You are on page 1of 37

NagpurInstituteofTechnology,Nagpur

Subject Heat Transfer (v th semester Mech.Engg.)

QUESTION BANK WITH


SOLUTION
HEAT TRANSFER

B.E. V Semester
Mechanical Engineering

HeatTransfer
Page1

Note:Thesequestionbankisnotforanycirculationandsale

NagpurInstituteofTechnology,Nagpur

Subject Heat Transfer (v th semester Mech.Engg.)

Q.1Explaindifferentmodesofheattransferwiththeirgoverninglaw
1)Conduction:Itisaprocessofheattransferfromaregionofhighertemperaturetoaregionoflower
temperatureofasamemediumorbetweendifferentmediumwhichareindirectphysicalcontact.In
solidthermalenergytransferredbymeansofelectronswhicharefreetomovethroughlatticestructure
ofmaterial.
Forexample,whenarodofmetalisheatedatoneend,theheatenergywillbetransferalongthelength
andotherendalsogetheated.Thistransferofheatissaidtobyconduction.

Forthiscaserateofheatflowbetweentwoendsofmetalroddependupontemperature
differencebetweentwoends,lengthofrodandphysicalandchemicalcompositionofbarmaterial.
ItisgovernedbyFouriersLaw
Statement:Theratethroughasolidisdirectlyproportionaltotheareaofthesectioninadirection
perpendiculartothedirectionofheatflow,andtochangeoftemp.withrespecttothelength.
Overwhichtheheattransfertakesplace.
Thevesignisusedbecausetemperaturegradient .

Q A.

dt
isnegativealongpositivexdirection.
dx

dt
dt
=K.A.

dx
dx

WhereKiscalledthermalconductivityofthematerial..
Thenegativesignisusedbecausetemperaturegradient

dt
isnegativealongpositivexdirection
dx

2]Convection:

Itisthetransferofheatbyactualphysicalmovementoffluid.Convectionispossibleonlyinfluid
mediumandisdirectlylinkedwithtransportofmediumitself.
e.g.supposeairgettingcontactwithhotplate.Theairincontactwithplatewilltaketheheatfromplate
andgetheatedthistransferofheatisbyconvection.Forconvectionheattransfertooccurfluidmedium
isessential.
Naturalconvectionisoneinwhichfluidcirculatesbyvirtueofnaturaldifferenceindensitiesofhotand
coldfluids.
HeatTransfer
Page2

Note:Thesequestionbankisnotforanycirculationandsale

NagpurInstituteofTechnology,Nagpur

Subject Heat Transfer (v th semester Mech.Engg.)

Thehotfluidhavelessdensitysobecomelighteranditisdisplacedbycoldfluidhavingmoredensity
duringtheprocessofheattransferconvection.
e.g.Heatflowfromhotplatetoatmosphere.
Forcedconvection;Flowoffluidcausedbyapumporfanthenconvectioniscalledforcedconvection.
Themechanicaldevicesusedforcirculatingthefluid,increasestheheattransferratebyspeedingup
themovementoffluid.
GoverningLaw;
ItisgovernedbyNewtonsLaw
Newtonslawofcooling,Q=h.A.(tsurfacetfluid)
Thisequationgivestherateofheattransferinconvection,wherehisheattransfercoefficient,ts
Surfacetemperature,tffluidtemperatureandAsurfacearea.
3]Radiation:Itistransmissionofheatintheformofradientenergyorwavemotionfromonebodyto
anotheracrossaninterveningspace.Transportofthermalradiationdoesnotnecessarilyaffectmaterial
mediumbetweenheatsourceandreceiver.

Energyreleasedfrombodyinformofsuccessiveandseparatepacketsorquantaofenergy
calledphotons.Thesephotonsarepropagatedthroughspaceasrayswhichcarriesenergy.
Theheattransferbyradiationisgivenby,thetransferofheatQ=.A.(T14T24)inradiationisgoverned
bytheequation.
Q.2Explainthetermthermalconductivityandthermaldiffusivity:
Thermalconductivityistheabilityofmaterialtotransferheatbyconduction.Thermalconductivity
providesanindicationofrateatwhichheatenergyistransferredthroughamediumbyconduction
process.Thermalconductivitydependsuponthematerialstructure,moisturecontentanddensityof
materialandoperatingconditionofpressureandtemperature.

ItsunitisW/moKorW/moC

Thermalconductivityofamaterialisduetothemigrationoffreeelectronsandlattice
vibrationalwaves.Inmetalmoleculesarecloselypackedandthermalconductivityisduetoflowoffree
electrons.Influid,freeelectronmovementisnegligiblysmallandthereforethermalconductionresults
primarilyfrominteractionbetweenlatticeatoms.Thermalconductivityisalwayshigherinpurestform
ofmetal.

HeatTransfer
Page3

Note:Thesequestionbankisnotforanycirculationandsale

NagpurInstituteofTechnology,Nagpur

Subject Heat Transfer (v th semester Mech.Engg.)

Nonmetallicsoliddonotconductheatasefficientlyasmetals.Formanyofbuildingand
insulatingmaterial(concrete,stone,brick,glasswooletc)thermalconductivitymayvaryfromsample
tosampleduetovariationinstructure,composition,densityandporosity.

Thermalconductivityofporousmaterialdependsontypeofgasorliquidexistinginvoids.
Presenceofairfilledporesandcavitiesreducesthermalconductivity.
Thermaldiffusivity( ):

Itistheratioofthermalconductivityofmaterialtoitsthermalstoragecapacity(.C)Theheat
storagecapacityessentiallyrepresentsthermalcapacitanceorthermalinertiaofthemateriali.e.its
sluggishnesstoconductheat.Ahighvalueofthermalconductivitycouldresulteitherfromhighvalueof
thermalconductivityorfromlowvalueofthermalcapacity.
Thermaldiffusivityindicatetherateatwhichheatisdistributedinamaterialandthisratedependsnot
onlyonkbutalsoonrateatwhichheatenergycanbestored.

Liquidhavelowthermalconductivity,highthermalcapacityandhencesmallthermaldiffusivity.
Metalposseshighthermalconductivity,lowthermalinertiaandhencealargethermaldiffusivity.
Thermal Contact Resistance

Theresistancethataninterfaceofferstoheattransferperunitinterfaceareaiscalledthermal
contact resistance, Rc . The inverse of thermal contact resistance is called the thermal contact
conductance.
The thermal contact resistance will be greater for rough surfaces because an interface with rough
surfaceswillcontainmoreairgapswhosethermalconductivityislow.
Aninterfaceactslikeaverythinlayerofinsulation,andthusthethermalcontactresistanceissignificant
for highly conducting materials like metals. Therefore, the thermal contact resistance must be
consideredfortwolayersofmetalspressedagainsteachother.
Heattransferthroughthevoidsataninterfaceisbyconductionandradiation.Evacuatingtheinterface
eliminatesheattransferbyconduction,andthusincreasesthethermalcontactresistance.
Thermalcontactresistancecanbeminimizedby(1)applyingathermallyconductingliquidonthe
surfacesbeforetheyarepressedagainsteachother,(2)byreplacingtheairattheinterfacebyabetter
conductinggassuchasheliumorhydrogen,(3)byincreasingtheinterfacepressure,and(4)byinserting
asoftmetallicfoilsuchastin,silver,copper,nickel,oraluminumbetweenthetwosurfaces.

