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Assignment 3, Solutions

Problem 6/p.704. Write a polar equation of a conic with the focus at the origin and the
given data: Ellipse, eccentricity 0.8, vertex at (1, π/2).
Solution 1 in the case when the given vertex is perihelion to the focus at the origin,
i.e, the closest to the focus at the origin. The directrix has an equation y = d and
the polar equation has the form
ed
r(θ) = .
1 + e sin(θ)

The point with polar coordinates (1, π/2) is a vertex of the ellipse (a point from the ellipse).
Hence,
0.8d 0.8d
1= ⇒1= ⇒ d = 1.8/0.8 = 9/4
1 + 0.8 sin(π/2) 1.8
and the polar equation of the ellipse is

ed (4/5)(9/4) 9
r(θ) = = = .
1 + e sin(θ) 1 + (4/5) sin(θ) 5 + 4 sin(θ)

Solution 2 in the case when the given vertex is aphelion to the focus at the origin,
i.e., the given vertex is not the closest to the focus at the origin. The directrix
has an equation y = −d and the polar equation has the form
ed
r(θ) = .
1 − e sin(θ)

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The point with polar coordinates (1, π/2) is a vertex of the ellipse (a point from the ellipse).
Hence,
0.8d 0.8d
1= ⇒1= ⇒ d = 0.2/0.8 = 1/4
1 − 0.8 sin(π/2) 0.2
and the polar equation of the ellipse is

ed (4/5)(1/4) 1
r(θ) = = = .
1 − e sin(θ) 1 − (4/5) sin(θ) 5 − 4 sin(θ)

Problem 12/p.704. (a) Find the eccentricity, (b) identify the conic, (c) give an equation
of the directrix, and (d) sketch the graph of the conic given by the polar equation:
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r(θ) = .
2 + 2 cos(θ)
Solution. (a) We rewrite the given polar equation in an appropriate form

3/2
r(θ) =
1 + cos(θ)

and from here e = 1.


(b) Because e = 1 the given polar equation represents a parabola.
(c) We have ed = 3/2 and e = 1 hence, d = 3/2 and x = 3/2 is an equation of the directrix
and the vertex of the parabola is at (3/4, 0) that is the midpoint of the line segment with
end points the focus (0, 0) and (3/2, 0).
(d) Here is the graph of the parabola with a polar equation r = 3/(2 + 2 cos(θ)).

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Problem 16/p.704. (a) Find the eccentricity, (b) identify the conic, (c) give an equation
of the directrix, and (d) sketch the graph of the conic given by the polar equation:
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r(θ) = .
5 − 6 sin(θ)
Solution. (a) We rewrite the given polar equation in an appropriate form
2
r(θ) =
1 − (6/5) sin(θ)

to conclude that e = 6/5 > 1.


(b) Because e > 1 the conic is a hyperbola.
(c) We have ed = 2 and e = 6/5 hence, d = 5/3 and from here y = −5/3 is an equation of
the directrix of the polar curve.
(d) Here is the graph of the hyperbola. The vertices of the hyperbola are at (−10, π/2)
(cartesian coordinates (0, −10)) and (10/11, 3π/2) (cartesian coordinates (0, −10/11). The
center of the hyperbola is the midpoint (60/11, 3π/2) (cartesian coordinates (0, −60/11))
of the line segment with end points the two vertices of the hyperbola.

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Problem 6/p.782. Find the Mac-Laurin series for f (x) = ln(1+x) by using the definition
of a Mac-Laurin series. [Assume that f (x) has a power series expansion. Do not show that
Rn (x) → 0.] Also, find the associated radius of convergence.
Solution 1 by using the definition. Mac-Laurin series is about a = 0, i.e., it is centered
at 0. We differentiate:
0 00
f (x) = (1 + x)−1 , f (x) = −(1 + x)−2 , f (3) (x) = (−1)(−2)(1 + x)−3 , . . .

f (n) (x) = (−1)(−2) · · · (−(n − 1))(1 + x)−n = (−1)n−1 (n − 1)!(1 + x)−n ,


where n = 1, 2, . . ., and 0! = 1 by definition. Hence,

f (n) (0) = (−1)(−2) · · · (−(n − 1))(1 + 0)−n = (−1)n−1 (n − 1)!, n = 1, 2, . . .

and obviously f (0) = ln(1) = 0. Then



X f (n) (0) n
f (x) = x
n=1
n!

