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INSTRUCTORS MANUAL

TO
ACCOMPANY
INTRODUCTION
TO
ENVIRONMENTAL ENGINEERING
4TH EDITION

Mackenzie L. Davis
Michigan State University
With
Geneva M. Hulslander
Michigan State University

WCB/McGraw-Hill
Dubuque, IA

ii
TABLE OF CONTENTS

Introduction....................................................................................................iii
Errata..............................................................................................................iv
Pedagogical Thoughts....................................................................................v
Sample Course Outline ..................................................................................vii
Sample Exams................................................................................................ix
Solutions to End of Chapter Problems...........................................................1-1

iii
INTRODUCTION
This manual provides solutions for all of the end of chapter problems and discussion
questions in Introduction to Environmental Engineering. In typing the solutions, errors in
the problem statements have come to light. Errata for these statements are included in this
manual. We encourage instructors to review problems before they are assigned to ensure
that all the data and assumptions are clear. McGraw-Hill will post other errata as they are
brought to our attention.
I have provided some pedagogical remarks on the organization of the text as well as
suggestions for use of the pedagogical aids. These include suggestions for use of end of
chapter review items and discussion questions.
A sample course outline and sample exams follow the pedagogical remarks. The course
outline has been used in a 3 credit (3 lectures per week in a semester format) sophomore
introductory course taught to a class of about 120 students. Approximately one-third of
the students are civil engineering majors. The remainder come from a variety of
disciplines including but not limited to chemical engineers, mechanical engineers,
electrical engineers, computer science and engineering majors, chemistry, crop and soil
science, and resource development. The average grade for the class is 2.7 on a 4.0 scale.
We appreciate any comments, corrections, and suggestions. Please address them to me at:
Mackenzie L. Davis, Ph.D., P.E., DEE
Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering
3546 Engineering Building
Michigan State University
East Lansing, MI
48824
I may also be reached by e-mail at davis@egr.msu.edu. Please put Intro. to ENE in the
subject line so that my filters dont delete your message.

iv
ERRATA
CHAPTER 10
Page 832, Example 10-2.
Revise sentence that begins He has taken a long
shower to read He has taken a 12 minute shower
Also, the total at the end of the example that reads:
CDT = 1.04 x 10-4 + 1.04 x 10-4 +
= 1.60 x 10-4 mg/kg-d
Should read
CDT = 1.24 x 10-4 + 1.04 x 10-4 +
= 1.80 x 10-4 mg/kg-d
Page 837. Example 10-3.
Because of the error in Example 10-2, there is an error in
Eample 10-3. The risk equation should read:
Risk = (1.80 x 10-4 mg/kg-d)(1.5 x 10-2 (mg/kg-d)-1)
= 2.70 x 10-6
And the total lifetime risk should be 75 years not 70 years.
Page 907, Problem 10-4.
Replace the sentence: Assume a 1-year averaging time.
To: Assume both the child and the adult have an equivalent exposure of 1 day per week
for 20 weeks in a year and that the fraction of 2,4-D ingested is 0.10.
Page 907, Problem 10-6.
There is a conflict between the ages specified for the child.
Change the second assumption: Assume her average age over the exposure period is 8.
To: Assume the averaging time is 5 years.

