent edge stiffness using CELAS or CBUSH elements?

such as the push-fit and snap connectors of a typical car dashboard

assembly.

Remember there is no such thing in nature as an infinitely stiff

connection or structure.

The mode shapes of the tower shown on the next slide are

significantly changed by the fact that the connection to ground is

not rigid. Errors will occur if it is assumed fully fixed.

BASIC DYNAMICS

98

CONNECTION

Objectives:

Account for the soil-base interaction using CBUSH

elements.

Elements

Tower Leg

RBE2

BASIC DYNAMICS

99

HAND CALCULATIONS

Hand Calculations

Manual checking of the frequencies in an analysis to make

sure answers are in the right ballpark can involve:

Using simple analogies of the structure to match standard

solutions in Roark or Blevins

Applying a 1g load in relevant directions and using the resultant

displacement at the cg. to calculate an equivalent SDOF

frequency.

Using idealization techniques to create simple FE models to

verify important modes of a complex model.

consider whether stiffness or mass dominates errors and

that frequency can be relatively insensitive to errors in both.

BASIC DYNAMICS

100

DOING FURTHER ANALYSIS

Is the frequency range adequate (we will discuss this more in

the section on modal effective mass)

Are the modes clearly identified

Is Mesh Density adequate

Is the Element Type appropriate

Is the Mass distribution correct

Is coupled vs. lumped mass important

Are the internal joints modeled correctly

Are the constraints modeled correctly

Do the results compare with hand calcs, previous experience or

test

BASIC DYNAMICS

101

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