HeatTransfer
Page4

Note:Thesequestionbankisnotforanycirculationandsale

NagpurInstituteofTechnology,Nagpur

Subject Heat Transfer (v th semester Mech.Engg.)

Q.3DerivetheGeneralHeatConditionEquationinCartesiancoordinates.

Consider flow of heat through an infinite small rectangular parallelepiped volume element
oriented in a three dimensional coordinate system sides dx, dy, & dz parallel to x, y & z axis
respectively.
.Thenchangeoftempthroughdistancedxwillbedx0
kx thermal conductivity at left face. Quantity of heat flowing into control volume through left face
duringtimeintervald isgivenby,

HeatinfluxQx=

____a)

Duringsametimeintervalfeatflowoutofrightfaceofparallelepipedis

Heatefflux,Qx+dx=

____b)

Accumulationofheatinparallelepipedduetoheatflownxdirectionisgivenbydifferencebetweenheat
influx&heatefflux.
HeatTransfer
Page5

Note:Thesequestionbankisnotforanycirculationandsale

NagpurInstituteofTechnology,Nagpur

Subject Heat Transfer (v th semester Mech.Engg.)

ThereforeHeataccumulationduetoheatflowinxdirection

--------c
Similarlywecancalculateheataccumulationincontrolvolumeduetoheatflowalongy&zdirection.
Forheatflowalongy&zdirection

d,e
Totalaccumulationofheatisgivenby

f
supposedgisheatgeneratedperunitvolume&perunittime.Thereforetotalheatgeneratedincontrol
volmequalto=qgdxdydzd g
Totalheatwhichisstoredinbodywillbeutilizedforincreasingtempofbody&isgiven
=massofbodysp.heatofbodyxriseintempintimed .

HeatTransfer
Page6

Note:Thesequestionbankisnotforanycirculationandsale

NagpurInstituteofTechnology,Nagpur

Subject Heat Transfer (v th semester Mech.Engg.)

h
FromenergyBalanceEqn

dividingbothsidesbydxdydzd

generalheatconductionequationusingvectoroperator

ForHomogenous&isotropicmaterialthermalconductivityissameateverypoint&inalldirections
kx=ky=kz=k

Where

calledthermaldiffusivity

HeatTransfer
Page7

Note:Thesequestionbankisnotforanycirculationandsale

NagpurInstituteofTechnology,Nagpur

Subject Heat Transfer (v th semester Mech.Engg.)

Differentcases:
1) Heatflowissteadystatecondition

2) Absenceofinternalheatgeneration

LaplaceEqn.

3) Unsteadyheatflowwithnointernalheatgeneration

FourierEqn.
Q.4Acertainbuildingwallconsistsof0.15mofconcrete(k=1.2W/m0C),0.05moffiberglass
insulationand10mmofgypsumboard(k=0.05W/m0C).Theinsideandoutsideconvectioncoefficient
is10and40W/m2oC,respectively.Theoutsideairtemperatureis60Candtheinsidetemperatureis
220C.Calculatetheoverallheattransfercoefficientforthewall,theRvalue,andtheheatlossper
area.
Ans:
Theoverallheattransfercoefficientforthewall,

HeatTransfer
Page8

Note:Thesequestionbankisnotforanycirculationandsale

NagpurInstituteofTechnology,Nagpur

Subject Heat Transfer (v th semester Mech.Engg.)

Rtotal =

L
L
L
1
1
1
=
+ X + Y + Z +

U hhf K X K Y K Z hcf

Rtotal =

1 1 0.15 0.05 0.01 1


=

+
+
+
+
U 10 1.2
0.7 0.05 40

Rtotal =

1
=0.52
U

U=1.91W/m20C
Heatlossperunitarea
Q/A=UA T
Q/A=1.91*[22(6)]
Q/A=53.48W/m2

Q.5DiscussthesignificanceofBinumber&fonumber
ThenondimensionalfactorhLc/KiscalledBiotnumberBi=hLc/k
Itgivesanindicationoftheratioofinternalresistancei.e.conductionresistancetothesurface
resistancei.e.convectionresistance.WhenthevalueofBino.issmall,itindicatesthatsystemhasa
smallinternalresistanceandsmallinternalresistancemeansrelativelysmalltemperaturegradient
Theconvectiveresistancethenpredominatesandheattransferiscontrolledbyconvectiveheat
exchange.
IfBi

0.1thelumpedheatcapacityapproachcanbeusedtoadvantagewithsimpleshapelikeplates,

cylinderssphere&cubes.
2
Thenondimensionalfactor T/Lc iscalledFouriernumber,representedbyfo

fo= /Lc

Lcischaracteristiclengthandthisno.Signifiesthedegreeofpenetrationofheatingorcoolingeffect
throughasolid.
Q. 6 Explain Critical Thickness of Insulation and Write down the equation for critical radius for
cylinder.
HeatTransfer
Page9

Note:Thesequestionbankisnotforanycirculationandsale

NagpurInstituteofTechnology,Nagpur

Subject Heat Transfer (v th semester Mech.Engg.)

Insulationisamaterialwithreasonableeffectivenesstoretardstheflowofheat.

Conductive thermals resistance increases with addition of insulation. But in cases where fluid

flowsthroughcylinder&sphere,totalthermalresistanceismadeofconductivethermalresistance(Rth.
cond)&convectionthermalresistance(Rth.cov),theadditionofinsulationwillincreasethesurfacearea
whichreducetheconvectivethermalresistance.Dependingontheinsulationthicknesstheheatflow
canbeincreasedbyreducingtotalthermalsresistance.

The thickness up to which heat flow increases and after which heat flow decrease is called as

criticalthicknessofinsulationorcriticalradiusincaseofsphere&cylinder.

Thisisrelationforcriticalradiusforcylinder;itshowsconditionforminimumresistanceandmaxmheat
flowrate.Theinsulationradiusatwhichresistancetoheatflowisminimumiscalledcriticalradius(rc)

The critical radius rc, is depend on thermal conductivity & heat transfer coefficient and is

independentofcylinderradius
Q.7Whatismeanbyfin.Discussfinefficiencyandfineffectiveness.
Fins are nothing but extended surfaces that are used for Increasing the rate of heat transfer
fromasurfacebyincreasingtheheattransfersurfacearea.
The fin efficiency is defined as the ratio of actual heat transfer rate from the fin to the ideal heat
transferratefromthefiniftheentirefinwereatbasetemperature,anditsvalueisbetween0and1.Fin
effectivenessisdefinedastheratioofheattransferratefromafinnedsurfacetotheheattransferrate
fromthesamesurfaceiftherewerenofins,anditsvalueisexpectedtobegreaterthan1.
Heat transfer rate will decrease since a fin effectiveness smaller than 1 indicates that the fin acts as
insulation.
Finsenhanceheattransferfromasurfacebyincreasingheattransfersurfaceareaforconvectionheat
transfer.However,addingtoomanyfinsonasurfacecansuffocatethefluidandretardconvection,and
thusitmaycausetheoverallheattransfercoefficientandheattransfertodecrease.
Effectivenessofasinglefinistheratiooftheheattransferratefromtheentireexposedsurfaceofthe
fin to the heat transfer rate from the fin base area. The overall effectiveness of a finned surface is
definedastheratioofthetotalheattransferfromthefinnedsurfacetotheheattransferfromthesame
surfaceiftherewerenofins.
HeatTransfer
Page10

Note:Thesequestionbankisnotforanycirculationandsale

NagpurInstituteofTechnology,Nagpur

Subject Heat Transfer (v th semester Mech.Engg.)