v
PEDAGOGICAL THOUGHTS
The selection of material and arrangement of the text chapters is based on my experience
in teaching introductory environmental engineering for over 30 years, and my desire to
introduce beginning engineering students to the many facets of environmental
engineering. I do not cover all of the material in the text in a semester. As may be seen in
the sample course outline, I have used, perhaps, 600 pages of the text material in the
introductory course. Other portions of the text are used in two senior level design courses
that are supplemented with a very large course pack. The material on laws, legislation
and ionizing radiation are provided for completeness and with the recognition that this
book will be one of those that engineering students begin to accumulate for their
professional library.
I begin with materials and energy balance because it is a useful tool environmental
engineers can use to solve problems and because it is a useful tool that instructors can use
to explain environmental phenomena. It is also useful from a teaching point of view
because it reminds the student that the math courses they are taking have direct
application to solving engineering problems. The hydrology chapter is introduced next as
a matter of pedagogy. First, water is a fundamental part of 2/3 of the material in the book.
Second, rainfall, runoff, etc. are physical concepts that students can relate to in their lifes
experience. Third, it provides simple examples of mass balance that students can
visualize. Fourth, for those colleges and universities that do not offer a hydrology course,
it provides the civil engineering students that focus on other specialization areas of civil
engineering, such as transportation, the basics they need. It may be argued that
hydrology is covered in another course. This is a fallacious argument: chemistry is
certainly covered in another course, yet many environmental engineering instructors
insist that a stand alone chemistry chapter be included in introductory texts. In fact, my
other introductory text bows to this wishand yet, civil engineering students are turned
off by another chemistry course. So a lead-off chapter focused on chemistry often is a
turn-off chapter on environmental engineering. This is contrary to my desire to interest
and invite students to explore environmental engineering in more advanced courses.
Chemistry is introduced in the 4th chapter. This is far enough into the course material for
the students to get a feel of my lecture style and the different emphasis in engineering in
contrast to the basic sciences and math they have been previously exposed to.
With, perhaps, the exception of the noise chapter, the remaining chapters that I cover in
the introductory course are fairly standard. The reason for covering noise in the
introductory course is two fold. First, those civil engineers that are not going to specialize
in environmental engineering will find that the projects they work on most often impact
the public because they are noisy. This is particularly true in the transportation area.
Second, while there are many courses and seminars that are available to explore water
and wastewater treatment, air pollution, solid waste management, and hazardous waste
management, the opportunities for civil and environmental engineers to gain a basic
understanding of the environmental impact of noise and its control are rare.

vi

Pedagogical aids
There are numerous aids for the student in the text. In my first lecture, I invite the
students to bring their textbooks to the second lecture. In the second lecture I spend a few
minutes introducing them to the book. I invite them to look at the inside of the front and
back cover as well as the appendices. In particular I point out the review items at the end
of the chapter. In my lecture style, I introduce the lecture with a list of the review items
that I will cover during the lecture. For examination review, I identify those items that I
have covered that will be on the exam. I construct my exam from the review items. Not
all review items are examined every year because there are too many for one exam. But
for each course offering they are all discussed.
The review items also have been extremely useful in fulfilling the ABET requirement for
explicitly stating course objectives and evaluating student achievement in meeting the
course objectives.
The other pedagogical aid is the list of discussion questions. The questions are designed
to stimulate thinking about the subject rather than simply crunching numbers. Most of
them are derived from questions that students or the public have asked me! They are
things students who have had an introductory environmental engineering course are
expected to know without having a book. I have used them in a variety of ways. One use
is to pose one of the discussion questions at the beginning of the lecture in which they are
covered. Then, at the end of lecture ask the students to write a short answer that I collect
to evaluate their comprehension. I have also used them as part of an examination review.
Another use is to pose them as a closed book examination question. I have never assigned
them as homework.
Instructional aids
Not included in this manual, but available for qualified instructors, is a set of Power Point
slides and a set of jpeg figures for each chapter. Contact your McGraw-Hill
representative to learn how to access these aids.

vii
SAMPLE COURSE OUTLINE
Date

Lecture Topic

AUG 24
27
29

Introduction
Mass Balance
Water Resource Systems

1-5
42-61
5-11

SEP

1
3
5

HOLIDAY
Hydrology Fundamentals
Rainfall Analysis

98-106
107-112

8
10
12

Runoff Analysis/Rational Method


Runoff Analysis/Unit Hydrograph
Runoff Analysis Problem Session

113-119
119-124

15

Storage of Reservoirs
and REVIEW FOR EXAM 1
EXAM 1
Groundwater Hydraulics and
Prediction of Drawdown

129-133

17
19

22
24
26
29
OCT 1
3

Properties of Aquifers and


Well Interference
Prediction of Drawdown Problem Session
Prediction of Drawdown Problem Session
Water Chemistry and
and Water Quality
Treatment Systems and Coagulation
Definition of Hardness & Softening

