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1. Briefly explain any 2 motivational theories that you know and how
effective these theories in developing employees in organization.

2. Why do we need the changes in organization? What are the best

ways to implement effective organization change?

3. Stress is dynamic and common in any workplace. It is pertinent

that stress is reduces to a minimum level. Discuss some of the
techniques to reduce stress among employees in an organization.

Motivation is a six phased process beginning from the inner state of need
deficiency and ending with need fulfillment.
Motivation is the result of processes, internal or external to the individual, that
arouse enthusiasm and persistence to pursue a certain course of action.

Motivation is a process that starts with a physiological or psychological deficiency

or need that activates behavior or a drive that is aimed at a goal or incentive.

NEED AND IMPORTANCE OF MOTIVATIONThe need for motivation in an organization may be summed up as follows-

1. Helps in realizing organizational goals- Motivated employees cooperate

voluntarily with the management and thus contribute their maximum
towards the organizational goals.
2. Helps in increasing productivity- Since motivation brings about satisfaction
to employees, they work whole-heartedly. This results in increased
3. Helps in reducing employees turnover and absenteeism- The rate of
turnover and absenteeism comes down on account of the attractive
motivational schemes.
4. Helps in maintaining good industrial relations- A proper system of
motivation reduces friction among the employees and between the
employees and the management. This results in good industrial relations
between the management and the employees.
5. Helps in getting right personnel- Attractive motivational schemes help in
attracting highly talented and competent persons from external sources.

6. Helps in reducing employees grievances- Good motivational schemes

also help in reducing the number of complaints and grievances.


Three types of forces generally influence human behavior as under1. Forces operating within the individual- Human needs vary among
individuals and cannot be identified. People hide due to social behavior.
These needs depend on individual interest and attitudes.

2. Forces operating within the organization- Organisation climate plays

an important part in determining workers motivation. The organization
climate is determined by a number of variables such as its leadership style,
autonomy enjoyed by members, growth prospects, emotional support from
members, reward structure,etc.

3. Forces operating in the environment- Culture, norms, customs, images

and attributes accorded by society to particular jobs, professions and
occupations and the workers home life- all play a strong motivational role.
An individual may prefer to do the job of an officer ( because it has social
status and gives lot of powers ) rather than serve as a college teacher
( powerless position ).


Following are the important principles of motivation-

1. Principle of participation- It is one of the most important principle of

motivation that people in the organization should be induced to participate
in decision-making process in matters concerning them. Participation
makes people more interested and increase their enthusiasm in the job.

2. Principle of communication- Communication helps make work

purposeful, gives meaning to the job and makes people feel important in
the organization. Two-way communication- upward and downward is more
meaningful in motivating the workers.

3. Principle of recognition- People will be motivated to work hard if they get

continuing recognition for their efforts. If superiors have a praise for
outstanding performance, a credit for efficient service and an appreciation
of good work for their subordinates, they will feel satisfied from their work
and, they will have a feeling of being approved for their work.

4. Principle of delegation of authority- Giving people authority to make

their own decision, gives them a vested interest in the result they
accomplish and they feel that they are a part of the organization.

5. Principle of individuality- The management should ascertain first the

needs, craving satisfaction in the particular individuals mind and then

motivating situation should be created. Everyone should be treated

differently in a way that they all feel important for the organization.

6. Principle of guidance- The job of the management is to guide his subordinates towards the attainment of goals. The managers should give
suggestions instead of orders.

7. Principle of confidence- The management should show confidence in its

subordinates. This will instill confidence in themselves. This will motivate
them to do their best.

Infact the management must create a feeling of belonging, team spirit and group
cohesiveness among them by following the above principles.


1-CONTENT THEORIESContent theories offer insight into the needs of people in organizations and help
managers understand how needs can be satisfied in the workplace.

Maslows hierarchy of needs theoryOne of the most widely mentioned theories of motivation is the hierarchy of
needs theory put forth by psychologist Abraham Maslow. Maslow saw human
needs in the form of a hierarchy, ascending from the lowest to the highest, and

he concluded that when one set of needs is satisfied, this kind of need ceases to
be a motivator.

The needs hierarchy- Five basic human needs placed by Maslow in an

ascending order of importance are-

Physiological needs- These are the basic needs for sustaining human life itself,
such as food, water, warmth, shelter and sleep. Maslow took the position that
until these needs are satisfied to the degree necessary to maintain life, other
needs will not motivate people.