Finsshouldbeattachedontheairsidesincetheconvectionheattransfercoefficientislowerontheair
sidethanitisonthewaterside.
Finsshouldbeattachedtotheoutsidesincetheheattransfercoefficientinsidethetubewillbehigher
due to forced convection. Fins should be added to both sides of the tubes when the convection
coefficientsattheinnerandoutersurfacesarecomparableinmagnitude.
Q.8Athermometerwell22mindiameterand0.5mmthickismadeofsteel(k=27W/m2 0K)anditis
to be used to measure the temperature of steam flowing through a pipe. Calculate the minimum
lengthofthewellsothattheerrorislessthan0.5%ofthedifferencebetweenthepipewallandfluid
temperature.Takesteamtemperatureas2500Candheattransfercoefficientas98W/m2oK.
Ans:

hP
h
=

KA
K

m=

98
=85.20
27 * 0.5
1000

m=

Tx t 0.5
1
=
= mL

T 0 t 100 e + e mL
2

mL

2
= 0.005
+ e mL

e mL =0.0025or399.997
L=7.03cm
Q.9Awireof6.5mmdiameteratatemperature of60 oCistobeinsulatedbyamaterialhavingk =
0.174W/m0C,convectionheattransfercoefficient=8.722W/m2 0C.Theambienttemperatureis20oC.
formaximumheatloss,whatistheminimumthicknessofinsulationandtheheatlosspermeterlength
?Alsofindpercentageincreaseinheatdissipation.
Ans:
D=6.5mm,thereforer=3.25mm,k=0.174W/m0C,h=8.722W/m20C
1]Minimumthicknessofinsulation

HeatTransfer
Page11

Note:Thesequestionbankisnotforanycirculationandsale

NagpurInstituteofTechnology,Nagpur

Subject Heat Transfer (v th semester Mech.Engg.)

rc=k/h=0.174/8.722=0.01995m=19.95mm
Thereforeminimumthicknessofinsulation=rcr=19.953.25=16.7mm
2]Percentageincreaseinheatdissipationrate
Heattransferwithoutinsulation
Q1=

Q1=

2 L(ts tair )

1
hr
2 *1 * (60 20)

1
8.722 * 0.00325

Q1=7.124W/m
Withinsulation
Q2=

Q2=

2 L(ts tair )

1 log(rc / r )
+
hrc
k

2 *1 * (60 20)

1
log(0.01995 / 0.00325)
+
8.722 * 0.01995
0.174

Q2=15.537W/m
ThereforePercentageincreaseinheatdissipationrate=(Q2Q1)/Q1*100

=118.09%

Q.10Writeshortnotesonfollowing
1]HeislerCharts(forunsteadystateproblem)
Thetemperaturedistributionchartscanbeconstructedbyplottingdimensionlesstemp.againstoneof
parameterkeepingtheothertwoparameterconstant(parameterlike,fi,bi,&x/lorr/R),suchchartsare
constructedbyHeisler&Grober.
Heislerchartsarecommonlyusedinpracticeforplates,cylinderandspheres.
firstchartdrawnbyHeisler, 0/ 1=T0Ta/TiTa
HeatTransfer
Page12

Note:Thesequestionbankisnotforanycirculationandsale

NagpurInstituteofTechnology,Nagpur

Subject Heat Transfer (v th semester Mech.Engg.)

plottedagainstfi=fouriernumber= t/Lc2usingconstantparameter1/Bi
Insecondchart 0/ 1Isplottedagainst1/Bitakingx/Lasaparameter
ThirdtypeofgraphsarebetweenQ/Q0againstBiandtakingfiasaparameter
Q0totalheatcontentperunitareaofslab.
Qtotalchangeininternalenergyperunitarea,Heislerhasalsogiventheseparatechartsforproblem
when1/Bi

100andfo

0.2.Thismeanstheinternalresistanceissmallascomparedtosurface

resistance.Thisstatesthattemp.throughoutsolidsatanytimediffersnegligiblyfromtemp.atx=0and
itbecomesafunctionoftimeonly.
2]Lumpedparameteranalysis

Allsolidshavefinitethermalconductivityandthereexistsatemperaturegradientinsidesolid
wheneverthereisaheatisadditionorremovalfromsolid.

Howeverforsolidsoflargethermalconductivitywithproportionatelylargesurfacearearelative

totheirvolume,internalresistance(
resistance(

K. A

)canbeassumedtobesmallincomparisonwithconvective

1
)atthesurface.
h. A

Theprocessinwhichinternalresistanceisassumednegligibleincomparisonwithitssurface
resistanceiscalledNewtonianheatingorcoolingprocess.

Theprocessinwhichtemperatureisconsideredtobeuniformatagiventime,suchananalysis
iscalledlumpedparameteranalysis.Inthisanalysisthewholesolidwhoseenergyatanytimeisa
functionofitstemperatureandtotalheatcapacityistreatedasonelump.
Q.11DefinefollowingDimensionlessnumberandgivetheirphysicalsignificance
1]Reynoldsnumber:Itisdefinedastheratioofinertiaforcetoviscousforce.ItisdenotedbyRe.
Re=

inertiaforce V 2 L 2 VL V
=
=
=

Viscousforce
VL

densityoffluid,Vfreestreamvelocity,Llengthofplate
Ddiameterofpipe, kinematicviscosity, dynamicviscosity
Reisalsowrittenas=

G.d

HeatTransfer
Page13

Note:Thesequestionbankisnotforanycirculationandsale

NagpurInstituteofTechnology,Nagpur

Subject Heat Transfer (v th semester Mech.Engg.)

Wheregisthemassvelocity=m/A
(1)Reistakenasanimportantcriterionofdynamiticsimilaritiesinforcedconvectionheattransfer.
(2)Reisusedtodecideswhethertheflowislaminarorturbulent.
2]Nusseltnumber:
Itisdefinedastheratioofheatflowratebyconvectionprocessunderaunittemperaturegradientto
theheatflowratebyconductionprocessunderaunittemperaturegradientthroughastationary
thicknessofLmeters.
Nu=

Qconvection h hl
= =
Qconduction k k
L

Itistheratioofcharacteristiclengthtothethicknessofastationaryfluidlayerconductingtheheatat
thesamerateasinthecaseofconvectionprocessunderthesametemp.difference.
Q=K

t
=ht
x

x=h/k
TheNusseltnumberisameasureoftheconvectiveheattransfercoefficient.Foragivenvalueofthe
Nusseltno.theconvectiveheattransfercoefficientisdirectlyproportionaltothermalconductivityof
thefluidandinverselyproportionaltothelength.
3]Prandtlnumber(Pr):itistheratioofkinematicviscositytothethermaldiffusivity.
Pr=

.Cp
K

. .Cp
K

Significance(1)Prandtlno.providesameasuresoftherelativeeffectivenessoftheenergyand
momentumtransportbydiffusion.
(2)Prandtlno.isalinkbetweenthetemperaturefieldandvelocityfield,anditsvalueaffectsrelative
growthofvelocityboundarylayerandthermalboundarylayers.
4]Grashoffnumber(Gr):.Itisdefinedastheratiooftheproductofinertiaforceandbuoyancyforceto
thesquareofviscousforce.Itisrelatedwithnaturalconvectionheattransfer.
Gr=

Inertiaforce * Buoyancyforce 2. .g.t.L3


=

Viscous. force * Viscous. force


2

HeatTransfer
Page14

Note:Thesequestionbankisnotforanycirculationandsale

NagpurInstituteofTechnology,Nagpur

Subject Heat Transfer (v th semester Mech.Engg.)