Reading Assignment

133-149

149-155

188-207
213-227
227-235
235-247

6
8
10

Softening Problem Session


Softening Problem Session
Sedimentation and Filtration

271-278, 283-286

13
14
17

REVIEW FOR EXAM 2


EXAM 2
Water Quality Management/Rivers

354-365, 368-391

20
22
24

Water Quality Management/Rivers Problem Session


Water Quality Management/Lakes
391-400
Wastewater Treatment Alternatives and
Pretreatment and Primary Treatment
426-443, 447-449

27

Wastewater Microbiology

449-459

viii
29
31
NOV 3
5
6

DEC

Activated Sludge
Activated Sludge Problem Session
AWT and Sludge Treat. & Disposal
REVIEW FOR EXAM 3
EXAM 3

459-471

493-497, 500-501, 522

10
12
14

Air Pollution Chemistry, Effects & Fate


Air Pollution Meteorology
Dispersion of Air Pollutants

548-567
580-588
589-597

17
19
21

Air Pollution Control


Fundamentals of Acoustics and
Effects on People
Airborne Transmission of Noise

601-633
653-665
665-680
690-699

24
26
28

Traffic Noise Prediction


Noise Pollution Control
HOLIDAY

699-709
709-723

1
3
4

Solid Waste Collection & Disposal


REVIEW FOR EXAM 4
EXAM 4

737-749, 762-769, 787-796

ix
SAMPLE EXAM 1
(Closed Book)
(100 points)
(If a true false question is false, you must provide a non-trivial correction to make it true to receive full credit.)

1. (12) The time period for a unit hydrograph is equal to the duration of the excess
rainfall.
TRUE

FALSE

Answer: True
2. (12) What major element(s) of the hydrologic cycle is (are) missing from the
following list?
1. Ground water Flow
3. Transpiration

2. Evaporation
4. Precipitation

Answer: Surface runoff, Surface water body


3. (12) The time of concentration is particular to the given geometry and surface
composition of watershed regardless of the intensity of the rainfall.
TRUE

FALSE

Answer: True
4. (12) What type of water treatment plant is normally used for a ground water
supply?
Answer: Softening or iron removal
5. (12) The units for the rational formula are: Q = m3/s, C = no units, I = mm/h, A =
ha
TRUE

FALSE

Answer: True
6. (16) Sketch an artesian aquifer with a flowing artesian well. Identify aquiclude,
confining layer, recharge area, and piezometric surface.
Answer: See Figure 3-3

x
7. (12) The hydrologic year is from September 30 to October 1.
TRUE

FALSE

Answer: False, should be October 1 to September 30


8. (12) What does it mean that a drought has a recurrence interval of 12 years?
Answer: On the average a drought of equal or greater severity will occur once
every 12 years.

xi
SAMPLE EXAM 1
(Open Book)
(50 points)
(Failure to state units on final answer will result in an automatic reduction of one point.)
1. (25) Apply the unit hydrograph distribution to the following observed rainfall.
Compute the compound runoff. Show all work.
Day
1
2
3

Rain [cm] Abstactions [cm]


0.80
0.80
0.50
0.00
0.00
0.00

UH Ord. [m3/s-cm]
0.46
0.23
0.31

2. (10) Compute the first two duration values for an I-D-F curve for an 8 year storm
from the following 86 year record. Show all work.
Duration [min] No. Times = Stated Intensity [mm/h]
1.00
1.25
1.50
50.00
25.00
17.00
6.00
60.00
16.00
9.00
3.00
80.00
7.00
4.00
2.00

3. (15) Determine the size reservoir (in m3) for the following monthly flows:
Month
Aug
Sep
Oct

Inflow [m3/s] Discharge [m3/s]


1.98
2.00
1.95
2.00
3.09
2.00

xii
SAMPLE EXAM 1 SOLUTIONS TO OPEN BOOK QUESTIONS
1.
Day
1
2
3
4

2.
m=

R.E.
0
0.5
0

Ordinates
2
3
N/A
N/A
0.23
N/A
0.115
0
0.155
0
0

1
0
0
0

Compound Runoff [m3/s]