Security, or safety needs- These are the needs to be free of physical danger
and of the fear of losing a job, property, food or shelter.

Affiliation, or acceptance needs- Since people are social beings, they need to
belong, to be accepted by others.

Esteem needs- According to Maslow, once people begin to satisfy their need to
belong, they tend to want to be held in esteem both by themselves and by others.
This kind of need produces such satisfactions as power, prestige, status and selfconfidence.

Need for self-actualization- Maslow regards this as the highest need in his
hierarchy. It is the desire to become what one is capable of becoming- to
maximize ones potential and to accomplish something.

Herzbergs two factor theory-

Herzberg stated that when people talked about feeling good or satisfied they
mentioned features intrinsic to the job and when people talked about feeling
dissatisfied with the job they talked about factors extrinsic to the job.

Hygiene (Maintenance)


Company Policy and Administration


Relationship with Supervisor


Work Conditions

Work Itself



Relationship with Peers


Personal Life


Relationship with Subordinates


Hygiene factors ( maintainance factors)Hygiene factors are to viewed as preventive measures that remove sources of
dissatisfaction from the environment. Maintaining a hygienic work environment
will not improve motivation. Hygiene factors produce no growth in workers output,
but they prevent loss in performance caused by work restriction.

MotivatorsMotivators are associated with positive feelings of employees about the job. They
are related to the content of the job. Motivators are necessary to keep the job
satisfaction and job performance high.
ContributionHerzbergs two factor theory has made a significant contribution toward
improving managers basic understanding of human behaviour. He advanced a
theory that was simple to grasp, and significantly offered specific action
recommendation for managers to improve employee motivation levels. He drew
the attention of managers to the importance of job content factors in work
motivation which had been neglected previously.

The Porter and Lawler motivation modelPorter and Lawler model has made significant contribution to better
understanding of work motivation and the relationship between performance and
satisfaction. Motivation, performance and satisfaction are separate variables and
have complex relationship. Both promoted the thesis that performance causes

Porter and Lawler point out that effort (force and motivation) does not lead
directly to performance. It is mediated by abilities, traits and by role perceptions.

More important in the Porter-Lawler model is what happens after performance.

The rewards that follow and how these are perceived will determine satisfaction.

Thus, Porter and Lawler model suggests a change from earlier thinking- that
performance leads to satisfaction.

They concluded performance and satisfaction will be closely related when

rewards are made contingent upon performance.

Porter and Lawler also recommend that organisations critically re-evaluate their
current reward policies. They stress that management should make a concerted
effort to measure how closely levels of satisfaction are related to levels of

Following guidelines have been suggested by Porter Lawler:

Determine what rewards each employee values.
Define desired performance.
Make desired performance attainable.
Link valued rewards to performance.
Link rewards to individual unit performance rather than overall company
performance results.

Why do we need the changes in organization? What are the best ways
to implement effective organization change?
Whatever the mission, our business or organization comprises people with
distinctive qualities:
diverse backgrounds, personalities, motivations, talents and aspirations
These are qualities that, when complemented, aligned and directed, you and
your company/organization succeed.
Individuals must be brought into alignment and agreement for the organization to
succeed. Mere employees work to complete individual tasks. But members of a
body embracing a common purpose, a clear vision and responsibility for
achieving the vision can be transformed into leaders - leaders who excel in life.
For success to happen, we must cooperate and work ethically with core values
and purpose. This happens

when we model best practices and engage in steady, continuous learning

when we understand our role and its relationship to others

when we are meaningfully empowered and drawn into appropriate


when we are acknowledged for contributions to problem-solving and

greater teamwork

when we are challenged to create the most profitable and just organization,
an empowered culture, a stronger community

Factor 1 Competitive advantage

Building the organizational competency to effectively implement and manage
change is one of the key ways you can set yourself apart from your competitors.
In today marketplace, many organizations have seen the sources of their
historic competitive advantage erode. Rapid access to information, common
technologies, best practices, suppliers and markets has resulted in parity for
many organizations. The new, global economy is forcing organizations to change
the way they do work locally and abroad.
So, if you can no longer rely on historic sources of competitive advantage, how
will you set your organization apart? Imagine that your organization can more
quickly and more effectively react to change with less impact on productivity.
People are ready for change and expect that it is going to happen. Questions are
targeted. General resistance is mitigated or prevented. Each new project has a
plan and approach for managing the human side of change. This is what is
meant by Enterprise Change Management, and we have seen organizations
begin to dedicate the time, resources and mindshare to build change
management as a core competency over the last few years.
How well you manage change in the coming years - and how effectively you build
internal change management competencies - will be a key source of competitive
advantage and will differentiate you from others in the future.