Significance:(1)ItplaysthesameroleasthatofReynoldno.
(2)FreeconvectionisusuallysuppressedatsufficientlysmallGr,beginsatsomecriticalvalueofGr
dependinguponthearrangementamdthenbecomesmoreandmoreeffectivewithincreasingGr.
5]Stantonnumber(St):

ItistheratioofNussseltno.andproductofReynoldno.andPrandtlno.

Italsoindicatestheratioofheattransfercoefficienttotheflowofheatperunittemperaturerisedue
tothevelocityofthefluid.
St=

h
Nu
hL / K
=
=

.V .Cp VL .Cp Re* Pr


*
K

Itisusedonlyincorrelatingforcedconvectiondata.
6]Pecletno.(Pe):Itistheratioofmassheatflowratebyconvectiontotheflowratebyconduction
underaunittemperaturegradientandthroughathicknessL.
Pe=

Qconvection .Cp.L..V L.V


=
=
=Re.Pr
Qconduction
K

ItisaproductofReynoldno.&Prandtlno.andaconstant.
7]Graetznumber(G):

Itisdefinedastheratioofheatcapacityoffluidflowingthroughthepipeperunitlengthofthe
pipetotheconductivityofthepipe.
G=

m.Cp
D
=Pe.

Lk
4

ThusitisaproductofPecletno.andaconstant.
Itisrelatedonlyfortheheatflowtothefluidflowingthroughacircularpipe.
Q.12Discussthermal&Hydrodynamicboundarylayer.
Thermalboundarylayer
Wheneveraflowoffluidtakesplacepastaheatedorcoldsurface,atempfieldissetupinthefield
nexttothesurface.Itthesurfaceofplateishotterthanfluid,thereisatempthereisatemp
distribution.theoneorlayerwhereinthetemperaturefieldexistsiscalledthethermalboundarylayer
HeatTransfer
Page15

Note:Thesequestionbankisnotforanycirculationandsale

NagpurInstituteofTechnology,Nagpur

Subject Heat Transfer (v th semester Mech.Engg.)

.thethermalboundarylayerthicknessdefinedasthedistanceoffromtheplatesurfaceatwhichtst/ts
t =0.99

Temperatureprofileofthethermalboundarylayerdependsupontheviscosity,velocityofflow,specific
heat,andthermalconductivityofthefluid.
Therelativemagnitudeof & thareaffectedbythethermophysicalpropertiesofthefluid.
Thegoverningparameterisaprandtlno,iePr= cp/k

th= whenPr=1
th whenPr 1
th whenPr 1
Hydrodynamicboundarylayer.

WhenairwithfreestreamvelocityUflowsoveraflatplate,thelayerofairgettingcontactwithplate
getretardedduetoviscouseffect.Theairadjacenttothislayerisalsoslowsdown.Sothereisavelocity
gradientdevelopedinaperpendiculardirectiontoplateortothedirectionofairstream.Thicknessof

HeatTransfer
Page16

Note:Thesequestionbankisnotforanycirculationandsale

NagpurInstituteofTechnology,Nagpur

Subject Heat Transfer (v th semester Mech.Engg.)

boundarylayerisarbitrarydefinedasthatdistancefromtheboundaryinwhichthevelocityreaches
99%ofthevelocityoffreestream( =0.99U).Itisalsocallednormalthicknessoftheboundarylayer.
Displacementthickness:
Itisthedistance,measuredperpendiculartotheboundarybywhichthemainfreestreamisdisplaced
onaccountofformationofboundarylayer.or
Itisanadditionalwallthicknessthatwouldhavetobeaddedtocompensateforthereducedflowrate
anaccountofboundarylayerformation.
Momentumthickness:
Itmayalsobedefinedasthedistance,measuredperpendiculartotheboundaryofthesolidbody,by
whichtheboundaryshouldbedisplacedtocompensateforreductionin,momentumoftheflowingfluid
anaccountofboundarylayerformation.
Q.13Inacertainprocess,asquareglassplateisheateduniformlyto80 0Candiscooledbyairat300C
flowingoverbothsidesparalleltotheplateat2m/s.theplateishavingtheareaof1m2andthickness
of 4 mm. Calculate the initial rate of cooling the plate. Heats lost by plate instantaneously. Neglect
temperaturegradientinglassplateandconsideronlyforcedconvection.
Takeforglass=2500kg/m3 ,Cp=0.07KJ/kgK
Forair=1.076kg/m3,Cp=1008J/kgk,K=0.0286W/m0C,=19.8x106Ns/m2.
Ans:
Nu=

hL
=0.664*(Re)1/2*(Pr)1/3
K

Rel=

Pr=

.V .L 1.076 * 2 * 1
=
=1.0868*105
6

19.8 * 10
.Cp
K

19.8 *10 6 *1008


=0.0698
0.0286

hL/K=0.664*(1.63*105)1/2*(0.0698)1/3

=194.19

h=0.0286*194.19=5.55W/m2oC
Qforbothsideofplate
HeatTransfer
Page17

Note:Thesequestionbankisnotforanycirculationandsale

NagpurInstituteofTechnology,Nagpur

Subject Heat Transfer (v th semester Mech.Engg.)

Q=2hAs(tst )
=2*5.55*1*(9020)
=777W
Heatlostbyplateinstantaneously
Q=m.Cp t
m=area*thickness*
1*4*2500/1000=10kg

777=10*0.67*103* t

t=0.116oC/s
Q.14Inacertainprocess,castoroilat300Cflowspastaflatplate.Thevelocityofoilis0.08m/s.The
lengthoftheplateis5m.Theplateisheateduniformlyandmaintainedat900C.Calculate
1)Hydrodynamicandthermalboundarylayerthicknessatthetrailingedgeofplate.2)Totaldragforce
perunitwidthononesideoftheplate.
Usefollowingcorrelation
Nu=0.332(Re)1/2(Pr)1/3
Takepropertiesas
=956.8kg/m3,k=0.2132W/mK,=7.2*108m2/s,=0.65*104m2/s
Ans:
Re=

U.L

0.08 * 5
=6153
0.65 * 10 4

Thereforeflowislaminar

5*5
= 0.32 m
6153

th =

(Pr)1 / 3

HeatTransfer
Page18

Note:Thesequestionbankisnotforanycirculationandsale

NagpurInstituteofTechnology,Nagpur

th =

Subject Heat Transfer (v th semester Mech.Engg.)