0
0.23
0.12
0.16
0

86 + 1
= 10.9
8

First duration falls between ranks 9 and 17 with corresponding times of 60


and 50 minutes respectively.
10.9 9 x 60
=
17 9
50 60

x = 57.6 min
Second duration falls between ranks 7 and 16 with corresponding times of
80 and 60 minutes respectively.
10.9 7 x 80
=
16 9
60 80

x = 71.3 min
3. All tabular values are x 106 m3. Sample calculations follow table.
Month
Aug
Sep
Oct

S
S
Qout(t)
Qin(t)
5.3032
5.3568
-0.0536
-0.0536
5.0544
5.1840
-0.1296
-0.1832 <= Reservoir Volume
Inflow exceeds outflow and reservoir is full

Reservoir volume = 0.1832 x 106 m3


For August

Q in (t ) = 1.98 m 3 s (31d )(86400 s d ) = 5.3032 10 6 m 3


Q out (t ) = 2.0 m 3 s (31d )(86400 s d ) = 5.3568 10 6 m 3

xiii
SAMPLE EXAM 2
(Closed Book)
(100 points)
(If a true false question is false, you must provide a non-trivial correction to make it true to receive full credit.)

1. (16) Write the equation(s) for removal of hardness caused by Mg when no


bicarbonate is available using lime or lime and soda ash as required.
Answer:

Mg 2+ + Ca (OH )2 Mg (OH )2 (s ) + Ca 2+

Ca 2+ + Na 2 CO 3 CaCO 3(S) + 2 Na +
2. (12) What percent of particles having a vs of 0.25 cm/s will be removed in an
upflow clarifier if v0 is 0.50 cm/s?
Answer: v S = 0.25 cm s

v 0 = 0.5 cm s

Therefore 0.0% removed.

3. (12) The bacillus group of microorganisms is used as an indicator of water


contamination.
TRUE

FALSE

Answer: False. Should be colliform group.

4. (12) Sketch the pumping curve which shows the interception of a barrier by the
piezometric surface at a drawdown of 10 m after 15,000 minutes of pumping.
Label the axes and point of interception. Draw the curve from 1.0 minutes to
100,000 minutes. (Use a separate piece of paper.)
Answer: See Figure 3-33

5. (12) Sketch the effects of increasing valence on colloid charge reduction. Label
the axes and curves. (Use a separate piece of paper).
Answer: See Figure 4-11

6. (12) Define palatable as it pertains to drinking water.


Answer: Palatable means that it tastes good. It is not necessarily safe to drink.

7. (12) Define alkalinity in terms of its chemical components.


Answer: Alkalinity = [HCO3-] + 2[CO32-] + [OH-] [H+]

xiv
8. (12) Cadmium is regulated because of (circle correct answer):
esthetics
Answer: toxicity

economics

toxicity

xv
SAMPLE EXAM 2
(Open Book)
(50 Points)

(Failure to state units on final answer will result in an automatic reduction of one point.)
1. (15) What amount of lime and/or soda ash, in mg/L as CaCO3, is required to
soften the following water to 80.0 mg/L hardness as CaCO3? Show all work.
Compound
CO2

Concentration
[mg/L as CaCO3]

Ca
Mg2+
HCO3-

21.3
103.0
137.0
329.8

SO42-

158.8

2+

2. (20) If a fully penetrating well in a 30.00 m thick artesian aquifer pumping at a


rate of 0.0180 m3.s for 1863 days causes a drawdown of 5.25 m at an observation
well 45.45 m from the pumping well, how much drawdown will occur at an
observation well 90.90 m away? The original piezometric surface was 50.12 m
above the bottom confining layer. The aquifer material is fractured rock. Show
all work. Report answer to two decimal places.
3. (15) Calculate the sedimentation tank surface area whose loading is 12.00 m3/dm2 for a flowrate of 0.0400 m3/s. Find the detention time (in hours) if the depth
of the tank is 3.00 m. Show all work.