Factor 2 Failed changes

Each of us could list off a number of changes we have seen poorly implemented
in our organizations. Some changes end up behind schedule. Others run over
budget. Some face tremendous resistance from employees. Some are
implemented, but the expected results never materialize. In some cases changes
fail completely and are abandoned. Many of the reasons your projects have not

fully realized the expected benefits in the past are tied to mismanaging the
human side of change.
Now, consider the cost of these failed changes. How much time and money was
spent on initiatives that were not fully implemented? What was the impact to the
organization of these changes not being implemented? Your organization cannot
risk the additional cost and missed benefits of poorly managing the human side
of change.
Building the competency to manage change effectively, throughout the
organization, can be viewed as a cost avoidance measure aimed at minimizizing
the impacts associated with failed changes.

Factor 3 Upcoming changes

In addition to minimizing the risk of failed change, the number and types of
changes on the horizon is another reason why your organization needs to build
the competency to manage change. The coming years promise to have both a
larger quantity of changes and more critical changes than any time before.
Organizations are constantly working to implement new technologies, upgrade
systems, improve productivity, cut cost and manage the human capital in the
organization. At any one time, your organization may have fifty to 100 projects
impacting how individuals do their jobs - with fifty to 100 more on the schedule.
Improving how your organization manages change will directly impact the
success of each of the initiatives underway and those planned for the future.
Additionally, the higher priority and more strategic initiatives have a direct impact
on how employees do their jobs - meaning there is a greater need for change
With such tremendous churn on deck, effective change management will be

critical to project outcomes and the organization's ability to meet its objectives.

Factor 4 Consistent application

While there certainly is value to applying change management to a single project,
the value is magnified when organizations begin consistently applying change
management on each and every change - a key component of change
management competency. The adoption and deployment of a common approach
results in more consistent application both by individual practitioners and across
numerous projects. This step of adopting a common approach includes common
processes, tools, practices and language throughout all levels and all projects.
There are numerous benefits of more consistent application of change
management. First, a common set of resources and subject matter experts can
support a variety of change management practitioners. Learning curves are
shortened when a common approach is consistently applied. A common
approach also provides a platform for continuous learning and improvement.
Each time change management is applied, practitioners can generate lessons
learned that will improve the subsequent change management efforts. Without
this consistent application, continuous improvement of the change management
process and approach cannot occur.
There is also a risk of not adopting a common approach. Think about a single
manager who is being asked to fulfill three completely different roles by three
change management practitioners supporting three different changes. While
each of the practitioners is working to optimize the adoption of their particular
change by using change management, the manager may become confused and
disengage altogether from all change management activities. The same backfire
effect can occur with senior business leaders, project teams and other project
support functions (like communication specialists or training specialists).

One of the first steps in building change management competency is the

selection and deployment of a common approach, which improves change
management efforts throughout the organization.

Factor 5 Personal competency

Finally, there is an individual perspective related to building organizational
change management competency. Aside from the 'organizational' reasons given
above, managing change is an emerging and important individual skill set that
leaders, managers and supervisors throughout the organization need to add to
their portfolio.
There are several key best practices that show why managing change is a
necessary personal competency at many levels in the organization. All four of
Prosci's best practices reports have identified the role of the primary sponsor as
the number one contributor to success. The sponsor's role includes actively and
visibly participating with the project team, building a coalition of sponsorship with
peers and other managers and communicating directly with employees about the
need for change. However, fulfilling these roles does not come naturally for many
senior leaders. Even the best leaders in an organization may need support,
training and coaching on how to be an effective sponsor. The same holds true for
managers and supervisors when it comes time to fulfill the role of coach,
communicator and resistance manager when changes are introduced.
Project team members can also build personal competencies related to
managing change. Even the Project Management Institute has started to add the
management of the human component of change to the body of project
management skills.
A final element of organizational change competency is the collective individual
competencies built throughout the organization - from the person sitting at the

very top all the way down to front line supervisors and employees. Change
management competency shows up across the entire organization, and must be
managed both from the organizational and the personal perspective.