or more precisely

X (−1)n−1 (n − 1)! n
ln(1 + x) = x
n=1
n!
or ∞
X (−1)n−1 n x2 x3 x4
ln(1 + x) = x =x− + − + ....
n=1
n 2 3 4

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We have
(−1)n−1 n (−1)n n+1
an = x , an+1 = x
n n+1
and applying the ratio test
|an+1 | |x|n+1 n n
= n
= |x| → |x| = L < 1, n → ∞
|an | n + 1 |x| n+1
and from here the radius of convergence is R = 1. Hence, the series is absolutely convergent
for all x satisfying −1 < x < 1.
In addition, at the end points x = −1 and x = 1 the Maclaurin series is convergent at x = 1
(alternating series test) and divergent at x = −1 (harmonic series or p-series with p = 1).
Hence, the interval of convergence of the series is −1 < x ≤ 1.
Solution 2 by using the geometric series, not in the assignment. f (x) = ln(1 +
0 1 1
x), f (x) = 1+x = 1−(−x) . By using the geometric series obviously

0 X
f (x) = 1 − x + x2 − x3 + x4 − x5 + · · · = (−1)n−1 xn−1
n=1

with radius of convergence R = 1, i.e., for | − x| = |x| < 1.


Integrating both sides of the above equality we obtain

X xn
ln(1 + x) = (−1)n−1 +C
n=1
n

and because the geometric series is convergent for | − x| = |x| < 1, then the series obtained
after integration will have the same radius of convergence, i.e., R = 1.
In order to determine the constant C we take x = 0 (in the interval of convergence) to
obtain ln(1) = C ⇒ C = 0. Finally,

X xn
ln(1 + x) = (−1)n−1
n=1
n

with R = 1. The same considerations as at the end of Solution 1 show that −1 < x ≤ 1
is the interval of convergence in other words for all x satisfying −1 < x ≤ 1 the series is
convergent and for all other x it is divergent.
Problem 10/p.782. Find the Mac-Laurin series for f (x) = xex by using the definition
of a Maclaurin series. [Assume that f (x) has a power series expansion. Do not show that
Rn (x) → 0.] Also, find the associated radius of convergence.
Solution 1 by using the definition. Mac-Laurin series is about a = 0, i.e., it is centered
at 0. We differentiate:
0 00
f (x) = ex +xex = (1+x)ex , f (x) = ex +(1+x)ex = (2+x)ex , f (3) (x) = ex +(2+x)ex = (3+x)ex , . . .

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f (n) (x) = (n + x)ex , n = 0, 1, 2, . . . ; (f (0) (x) = f (x)).
From here, f (n) (0) = n, n = 0, 1, 2, . . . ; taking into account that f (0) = 0 we obtain
∞ ∞
X n n X xn
xex = x =
n=1
n! n=1
(n − 1)!


X xn
xex =
n=1
(n − 1)!
or that is the same ∞
X xn+1
xex = .
n=0
n!
Now we have
xn xn+1
an = , an+1 =
(n − 1)! n!
and applying the ratio test we obtain

|an+1 | |x|n+1 (n − 1)! |x|


= n
= → 0 < 1, n → ∞
|an | n! |x| n

for all x and from here R = ∞. We conclude that the series is (absolutely) convergent for
all x.
Solution 2 by using the Mac-Laurin series of ex . The Mac-Laurin series of ex is

X xn
ex =
n=0
n!

with R = ∞ hence,
∞ ∞
X xn+1 X xn
xex = =
n=0
n! n=1
(n − 1)!
with the same radius of convergence R = ∞.
Problem 20/p.782. Find the Taylor series for f (x) = x−2 centered at a = 1. [Assume
that f (x) has a power series expansion. Do not show that Rn (x) → 0 when n → ∞.]
Question, not in the assignment, only for exercise. Find the associated radius of
convergence and find the interval of convergence of the Taylor series obtained.
Solution. Following the definition of Taylor series we have to differentiate.
0 00
f (x) = −2x−3 , f (x) = (−2)(−3)x−4 , f (3) (x) = (−2)(−3)(−4)x−5 , . . .

f (n) (x) = (−2)(−3) · · · (−(n + 1))x−(n+2) , n = 1, 2, 3, . . .