xvi
SAMPLE EXAM 2 SOLUTIONS TO OPEN BOOK QUESTIONS

1. TH = 240 mg/L as CaCO3


CH = 240 mg/L as CaCO3 because CH may not exceed total even though HCO3 is
greater
NCH = 0.0
Lime Additions:
Lime = CO2
Lime = HCO3
Lime = Mg 40
Excess
Total

=
=
=
=
=

21.3
329.8
97
40
488.1 mg/L as CaCO3

Soda Ash:
Since there is no NCH to be removed, add no soda ash.
2. This is a confined aquifer at steady state conditions.
h1 = 50.13 5.25 = 44.88
Find K from Table = 5.8 x 10-5
T = KD = (5.8 x 10-5)(30.00) = 0.0017

h 2 44.88 =

(0.0180) ln 90.90
45.45
2(0.0017 )

h2 = 1.166 + 44.88 = 46.05


The drawdown is then s = 50.13 46.05 = 4.08 m
3. From the definition of overflow rate
AS =

Q (0.0400 m 3 s )(86,400 s d )
=
= 288.0m 2
v0
12.00 m 3 d m 2

From the definition of detention time


t=

V (288.0m 2 )(3.0m )
=
= 21,600s or 360 min or 6 h
Q
0.0400 m 3 s

xvii
SAMPLE EXAM 3
(Closed Book)
(100 points)
(If a true false question is false, you must provide a non-trivial correction to make it true to receive full credit.)

1. (15) Sketch a graph showing BOD as a function of time for rate constants of 0.37
and 0.15 d-1 if the ultimate BOD is 450 mg/L. Label the axes, coordinates of
ultimate BOD, the curve(s), and the ultimate BOD. (Use a separate piece of
paper.)
Answer: See Figure 5-6

2. (9) List three locations for the ultimate disposal of sewage sludge.
Answer: Land spreading, Landfilling, Dedicated land disposal

3. (12) Briefly describe aerobic decomposition in terms of electron acceptor used,


important end products, odor potential, place in the natural ecosystem, and role in
wastewater treatment.
Answer:
a. Electron acceptor = O2
b. Important end products = CO2, H2O, new cells
c. Odor potential = low
d. Natural ecosystem = healthy streams
e. Role in wastewater treatment = dilute waste

4. (12) List three reasons why NH3 is detrimental to rivers, streams, and lakes.
Answer:
a. Toxic to fish
b. Exerts oxygen demand
c. Stimulates algal growth (algae die and exert BOD)

5. (8) Explain the effect of operating at a low F/M ratio on oxygen requirement and
sludge production.
Answer:
a. High oxygen requirement
b. Low sludge production

6. (8) Sketch and label the parts of a trickling filter wastewater treatment plant. (Use
a separate piece of paper.)
Answer: See Figure 6-29

xviii
7. (12) Complete the following list of basic alternatives for treating municipal
wastewater: activated sludge, tricking filter,
,
Answer: rotating biological contactor, lagoon

8. (12) List the phases of bacterial growth.


Answer
a. Lag phase
b. Accelerated growth
c. Log growth
d. Stationary
e. Death

9. (12) Choose the best answer by placing the letter from the left column in brackets
in the right column. Letters may be used only once. All letters do not necessarily
have a corresponding bracket.
A. Raise pH
B. FeCl3
C. Refractory organics
D. Na2CO3

Phosphorous removal
Activated Carbon
BOD5
NH3 removal

(
(
(
(

)
)
)
)

Answer: Phosphorous removal = B, Activated Carbon = C, BOD5 = none, NH3


removal = A

xix
SAMPLE EXAM 3
(Open Book)
(50 points)