(Pr)1 / 3

Pr=/=902.78
Therefore th =

Cf=1.328/

0.32
= 0.033m
(902.78)1 / 3

6153=0.0169

FD=Cf*1/2**Areaofplate*U2
=0.2587Npermwidth
Q.15Explaintheregimesofboilingonnucleatecurvewithneatsketch.

1.InterfaceEvaporation:
Thefirstregionisofinterfaceevaporation,whereevaporationtakesplaceatliquidvaporinterface
withoutformationofbubbles.Ininterfaceevaporationtheliquidlayerincontactwithheatsurfaceget
evaporated,theconvectioncurrentisdevelopedwhichmovestheflowitandevaporationtakesplaceat
liquidsurface.Inthisregiontheexcesstemperatureisupto5oC
2.NucleateBoiling:
NucleateboilingexistinregionsIIandIIIwithincreaseinexcesstemperature,inregionIIthe
nucleateboilingstart.Thebubblesstartsformingatcertainlocalizedspot,travelsthroughtheliquidand
HeatTransfer
Page19

Note:Thesequestionbankisnotforanycirculationandsale

NagpurInstituteofTechnology,Nagpur

Subject Heat Transfer (v th semester Mech.Engg.)

condenseintheliquidwithoutreachingtheliquidsurface.Withfurtherincreaseinexcesstemperature
thebubblesareformedmorerapidlyandrisetothesurfaceoftheliquidresultinginrapidevaporation
in region III. Thus the nucleate boiling consist of formation of bubbles at specific location and that
results in liquid agitation. The bubble agitation causes fluid mixing and that promotes substantial
increaseinheattransfercoefficientandheatflux.
Nucleateboilingexistuptote 50oC
Themaximumheatfluxknownascriticalheatflux,occursatpointX.
3.Filmboiling:
FilmboilingcomprisesofregionsIV,VandVI.InregionIVthebubbleformationisveryrapidand
the bubbles covers the heating surface and prevent liquid from taking their place. The bubble break
down,formsfilmofvaporcoveringtheheatinge.Duetothisheatfluxdrops.
Withinthetemperaturerangeof50oC<te<150oCconditionoscillatesbetweennucleateboilingfilm
boilingandthephaseisrefusedastransitionboiling,unstableboilingorpartialboiling.
Withfurtherincreaseintethevapourfilmisestablishedandtheheatingsurfaceiscompletely
coveredbyavapourfilmandtheheatfluxisminimuminregionV.

Tomaintainastablefilmatsurface,thesurfacetemperaturerequiredtomaintainishighand
duetothis,considerableamountofheatislostbythesurfaceduetoradiationasinregionVI.
Q.16Whatismeanbycriticalheatfluxorburnoutpoint
The critical heat flux or burn out point is the point of maximum heat flux at which transition
from nucleate boiling to film boiling takes place. The boiling process beyond critical heat flux point is
unstable so it is called as boiling crisis .the boiling equipment design to operate close to this point ,
because beyond this point the surface temp. reached may be above the melting point of equipment
material.
Q.17DiscusstheFactorsaffectingnucleateboiling:
1.Liquidproperties
The dynamic viscosity of fluid affect the size of bubbles . with increase in dynamic viscosity size of
bubblesincreases.asthesizeofbubbleincreases,thefrequencyofbubbleformationdecreases.which
resultsinreducedheattransfer.
2.Materialshapeandconditionoftheheatingsurface
Theheattransferrateorboilingheattransfercoefficientgreatlydependsonthematerialoftheheating
surface.Theconditionofheatingsurfacealsoinfluencetheheattransfer.Theroughsurfacegivesa
HeatTransfer
Page20

Note:Thesequestionbankisnotforanycirculationandsale

NagpurInstituteofTechnology,Nagpur

Subject Heat Transfer (v th semester Mech.Engg.)

betterheattransmissionthanwhenthesurfaceiseithersmoothorhasbeencoated.Theshapeof
heatingsurfacealsoaffectstransmissionofheat.
3.Pressure
The pressure affect the rate of bubble growth and in turn also affects the temperature difference
causing heat flow. For a boiling liquid up to the critical pressure, the maximum allowable heat flux
increasesandafterthatitdeclines.
4.Mechanicalagitation
Theheattransferrateincreaseswiththeincreaseindegreeofagitation.
Q.18Influenceofpresenceofnoncondensablegasesoncondensation

The presence of non condensable gas such as air in a condensing vapour produces a
detrimental effect on the heat transfer coefficient. Even few percent by volume of air in steam, the
condensationheattransfercoefficientisreduced bymorethan50%.Thisisbecauseofdepositionof
noncondensablegasatthesurfaceduringthecondensationofvapour.Thislayerofdepositionofnon
condensablegasoverthesurfaceactsasthermalresistance.thisadditionalthermalresistancetensto
reduce the heat transfer rate which results in reduced condensation rate. The rate of condensation
decreases remarkably even with presence of small amount of non condensable gas in condensing
vapour. . Any further condensation at the surface will occur only after incoming vapour has diffused
through this non condensable gas collected in the vicinity of the surface. The non condensable gas
adjacent to the surface acts as a thermal resistance to the condensation process. The rate of
condensation decreases greatly when the condensable vapour is contaminated with even very small
amountofnoncondensablegases.
Q.19DifferentiatebetweenFilmwiseandDropwiseCondensation
If the condensate tends to wet the surface and thereby forms a liquid film then the
condensation process is known as film condensation. In film condensation, condensate film exists
betweenthehotvapourandcoolingsurface.Thiscondensatefilmtemperatureishighercomparedto
coolingsurfacetemperatureduetowhichavailabletemperaturedifferenceforheattransferdecreases.

HeatTransfer
Page21

Note:Thesequestionbankisnotforanycirculationandsale

NagpurInstituteofTechnology,Nagpur

Subject Heat Transfer (v th semester Mech.Engg.)

So in case of film condensation heat transfer rate are smaller. As the film thickness increases
furthertheheattransferratedecreases.
In dropwise condensation the vapour condenses as small liquid droplets of various sizes. The
drop of condensate forms in pits and cracks in the surface, grow there and leave the surface without
formingacontinuousfilmofcondensateonthecoolingsurface.