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or
f (n) (x) = (−1)n (n + 1)!x−(n+2) , n = 1, 2, 3, . . .
and from here with x = 1 observing that f (1) = 1, we obtain

f (n) (1) = (−1)n (n + 1)!, n = 0, 1, 2, 3, . . . ; f (0) = f

Hence, with f (x) = x−2 we have



−2
X f (n) (1)
x = (x − 1)n
n=0
n!

or by using the explicit values of f (n) (1)



(−1)n (n + 1)!
x−2 =
X
(x − 1)n
n=0
n!

or finally,

x−2 =
X
(−1)n (n + 1)(x − 1)n .
n=0

Not in the assignment. we have

an = (−1)n (n + 1)(x − 1)n , an+1 = (−1)n+1 (n + 2)(x − 1)n+1

and applying the ratio test we obtain

|an+1 | n+2
= |x − 1| → |x − 1| < 1, n → ∞.
|an | n+1

In view of this R = 1 and the series is absolutely convergent for all x satisfying

|x − 1| < 1 ⇔ −1 < x − 1 < 1 ⇔ 0 < x < 2.

For x = 2 and x = 0 we have |an | = n + 1. From here obviously, limn→∞ an does not
exist hence, for x = 2 and x = 0 the series is divergent according to the basic test for
divergence. Hence, the interval of convergence of the given series is (0, 2), i.e., for all x
such that 0 < x < 2 the series is (absolutely) convergent and for all other x, i.e, for all x
satisfying x ≥ 2 or x ≤ 0 the Taylor series is divergent.

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Problem 4/p.805. What are the (orthogonal) projections of the point (2, 3, 5) on the xy−
plane, on the yz− plane, and on the xz− planes? Draw a rectangular box with the origin
and (2, 3, 5) as opposite vertices and with its faces parallel to the coordinate planes. Label
all vertices of the box. Find the length of the diagonal of the box.
Solution. The (orthogonal) projection of the point (2, 3, 5) on the xy− plane is (2, 3, 0),
on the yz− plane is (0, 3, 5), and on the xz− plane is (2, 0, 5).
By Pythagoras Theorem or by the ready formula for the length of a line segment with given
cartesian coordinates of its endpoints (0, 0, 0) and (2, 3, 5); we compute the length of the
diagonal of the box (in other words, the main diagonal of the right parallelepiped) is
q √ √
(2 − 0)2 + (3 − 0)2 + (5 − 0)2 = 4 + 9 + 25 = 38.
Problem 8/p.805. Find the length of the sides of the triangle P QR with vertices P =
(2, −1, 0), Q = (4, 1, 1) and R = (4, −5, 4). Is it a right triangle? Is it an isosceles triangle?
Solution. We compute
q √
|P Q| = (4 − 2)2 + (1 + 1)2 + (1 − 0)2 = 4 + 4 + 1 = 3
q √ √
|QR| = (4 − 4)2 + (−5 − 1)2 + (4 − 1)2 = 36 + 9 = 3 5
q √
|RP | = (2 − 4)2 + (−1 + 5)2 + (0 − 4)2 = 4 + 16 + 16 = 6.
Obviously, this triangle is not isosceles. On the other hand
|P Q|2 + |RP |2 = |QR|2
and by Pythagoras Theorem P QR is a right triangle with a right angle at P . Here is the
graph of the triangle.

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Problem 14/p.805. Find an equation of the sphere that passes through the origin and
whose center is (1, 2, 3).
Solution. The radius of the sphere is
q √ √
(0 − 1)2 + (0 − 2)2 + (0 − 3)2 = 1+4+9= 14

and the equation of the sphere is

(x − 1)2 + (y − 2)2 + (z − 3)2 = 14.

Here is the graph of the sphere.

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Problem 22/p.805. Find an equation of the largest sphere with center (5, 4, 9) that is
contained in the first octant.
Solution. The largest sphere centered at (5, 4, 9) that is entirely in the first
octant must have a radius equal to the minimum distance from its center to
a coordinate planes. The distance from the center (5, 4, 9) of the sphere to the xy−
plane is 9. The distance from the center (5, 4, 9) of the sphere to the xz− plane is 4. The
distance from the center (5, 4, 9) of the sphere to the yz− plane is 5. Hence, the largest
sphere centered at (5, 4, 9) that is entirely in the first octant must have a radius
min{9, 4, 5} = 4. From here, a Cartesian equation of the sphere is

(x − 5)2 + (y − 4)2 + (z − 9)2 = 16.

Here is the graph of the sphere.

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