In organizations across the globe, there is in an increased need to truly build the
competency to manage change. Building the competency sets your organization
apart and improves the execution of each new project being implemented. It
allows you to minimize the substantial negative consequences of mismanaging
change and better position yourself to be successful on future initiatives. Building
the competency to change is not easy - it requires design, project management,
change management and commitment from the organization - but it will be critical
for success in coming years.


Stress is dynamic and common in any workplace. It is pertinent that

stress is reduces to a minimum level. Discuss some of the techniques to
reduce stress among employees in an organization.

How to Reduce and Manage Job and Workplace Stress

In todays economic situation you may find it harder to meet your goals and
challenges. There is stress both out and inside our workplace; employers,
managers and workers all add up stress and reduce productivity while
decreasing physical and emotional health, so it is important to put stress under
control, and find ways to reduce the one caused by work it self.

For everyone everywhere the troubled economy feels like an unstoppable crisis,
a series of Layoffs" and "budget cuts" have become workers headache, and as
result the increased fear and anxiety is producing more and more stress. The
ability to manage stress can make a difference, that can be a decisive factor
between success and failure. The better one is managing stress, will affect
positively your surroundings.

There are many ways to reduce both our overall stress levels and the stress you
find on the job and in the workplace.
Taking responsibility for improving your physical and emotional well-being.
Avoiding pitfalls by identifying knee jerk habits and negative attitudes that add
to the stress you experience at work.
Learning better communication skills to ease and improve your relationships
with management and coworkers.

Also there are many signs that warn people of excessive stress at work. When
people feel overwhelmed, they lose confidence and become irritable or
withdrawn, making them less productive and effective and their work less

If the warning signs of work stress go unattended or without notice, they can lead
to bigger problems. Beyond interfering with job performance and satisfaction a
chronic or intense stress can also lead to physical and emotional problems.
Signs and symptoms of excessive job and workplace stress:

Feeling anxious, irritable, or

Muscle tension



Apathy, loss of interest in

Stomach problems


Social withdrawal

Problems sleeping

Loss of sex drive


Using alcohol or drugs to cope

Trouble concentrating

If you reduce job stress by taking care of yourself before it stars interfering with
your life, it would be perfect, but in most of the cases this doesnt happens,
normally it stars interfering with the persons job and ends up interfering with you
personal life. When this is the case, its time to take action.

As in Maslows hierarchy of needs, When your own needs are taken care of,
youre stronger and more resilient to stress. The better you feel, the better
equipped youll be to manage work stress without becoming overwhelmed.
As a manager one needs to be aware the work itself its a stress producing
activity, even if the person enjoy work when you see todays economy plus
factors, it becomes a common indicator on the population that stress is part of
life, and dealing with it is what is important for the person and the organizations
in witch they are..

A major option when dealing with stress at work is to promote the development of
emotional intelligence, by understanding this concepts:
Self-awareness The ability to recognize your emotions and their impact
while using gut feelings to guide your decisions. Self-management The
ability to control your emotions and behavior and adapt to changing
circumstances. Social awareness The ability to sense, understand, and
react to other's emotions and feel comfortable socially. Relationship
management The ability to inspire, influence, and connect to others and
manage conflict.

Taking care of yourself doesnt require a luxurious lifestyle. Small activities or

things can lift your mood, increase your energy levels, and even make you feel
like youre back in the game. Some people decide to change jobs and start all

over again (a fresh start), But most people don't like to do this because they feel
like they are losing control again. They prefer to have some control rather than
no control; and being unemployed is immeasurably worse than being in a
stressed out job. The fear of the unknown will always be more stressful than the

Not having a job is stressful in itself because of all the negative connotations that
go with being unemployed. You have no identity if you are not working. You can't
socialize with your co-workers because you have nothing in common. You have
no money to pay the mortgage.
Even if the job's environment has grown increasingly stressful, retaining a large
measure of self-control and self-confidence by understanding and practicing
emotional intelligence is important. Emotional intelligence is the ability to manage
and use your emotions in positive and constructive ways. It's about
communicating with others in ways that draw people to you, overcome
differences, repair wounded feelings, and it defuse tension and stress. The best
way to help your employs to overcome stress is to giving them tools they can use.