Indropwisecondensationhigherratesofheattransferandthushigherrateofcondensationae
achieved because large surface area is directly exposed to vapour without any intermediate film of
condensate between them The coefficient of heat transfer in this condensation is upto 5 to 10 times
than that in film condensation. For dropwise condensation to occur either highly polished surfaces or
surfaces contaminated with impurities are required. Use of additives or painting of surface may be
employedtoachievedropwisecondensation.
Q.20Acondenserisdesignedtocondense500kg/hrofdryandsaturatedsteamat0.1bar.Asquare
array of 400 tubes, 6 mm in diameter is used. The tubes surface is maintained at 24 0C by flowing
water.Calculatetheheattransfercoefficientandlengthofeachtube.
Ans:
D=6mm=0.006m,ts=24oC,m=500kg/hr
Fromsteamtable
Propertiesofvapourare

HeatTransfer
Page22

Note:Thesequestionbankisnotforanycirculationandsale

NagpurInstituteofTechnology,Nagpur

Subject Heat Transfer (v th semester Mech.Engg.)

tsat=45.7oCv=0.0677kg/m3,hfg=2393kJ/kg
meanfilmtemperaturetf=

45.7 + 24
=34.85oC
2

Propertiesofwaterattf

l=993.95kg/m3, =728.15*106Ns/m2,K=0.6253W/moC
theno.ofhorizontaltubesinverticalcolumnis
N= 400 =20

l ( l v)k 3 .g.h fg
h=0.725

N l (t sat t s ) D

1/ 4

993 .95(993 .95 0.0677 )(0.6253) 3 .9.81. * 2393 * 10 3

20 * 728 .15 * 10 6 ( 45.7 24) * 0.006

h=0.725

1/ 4

h=5355.124W/m2oC
Now
Q=h.A.(tsatts)
500/3600*2393*1000=5355.124*3.14*400*0.006*L*(45724)

L=0.38m
Q.21Averticaltubeof60mmoutsidediameterand2mlongisexposedtosteamatatmospheric
pressure.Theoutersurfaceofthetubeismaintainedatatemperatureof84oCbycirculatingcoolwater
throughthetube.Calculaterateofheattransfertocoolantandrateofcondensation.Takethefollowing
propertiesofwater.
=963.4kg/m3,K=67.7x102W/m0K,=306X106kg/ms,hfg=2257KJ/Kg.Ts=100oC
v=0.598kg/m3
L=500mm=0.5m,B=1m,ts=30oC
(1)RateofHeatTransfer

HeatTransfer
Page23

Note:Thesequestionbankisnotforanycirculationandsale

NagpurInstituteofTechnology,Nagpur

Subject Heat Transfer (v th semester Mech.Engg.)

h=1.13

1/4

afterputtingvalues
h= 1.13[

9.81 * 963.4 * (963.4 0.598) * 0.677 3 * 2257 *1000

306 *10 6 * (100 84) * 2

h=5707.21W/m2oK
Q=hA(tsatts)
=5707.21*0.06*2*3.14*(10084)
=34425.072W
m=34425.072/2257*1000
=0.01525kg/s
Q.22DeriveanexpressionforLMTDforcounterflowheatexchanger:
Consideringasinglepasscounterflowheatexchangerarrangement
ConsideringtherateflowofheatthroughanelementaryareadAoftheheatexchanger.

HeatTransfer
Page24

Note:Thesequestionbankisnotforanycirculationandsale

NagpurInstituteofTechnology,Nagpur

Subject Heat Transfer (v th semester Mech.Engg.)

IntegratingfromA=otoA=A

1 1

cn cc

Loge( 2/ 1)= U . A.

HeatTransfer
Page25

Note:Thesequestionbankisnotforanycirculationandsale

NagpurInstituteofTechnology,Nagpur

Subject Heat Transfer (v th semester Mech.Engg.)


LMTDforacounterflowunitisalwaysgreaterthanthatforaparallelflowunit.Hencecounter
flowheatexchangefortransferringsameamountofheatcounterflowneedssmallerheattransferarea
ascompoundtoparallelflow.

AMTD:
When temperature variations of the fluids are relatively small, then temp variation lines are
approximatelystraightlinesthenAMTDcanbetakenforadequalityaccurateresult.

LMTDisusedwhen

1
1.7
2
Q.23Whatismeanbyfoulingofheatexchanger.Writedowntheequationofoverallheattransfer
coefficientconsideringfoulingofheatexchanger
Itmaypossiblethatfluidsflowingthroughheatexchangercontainsimpuritiesandduringflow
ofthisfluidcontainingimpuritiesthroughheatexchanger,theimpuritiesgetdepositedonthesurface
oftubes.

Thisphenomenonofformationanddepositionoffluidimpuritiesonthetubesurfacesiscalled
asfouling.Duetothisdepositionofscaleonthesurfaceofheatexchangertubes,thethermalresistance
increaseswhichtendtoreducetheefficiencyofheatexchanger.

Theeffectofscaleonheattransferisconsideredbyspecifyinganequivalentscaleheattransfer
coefficient,hs
Consideringscaleformationonbothsidesofheatexchangertubes
Let
hsiheattransfercoefficientforthescaleformedontheinside
hsoheattransfercoefficientforthescaleformedontheoutsidesurface
Aiinsidesurfacearea
HeatTransfer
Page26

Note:Thesequestionbankisnotforanycirculationandsale

NagpurInstituteofTechnology,Nagpur

Subject Heat Transfer (v th semester Mech.Engg.)

Aooutsidesurfacearea
ThereforeRsi=

1
=Thermalresistanceoninsidesurface
Ai.hsi

AndRso=

1
=Thermalresistanceonoutsidesurface
Ao.hso

Then
UA=

1
1
1
1
1
1
log(ro / ri ) +
+
+
+
Aihi Ai.hsi 2 KL
Ao.ho Ao.hso

Kthermalconductivityoftubematerial
Fortheinnersurface
Ui=

1
1
1
1
1
1
+
+ ri log(ro / ri) + ri / ro
+ ri / ro
hi hsi
K
ho
hso

Fortheoutersurface
Uo=

1
1
1
1
1
1
(ro / ri) + (ro / ri)
+ ro log(ro / ri) +
+
hi
hsi
K
ho hso

Neglectingscaleresistanceandresistanceduetomaterialweget
Uo=

1
1
(ro / ri) +
hi ho

Ifro=ri
Uo=

Uo=

1
1
1
+
hi ho

ho.hi
ho + hi

HeatTransfer
Page27

Note:Thesequestionbankisnotforanycirculationandsale

NagpurInstituteofTechnology,Nagpur

Subject Heat Transfer (v th semester Mech.Engg.)

Q.24Discussthedesignaspectsofheatexchanger
Depending on the use of the heat exchanger there are various criterion for selection of a
particular type of heat exchanger. But in general following points to be considered while selecting a
heatexchanger
1)heattransferrequirement:Theheattransferrequirementmustbemetintheselectionordesignof
anyheatexchanger.
2)Fluidtemperatures: The fluid temperature are also important while selecting a type of heat
exchanger,sodueconsiderationmustbegiventoinletandoutlettemperaturesflowingfluids..
2)Physicalsize:Tubesize,tubethickness,numberoftubesallinfluencetheheattransferinexchanger,
somustbeselectedwithcare.Withincreasingthephysicalsizeofheatexchanger,thesurfaceareaof
the exchanger can be increased. But while selecting the dimensions of heat exchanger consideration
mustbegiventospaceavailableandcost.
3)Pressuredropcharacteristics:Whileaimingtoincreaseheattransferbyincreasingfluidvelocity,the
pressuredropshouldbetakenintoconsideration.
scaleformation,scalethicknessandresultingpressuredropmustbeconsideredwhiledesigning.
4)Typeoffluid:foulingcharacteristicsoffluiddependsontypeoffluid.Itcanbeoneofthefactorsfor
selectingatypeofheatexchanger.
5)Tubelayouts:Intubelayoutsshouldbeconsidered.Becauseinsufficienttubepitchwillcreatehurdle
incleaningwhichreducestheheattransfer.
Q.25Writeshortnoteson
1]EffectivenessNTUmethodorDiscusseffectivenessofheatexchanger
When inlet and outlet temperatures of fluids flowing through the heat exchanger are known,
theLMTDapproachcanbeeasilyutilizedtoanalyzetheheatexchanger.Butincaseswherefluidsinlet
and outlet temperature are unknown, the method based on effectiveness of heat exchanger gives an
easywayforanalysisofheatexchanger.Thismethodisalsoadvantageousforcomparingvariousheat
exchangersforselectingatypebestsuitedforaparticularheattransferobjective.