(Failure to state units on final answer will result in an automatic reduction of one point.)
1. (10) Calculate the diameter of a discrete particle whose terminal settling velocity
is 2.38 cm/s. The particle density is 1.68 g/cm3 and the water temperature is
10oC. Assume the density of water is 1,000 kg/m3. Show all work.
2. (5) If the BOD5 of a waste is 183 mg/L, what sample size (in percent) should be
selected to yield an oxygen consumption of 6.1 mg/L? Show all work.
3. (15) If the BOD5 of a municipal wastewater is 226 mg/L and the ultimate BOD is
305 mg/L, what is the rate constant (in base 10)? Assume the temperature is
20oC. Show all work.
4. (20) Given the following information about a stream, calculate the DO at an
observations point 12.47 h downstream from the waste discharge point:
Kd = 1.07 d-1
Kr = 4.13 d-1
Qw + Qr = 2.60 m3/s
River temperature = 22oC
Ultimate BOD after mixing = 1,400 kg/d
Deficit at the discharge point after mixing = 0.0 mg/L
Assume that the rate constants are at the river temperature. Show all
work.

xx
SAMPLE EXAM 3 SOLUTIONS TO OPEN BOOK QUESTIONS

1. Density conversion:
g
1000cm 3 1000L 1kg

= 1000
L
1000g
cm 3
m3
For example
s = (1.68)(1000 ) = 1,680 kg m 3

Viscosity is obtained from Appendix A at 10oC (note footnote to table)


= 1.307 x 10-3

18 1.307 10 3 (0.0238)
d=

9.8(1680 1000 )

0.5

= 2.9 10 4 m

2. BODt = (DOb,t DOs,t)(DF)


183 = 6.1(DF)
DF = 30.0
Sample size =

100% 100%
=
= 3.33%
DF
30.0

3. Note: Problem is in base 10


BOD5 = L(1 10-Kt)
226 = 305(1 10-5K)
226
1 = 10 K (5 )
305

-0.259 = -10-K(5)
Canceling the signs and taking the log of both sides
log(0.259) = log(10-K(5))
-0.5867 = -K(5)
K = 0.117 d-1

xxi
4. Convert ultimate BOD to mg/L. NOTE that ultimate BOD after mixing = La.
This is a problem of converting mass discharge to concentration.
La =

(1400 kg d )(10 6 mg kg )
(2.60 m 3 s )(86400 s d )(10 3 L m 3 ) = 6.23 mg

Since the deficit after mixing is zero, Da = 0.0 mg/L


Convert time to days
12.47 h
= 0.5196d
24 h d

NOTE: Ks are capitalized, therefore in base 10.


D=

(1.07 )(6.23) (10 (1.07 )(0.5196 ) 10 (4.13)(0.5196 ) ) + 0.0


4.13 1.07

D = 0.5899
From Table, DOS = 8.83 mg/L at 22oC
DO = 8.83 0.5899 = 8.24 or 8.2 mg/L

xxii
SAMPLE EXAM 4
(Closed Book)
(100 points)
(If a true false question is false, you must provide a non-trivial correction to make it true to receive full credit.)

1. (3) Which one of the following is one of the seven major air pollutants designated
by the EPA?
a. CO2

b. Cl2

c. N2

d. MOX

e. NOX

f. Ca

Answer: e. NOX

2. (10) List the four physiological/psychological effects of noise other than hearing
damage.
Answer:
a. Speech interference
b. Annoyance
c. sleep interference
d. Performance degradation
e. Privacy

3. (10) Complete the list of four potential chronic health effects caused by air
pollution.

Answer:

1. Chronic bronchitis

2. Bronchial asthma

3. Pulmonary emphysema

4. Cancer

4. (6) A ppm is used to measure which of the following:


a. Concentration of gaseous pollutant
b. Size of particulates
c. Concentration of particulate air pollutants
Answer: a. Concentration of gaseous pollutant

5. (10) Sketch the A weighted network response curve of a Type 2 sound level
meter. Label the axes and indicate representative values on the axes.
Answer: See Figure 8-5

6. (10) Which of the following air pollution control devices is most appropriate for
controlling metal fume emissions?
a. Bag house

b. Venturi

c. Packed tower

xxiii

Answer: b. Venturi

7. (6) which of the following is a common feature of an air pollution episode?


