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PART 1: Intro to management

Chapter 1: Managing in organizations
1.1 Introduction
Organisation - a group of two or more people working together in a structured fashion in order to attain a set
of goals that create value.
1.2 Managing to add value to resources
Tangible resources - physical assets such as plant, people, finance; things you can see and touch.
Intangible resources - non-physical assets such as information, reputation, knowlegde.
Competence - ''way of working'', skills and abilities by which resources are deployed effectively.
Value - it is added to resources when they are transformed into goods or services; worth more than their
original cost plus the cost of information (producing an output more valuable than input).
Entrepreneuer - someone with a new project/activity, and is usually associated with creative thinking, driving
innovation and championing change.
makes organizations work.
1.3 Meanings of management
Universal human activity
Management is this way occurs whenever people take responsibility for activity and consciously try to shape its
progress and outcome.
Manager - someone who gets things done with the aid of people and other resoruces.
Management - activity of getting things done with the aid of people and other resources.
Distinct role
Management in this way develops when activities previously being part of the work become the responsibility
not of the employee but of owners of their agents.
Role - sum of the expectations that other people have of a person occupying a position (expresses specific
responsibilities and requirements of the job).
1.4 Specialisation between areas of management
Functional specialisation
General managers - responsible for the performance of a distinct unit of the organisation
Functional managers - responsible for the performance of an area of work.
Line managers - performance of activities that directly meet customers' needs.
Staff managers - performance of activities that support line managers.
Project managers - responsible for managing a project, usually intended to change some element of an
organisation or its context.
Management hierarchies
Performing direct operations: doing manual and mental work to deliver products and services (from shop
workers to lawyers)
Supervising stuff on direct operations: directing and controling the dialy work of a group or process (supervisor
of a production team, head chef in a hotel) --> supervisors/first-line managers
Managing supervisors or first-line managers: ensuring that first-line managers work in line with company
policies; provide communication link, telling first-line managers what they expect, and briefing senior managers
about current issues --> middle managers
Managing the business: work of a small group establishing policy and having a particular responsibility for
managing relations with people and institutions in the world outside (shareholders or media...) --> board of
directors
1.5 Influencing trough the process of managing
Direct methods: interpersonal skills - persuading a boss or customer.
Indirect methods:

shaping relationships with people within and beyond organisation Role: figurehead . underlying values of units .spotting opportunities.seeking agreement with other parties on whom they depend.more successful managers spent much more time networking than the less successful.7 Influencing through shaping the context Dimensions of context Internal context . 1. how to use resources) 2. demonstrating creativity.seeking out. briefing media) Category: Interpersonal .transmiting information to people outside the organisation (speaking at conference. and use the information and ideas they gather to create something valuable.sharing information (forwarding reports. personnel and other resources (how much to spend on advertising etc.moves abstract plans closer to reality by deciding (how to allocate time and effort . briefing stuff) Spokerperson . interacting with outsiders. Wolf and Moser (2009) . areas of work in which to engage. motivating. personal contact. defending interests Managers as networkers Networking -socialising. Organising .dealing with problems and changes that are unexpected (resolving conflicts among stuff) Role: resource allocator .sets out the overall direction of the work to be done (deciding on the direction of the business. reports. She asked 160 senior and middle managers to keep a diary for four weeks --> they tipically worked in a fragmented.directing. communicating.10 management roles Category: Informational . passing on rumours.through the proces of managing . beliefs. equipment. comparing it with plan and taking corrective action 1. Effective networkers seek out useful connections and contacts. Leading .) Role: negotiator .task of monitoring progress. receiving. Conclusion of study (work by Luthans in 1988) . 1.norms. developing their skills and confidence) Role: liaison .obtaining information & passing it to others Role: monitor .when they manage the transformation of resources into more valuable outputs. screening information (websites. training other people.through shaping the context Rosemary Stewart She studied how managers spend their time.maintaining information links in beyond the organisation Category: Decisional Role: entrepreneur .confirmed link between networking and career success. oral: gossip. conversations with customers) Role: disseminator . symbolic and legal duties (receiving visitors signing legal documents. Controlling .through the tasks of managing . initiating change (introducing a new product) Role: disturbance handler .contains elements that make up the internal environment within which managers work (they represent the immediate context of the manager's work): • culture .activity of generating effort and commitment (influencing people of all kinds.create structurewhat equipment people need.6 Influencing thorugh the tasks of managing A second way .performing ceremonial. presenting retirment gifts or quality awards) Role: leader ..individually or in team) 4.so they depend on people in that environment being willing to buy or value their inputs (commercial firms sell their goods and services and use the revenue to buy resources). Henry Mintzberg . communicating . how to implement change) 3. politicking. Planning .choosing among competing demands for money. interrupted fashion. External environment Organisations depend on the external environment for the tangible and intanigble resources they need to do their work .

limitation of knwolegde and proposals 1. question their accuracy and validity Recognising the importance of context .work in an increasingly international economy .achieve environmentally sustainable performance .meet expectations about governance and control .considering alternatives . beliefs and values. External context .asking how others dealt with a situation.micro and a general . skills.questioning assumptions .their knowlegde. attitudes.people are able to influence events and shape their context (people on powerful positions choose which business to enter or leave) Context --> dependent variable Interaction .past.country's laws and regulations) Context --> independent variable Choice .a desired future state of an organisation unit • structure . as what people do now reflect past events and future uncertainities).industry a company is in.available financial resources Historical context . seeking evidence about the effectiveness of different approaches Seeing limitations .• objectives .includes an immediate competitive .9 Integrating themes Managers are expected to: .context influences thought and action.macro environment (part of the manager's work is to identify and adapt to external changes) Managers and their context Managers use one of three theories (even subconsciously) of links between their context and their action: Determinism . goals • people business processes . There are four skills of critical thinking: . rather than a single path. present and future events (managing takes place within the flow of history.looking for assumptions that underlie taken-for-granted ideas.recognising limitations (career benefits if u can do al of them) Identifying and challenging assumptions .facilities and equipment to turn inputs in outputs • power .activities to transform materials and information • finance .how tasks are divides and co-ordinated to meet objectives • technology .analysing context .factors in the external context determine and organisation's performance (micro .8 Critical thinking It is a positive activity that enables people to see more possibilities. macro . ideas and methods in one context will not work equally in other Imagining and exploring alternatives .people are influenced and influence context (interpret existing context and act to change it to promote objectives) -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------1.