The heat exchanger effectiveness is defined as the ratio of heat transfer to the maximum
possibleheattransfer.Itisdenotedby.
Effectiveness==Actualheattransfer/maximumpossibleheattransfer

HeatTransfer
Page28

Note:Thesequestionbankisnotforanycirculationandsale

NagpurInstituteofTechnology,Nagpur

Subject Heat Transfer (v th semester Mech.Engg.)

Qactual

Q max imum

Theactualheattransfer=theheatlostbyhotfluid=byheatgainbycoldfluid.
Qact=mhCph(th1th2)=mcCpc(tc2tc1)

Since mass flow rate and specific heat of fluids remains constant, the maximum heat transfer
related to maximum temperature difference available in heat exchanger. The fluid for which capacity
rateisminimumwillundergothismaximumtemperaturedifference.
Therefore Q max is the product of minimum heat capacity rate and maximum temperature difference
availableinheatexchanger
Qmax=(m.c)min(thinlettcinlet)

=(m.c)min(th1tc1)

ThefluidhavingminimumcapacityrateI.e(m.c)min=Cminiscalledminimumfluid
mc.CpccoldfluidcapacityrateCc
mh.CphhotfluidcapacityrateCh
Theminimumheatcapacityfluidmaybehotfluidorcoldcluid
ifmh.Cph<mc.CpcorCh<CcthenCmin=ChandCmax=Cc
ifmc.Cpc<mh.CphorCc<ChthenCmin=CcandCmax=Ch
Ifhotfluidisminimumfluid

C h (t h1 t h 2 )
t t
= h1 h 2
C min (t h1 t c1 )
t h1 t c1

Ifcoldfluidisminimumfluid

t c 2 t c1

t h1 t c1

Ingeneral

t (min fluid )
.
max temperature.diff c in.heat.exchanger
m

HeatTransfer
Page29

Note:Thesequestionbankisnotforanycirculationandsale

NagpurInstituteofTechnology,Nagpur

Subject Heat Transfer (v th semester Mech.Engg.)

Theminimumfluidisalwaystheoneexperiencingthelargertempdifferenceintheheatexchangerand
themaximumtemperaturedifferenceintheheatexchangerisalwaysthedifferenceintheinlet
temperaturesofthehotandcoldfluids.
Q.26Acounterflowheatexchangerisemployedtocool0.55kg/s(Cp=2.45KJ/kgoC)ofoilfrom115oC
to40oCbytheuseofwater.Theinletandoutlettemperaturesofcoolingwaterare15oCand75oC
respectively.Theoverallheattransfercoefficientisexpectedtobe1450W/m2oC.UsingNTUmethod,
calculatetheFollowing
(i)themassflowrateofwater
(ii)theeffectivenessoftheheatexchanger
(iii)thesurfacearearequired.
moil=0.55kg/s,Cph=2.45KJ/kgoC,th1=115oC,th2=40oC
tc1=15oCtc2=75oCU=1450W/m2oC
mw=
mhCph(th1th2)=mwCpw(tc2tc1)
.55*2.45*(11540)=mw*4.18*(7515)
mw=0.4kg/s
(ii)Theeffectiveness
Cc=mw*Cpw
=0.4*4.18=1.672KW
Ch=mh*Cph
=0.55*2.45=1.347KW

AsCh<Ccthereforehotfluidisaminimumfluid
Therefore
=

th1 th 2

th1 tc1

=0.75

HeatTransfer
Page30

Note:Thesequestionbankisnotforanycirculationandsale

NagpurInstituteofTechnology,Nagpur

Subject Heat Transfer (v th semester Mech.Engg.)

(iii)Surfacearearequired
Cmax=1.672KW
Cmin=1.347KW
R=1.347/1.672=0.806

1 exp[ NTU (1 R)]

1 Re xp[ NTU (1 R)]

1
= exp[ NTU (1 R )]
R 1
0.75 1
= exp[ NTU (1 0.806)]
0.750 * 806. 1
NTU=2.365
2.365=1450*A/1.347*1000
A=2.197m2
Q.27Aparallelflowofheattransferuse1500kg/hrofcoldwaterenteringat25 oCtocool600kg/hrof
hotwaterat70 oC.Theexittemperatureonhotsideisrequiredtobe50 oC.Neglectingtheeffectsof
thefollowingfactor,calculatetheareaoftheheatexchange.Itmaybeassumedthattheindividualheat
transfercoefficientonbothsideare1600W/m2K.UsemeantemperaturedifferenceandNTUapproach
separately. Also calculate the exit temperature of hot and cold stream if the flow of hot water is
doubled. i.e. 1200 kg/hr. it has been state that individual heat transfer coefficient proportional to .8th
powerofflowrate.TakeCp=4180J/kgK.

mh=600kg/hrmc=1500kg/hr
th1=70oCth2=50oCtc1=25oCtc2=?U=2270W/m2oKC=4180J/KgK
Q=mhCph(th1th2)=mcCpc(tc2tc1)
600/3600*4.187*(7050)=1500/3600*4.187*(tc225)
tc2=33oC
1=7025=45oC
2=5033=17oC

HeatTransfer
Page31

Note:Thesequestionbankisnotforanycirculationandsale

NagpurInstituteofTechnology,Nagpur

Subject Heat Transfer (v th semester Mech.Engg.)

LMTD=(12)/In(1/2)=28.76oC

1
1
1

= +
U hi ho
1
1
1

=
+
U 1600 1600
U=800W/m2K
Q=U.A.LMTD
ThereforeA=.6m2
ByNTUapproach

th1 th 2 70 50
=
= 0.54
th1 Tc1 70 33

1 e 2 NTU
=

2
NTU=1.25
NTU=UA/m*Cph
A=1m2Q
Q.28Stateandexplainfollowinglawsofradiation
1]Wiensdisplacementlaw

Apeakvalueofmonochromaticemissivepoweroccursataparticularwavelength.Thislawgives
arelationshipbetweentemperatureofbodyandthewavelengthatwhichthemaximumvalueof
monochromaticemissivepoweroccurs.
A/ctoWienslaw

max.T=constant

max.T=2898mk

Itisusedtopredictveryhightemperaturethroughmeasurementofwavelength.
2]Lambertscosinelaw
HeatTransfer
Page32

Note:Thesequestionbankisnotforanycirculationandsale

NagpurInstituteofTechnology,Nagpur

Subject Heat Transfer (v th semester Mech.Engg.)