a. Unstable atmosphere

b. Large source

c. Early recognition

Answer: b. Large source

8. (10) Which of the following most accurately describes the theoretical basis of the
operation of a venture?
1. Mass transfer of gas to liquid
2. Mass transfer of gas to solid
3. Centrifugal force moves particles to wall
4. Screening and inertial impaction
5. Impingement of water droplet
6. Ions attach to particles
Answer: 5. Impingement of water droplet

9. (8) A land breeze is the result of a more rapid cooling of the land surface than the
water surface.
TRUE

FALSE

Answer: True

10. (7) Sound pressure level is defined as follows:


SPL = 20 log(p/po)
TRUE

FALSE

Answer: True

11. (10) Given the following vertical temperature profile, compute the lapse rate and
give the stability of the atmosphere. Show all work.
Z [m]
2.00
50.00

Answer:

T [oC]
5.00
4.52

T
4.52 5.00
=
= 0.0100 C m or -1.00 oC/100m
Z 50.00 2.00
Stability = Neutral

xxiv
12. (10) Match the following by placing the letter from the left column in the most
appropriate bracket in the right column. Each letter may be used only once and
all brackets may not be appropriate.
A. Continuous noise
B. Intermittent noise
C. Impulse noise

Electric saw
Air conditioner
Alarm clock

( )
( )
( )

Answer: Electric saw = B, Air conditioner = A, Alarm clock = none

xxv
SAMPLE EXAM 4
(Open Book)
(50 points)
(Failure to state units on final answer will result in an automatic reduction of one point.)

1. (15) Convert 0.13 ppm of NO2 to micrograms per cubic meter. The temperature
is 18oC and the pressure is 100.925 kPa. Show all work.
2. (20) Calculate the downwind concentration at 5 km (y = 0) in g/m3 resulting from
an emission of 2424 g/s of SO2 into a 4.0 m/s wind at 2:00 PM on a clear summer
afternoon. Assume an effective stack height of 85 m and an inversion layer at 280
m. Identify the stability class. Show all work.
3. (15) The sound power level (re: 10-12 W) of a backhoe is 92 dB at 4,000 Hz.
What is the SPL 100 m downwind on a clear summer afternoon if the wind speed
is 4 m/s, the temperature is 30oC, the relative humidity is 70%, and the barometric
pressure is 101.3 kPa. The heights of the backhoe and the receiver are 1.2 m. The
ground from the backhoe to the receiver is hard packed soil.. Show all work.

xxvi
SAMPLE EXAM 4 SOLUTIONS TO OPEN BOOK QUESTIONS

1. NOTE: GWM of NO2 = 46, T2 = 18 + 273 = 291


MP
=
Va

MP
=
Va

(ppm )(1000)(GMW )
291 101.325
22.414

273 100.925

(0.13)(1000)(46)
291 101.325
22.414

273 100.925

= 249.3 or 250 g/m3

2. Stability class = B
Check xL
sz = 0.47(280 85) = 91.6
From Figure 7-23 xL = 0.85 km and 2xL = 1.7 km
Since calculation is to be made for 5 km downwind, use Equation 7-25
=

2424
= 1.35 10 3 g m 3
(2)(640)(4.0)(280)

3. The attenuation by air absorption is calculated directly from Table 8-8 with a
distance of 100 m.
100m
= 2.3dB
A e1 = (23 dB km )
1000 m km
Calculate the ground attenuation
The source zone = 30hs = 30(1.2 m) = 36 m
Because ground is hard, G = 0
From Table 8-9, As = (1-G) 1.5, so As = (1-0) 1.5 = -0.5 dB
The receiver zone = 30 hr = 30(1.2 m) = 36 m
Because ground is hard, G = 0
From Table 8-9, As = (1-G) 1.5, so As = (1-0) 1.5 = -0.5 dB

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The middle zone = 100 36 36 = 28 m


Because the ground is hard, G = 0
The value of e is
30(h s + h r )
72
e 1
= 1
= 0.28

r
100

Am = -3(0.28)(1 0) = -0.84
The ground attenuation is then
Ae2 = -0.5-0.5-0.84 = -1.84
With the basic point source model
Lp = 92 20 log (100) 11 2.3 (-0.84) = 39.5 or 40 dB at 4,000 Hz