ThislawstatesthattotalemissivepowerEfromadiffuseradiatingsurfaceinanyparticular
directionisdirectlyproportionaltothecosineoftheanglebetweenthedirectionunderconsideration
andnormaltothesurface()
LetEnbetotalemissivepowerofthesurfaceinthedirectionnormaltoitssurfacethen,
E=EnCos
3]Kirchoffslaw
TheKirchoffslawstatesthatatthermalequilibrium,theratiooftotalemissivepowerEtothetotal
absorptivity isaconstantforallsubstances.
Thusatequilibrium
A1E1= 1A1Ebforbody1Ebemissivepowerofblackbody
Ifbody1isreplacedbybody2then
A1E1= 2A2Eb
Thereforewecanwrite
Eb=E1/ 1=E2/

2=E/

But=E/Eb
Eb=E/

Kirchoffslawalsostatesthattheemissivityofablackbodyisequaltoitsabsorptivitywhenthe
bodyremainsinthermalequilibriumwithitssurrounding.
Q.29Shapefactor
Theshapefactorisusefulinanalysisofheatexchangebyradiationbetweentwosurfaces.

HeatTransfer
Page33

Note:Thesequestionbankisnotforanycirculationandsale

NagpurInstituteofTechnology,Nagpur

Subject Heat Transfer (v th semester Mech.Engg.)

ConsidertwosurfaceswithareaAi&Ajexchangingheat.Rdistancebetweenthesetwoarea.

i& jaretheanglesmadebynormaltotheAi&Aj
RateofenergyradiatedbyAi
Qi
RateofradiantenergyemittedbyAiandthatfallsonAj

Q ij
Fij(Shapefactorforbodyiwrtoj)
Fijiscalledconfigurationfactor,viewfactororshapefactor.
DefinitionItdefinedasthefractionofradiativeenergythatisdiffusedfromonesurfaceandstrikes
theothersurfacedirectlywithnointerveningreflections.
SimilarFjiistheshapefactorforbodyjwithrespecttoi
AiFij=AjFji
Thisisknownasreciprocitytherom.
Q.30DiscussRadiationshield
Certainapplicationrequirestoreducetheoverallthattransferbetweentworadiatingsurfaces.Thiscan
beachievedeitherbyusingmaterialswhicharehighlyreflectiveorbyusingradiationshieldsbetween
theheatexchangingsurfaces.Theradiationshieldsdoesnotactuallyremovesanyheatfromthe
overallsystembutiteffectivelyincreasesthesurfaceresistancetoreducetheradiationheattransfer.
thinshieldsofplasticcoatedwithhighlyreflectingmetallicfilmsonbothsidesservesasveryeffective
radiationshield.
Theshieldsareusedinthetemperaturemeasurementofafluidbyathermometerorathermocouple
whichisshieldtoreducetheeffectofradiation.
Q31Twoverylargeparallelplates,aremaintainedatuniformtemperature800Kand500Kandhave
emissivities1=0.2,and2=0.7respectively.Determineheattransferbetweenthetwosurfacesper
unitsurfaceareaoftheplates.
Ans:
heattransferbetweenthetwosurfacesperunitsurfacearea

HeatTransfer
Page34

Note:Thesequestionbankisnotforanycirculationandsale

NagpurInstituteofTechnology,Nagpur

Subject Heat Transfer (v th semester Mech.Engg.)

T1 T2 5.67 (800) (500) x108


Q1 2
=
q12 =
= 1 1

1
1
A
+ 1
+
1
4

1 2

0.2 0.7

q12 =3625W/m2

Q.32Twoparallelsquareplates,each4m2areaarelargecomparedtoagapof5mmseparatingthem.
Oneplatehasatemperatureof800oKandsurfaceemissivityof0.6,whiletheotherhasatemperature
of300oKandasurfaceemissivityof0.9.Findthenetenergyexchangebyradiationbetweentheplates.
Ifathinpolishedmetalchipofsurfaceemissivity0.1onbothsidesisnowlocatedcentrallybetweenthe
twoplates,whatwillbeitssteadystatetemperature?Howtheheattransferwouldbealtered?Neglect
theconvectionandedgeeffects,ifany.Commentuponthesignificanceofthisexercise.
Ans:
1=0.6,T1=800 2=0.9,T2=300oK

Heattransferwhenthereisnoshield

Q=

1 2
Q=

* A* (T14 T24 ) 5.67* 4 * 4 * (800)4 (300)4 x108


=

1
1
+
1
0.6 0.9

91060.2
= 51211.76watts
1.667 + 1.111 1

Heattransferwithshield

T14 T24
Q
=
1 1
1
1
A
( + 1) + (
+
1)
1 2
31 32

Q
5.67*108 8004 3004
= 1095.6watts/ m2
=
1
1
1
1
A
( +
1) + ( + 1)
0.6 0.9
0.1 0.1
Fortemperatureofshield
HeatTransfer
Page35

Note:Thesequestionbankisnotforanycirculationandsale

NagpurInstituteofTechnology,Nagpur

Subject Heat Transfer (v th semester Mech.Engg.)

(T3 T2 )
Q T14 T34
=
=

1
1
1
1
A
( +
1)
+ 1
1 31
32 2

Q 8004 T34 (T3 3004 )


=
=

A
(10.66)
10.11
4

T3=671.67oK
Q.33Discussthefollowing
1)Heatpipe:

Adevicewhichmakesuseofphaseheattransferistheheatpipe.Acircularpipehasalayerof
wickingmaterialcoveringtheinsidesurfacewithahollowcoreinthecenter.Acondensablefluidisalso
containedinthepipeandtheliquidpermeatesthewickingmaterialbycapillaryaction.Whentheheatis
addedtooneendofpipe,liquidisvaporizedinthewickandthepipeheatisremovedandthevapour
condensesbackintothewick.Liquidisreplenishedintheevaporatorsectionbythecapillaryaction.

Thebasicconceptofheatpipewillworkintheabsenceofgravity,theheatpipemaybetiltedso
thatthecondenserisatahigherelevationthantheevaporator.Inthiscaseactionofgravityservesto
speedtheflowofliquiddownthroughthewickingmaterial.Thisiscalledasfavorabletilt.Incontrast,
whenthecondenserisplacedatalowerelevationthantheevaporatortheactionofgravitywillimpede
theflowofliquidinthewickandtheheatpipeissaidtohaveadversetilt.

Heatpipeisparticularlyusefulinenergyconservationequipmentwhereitisdesiredtorecover
heatfromhotgasesforairpreheaterorsupplementalheatingapplication.
2)thermalresistance
When two physical systems are described by similar equation and have similar boundary conditions,
thesearesaidtobeanalogous.Theheattransferprocessesmaybecomparedbyanalogywithflowof
electricityinanelectricalresistance.
AsperOhmslaw,current(I)=

potential .differance (dV )

Electrical .resis tan ce

Byanalogy,fromFourierequationforheatflow
HeatflowrateQ=

Temperature.differance(dt )

K .A
HeatTransfer
Page36

Note:Thesequestionbankisnotforanycirculationandsale

NagpurInstituteofTechnology,Nagpur

Subject Heat Transfer (v th semester Mech.Engg.)

HereIisanaloguestoQ

dVisanaloguestodt

Risanaloguesto

Rth=

K .A

K .A

andthisquantityiscalledthermalresistance

UnitwillbeoC/WoroK/W
Reciprocalofthermalresistanceiscalledthermalconductance.

HeatTransfer
Page37

Note:Thesequestionbankisnotforanycirculationandsale