of
beamsections
Lars Damkilde
Summary
The report gives an introduction to stiness and stress analysis of beamsections.
The purpose is to estimate the crosssectional stiness parameters i.e. axial,
bending, shear and torsional stiness from the geometry and material properties
of the beam section. Furthermore the stress distribution in the beamsection
from the internal forces i.e. axial force, bending moments, shear forces and
torsional moment is calculated.
Axial force and bending moments are treated based on the assumption of "plane
sections remain plane". Methods to nd the elastic center and principal axis
are given including a computer oriented formulation based on triangularization
of the beamsection. The stress distribution  Navier's formula  is formulated
including beamsections build of dierent materials. Examples illustrate the
methods.
The theoretical shear stress distribution for a rectangular prole from shear
forces is presented. The Grashof formula for calculating shearing forces is presented and illustrated with examples. The torsional problem is not treated in
detail and merely an overview of the problem is given. The torsion problem is
divided up into: open proles, closed proles and solid sections. Examples on
each type is given and comparisons are made.
The report has 2 appendices. The rst lists a MatLab procedure for calculating
sectional properties for a general polygonal crosssection. The second gives
solutions for a number of parametric proles e.g. I, U and Zproles.
Preface
The notes are used for a preliminary course in Structural Analysis. The aim is to give a
sucient background for analysis of stiness and stresses in beamsections. The theory
is formulated as direct as possible and often illustrated by an example. The methods are
general but emphasize has been on explaining the dierent steps.
The axial and bending problems are solved based on the assumption of "plane sections
remain plane". Methods to calculate the elastic center and principal axis are given including
a computer algorithm. The stress distribution is given through Navier's formula in a
formulation that allows for dierent materials in a crosssection.
The shear and torsion problem is treated in less detail. Grashof's formula for shearing
forces is given and illustrated by examples. The torsion problem is divided up into: open
proles, closed proles and solid sections. Only results are given, and for a more detailed
discussion the reader has to consult other textbooks.
Lyngby, November 2000
Lars Damkilde
ii
Table of Contents
1 Beam theory
1.1
1.2
Stiness properties . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Normal and shear stresses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Basic assumption . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Reference system . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Example: Crosssection symmetric about
Stress distribution  Navier . . . . . . . .
General crosssection . . . . . . . . . . .
Crosssections of dierent materials . . .
Numerical methods . . . . . . . . . . . .
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y axis
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16
18
19
21
21
23
24
References
27
28
30
iii
Chapter 1
Beam theory
Beams are structural elements where the length is several times larger than the dimensions
in any of the two other directions. All beam theories describe the beam as a 1dimensional
structure, and the beam axis denoted x is in the length direction. The crosssectional
geometry is represented by a number of scalar quantities such as area and moments of
inertia. The displacements and rotations describe the deformation of the beamaxis, and
the displacements in the crosssection are direct related to the deformation of the beamaxis. The internal forces  axial force, N , shear forces Vz , Vy and bending/torsion moments,
Mz , My , Mx  are also related to the beamaxis as shown in Figure 1.1. The internal forces
represent normal and shear stress distributions over the crosssection.
The most simple theory which is called EulerBernoulli theory assumes that the crosssection remains orthogonal to the beam axis. The theory treats axial stiness and bending
stiness but disregards deformations due to shear forces. Torsion is treated separately and
is discussed later. The theory is widely used, and is suciently as long as the crosssection
is small and compact. The shear forces can not be determined via strains and have to be
found through equilibrium conditions, see Grashof's formula in Chapter 3.
A more sophisticated beam theory  called Timoshenko beam theory  takes the shear
deformation into account. The idea is to allow a deformation between the beam axis and the
crosssection. In this way a shear strain is dened, and this allows a direct representation
of the shear forces. The shear strain distribution over the cross section is uniform and more
advanced beam theories allow a more realistic distribution. A shear exible beam theory
is relevant for low ratios of beam length to beam height or for materials with a low shear
stiness or for thinwalled proles with a thin web.
Torsion is in both EulerBernoulli and Timoshenko beams treated as a separate problem.
The torsional stiness depends very much on the crosssection, and in chapter 3 dierent
types  open prole, closed prole and solid sections  are discussed. Torsion is in this
context treated as homogeneous torsion, i.e. that each crosssectional part deforms equally.
The deformation state consists of both a rotation of the crosssection and axial deformation
 socalled warping. This solution does not comply with the boundary conditions, but
normally this has no importance.
For thinwalled structures torsion is a more complicated problem. Vlasov developed a
theory which could describe nonuniform torsion of a beam including nonuniform warping
of the crosssection. The nonuniform warping results in normal stresses, and it is necessary
to dene a new crosssectional stiness parameter, the socalled warping stiness. The
Vlasov beam theory is important for open thinwalled steel proles especially in connection
with stability phenomena such a lateral buckling.
In all of the above theories it is assumed that the crosssection retains its form. More
advanced beam theories allow deformation in the crosssectional plane. The complexity of
the theories become high, and in many cases the extra crosssectional parameters can be
hard to access. Many of these solutions will probably in the future be solved more economically by a full 3Dimensional Finite Element solution based on shell or solid elements.
Deformation in the beam sections own plane can be of importance if the prole has parts
with small thickness.
1.3. Chapter 2 deals with analysis of the stress distribution from axial force and bending moments. The socalled Navier's formula is derived, which gives the normal stress
distribution on the crosssection.
Figure 1.3: Normal stresses from axial force and bending moments
The shearing stresses correspond to shear forces in two directions and a torsional moment.
The distribution of shear stresses from a shear force is shown in Figure 1.4. Chapter 3
deals with calculation of the shear stresses based on Grashof's formula.
Chapter 2
Bending moments and axial force
This chapter deals with the stress distribution caused by bending moments and axial
force. The stresses will be normal stresses perpendicular to the crosssection. The basic
assumption gives a linear strain distribution over the crosssection. The elastic center
and principal axis are introduced in two steps. First a prole symmetric about the z axis
is examined and afterwards a general crosssection is treated. The principal moments of
inertia are dened and illustrated by examples including crosssections made up of dierent
materials. The stress distribution over the crosssection is given by the socalled Navier's
formula. Finally an algorithmic formulation for a triangulated prole is given.
x = C z y + y z
In order to simplify the formulas for stress distribution over the crosssection a coordinate
system through the elastic center is used. The orientation of the axis set is determined so
that a curvature about the z axis only gives moment about the z axis and similarly for the
y direction.
5
The direct coupling between axial force/axial strain and bending moments/curvatures
which will be shown in a following section implies that a proper reference coordinate
system has to be chosen. In the following sections a general method for establishing this
reference system is given. Also formulas for calculating moment of inertia are presented.
(y yC )dA = 0
(2.2)
(z zC )dA = 0
ydA
R A
zdA
= A
A
yC =
zC
(2.3)
The static moments about the original axes y and z can be calculated by dividing the
crosssection into simple shapes e.g. rectangles and triangles. The static moment of the
whole crosssection can be taken as a sum of individual contributions.
The contribution for a part of the crosssection can be given as the area of the part, A,
multiplied by the distance from the center of gravity of the part to the axis, yP . The
distance can be both positive and negative.
(2.4)
Sz = A yP
6
Iz0 z0 =
(y yC )2 dA
(2.5)
(2.6)
where Izl zl is the parts moment of inertia calculated about a local axis zl through the
elastic center of the part.
(2.7)
Due to symmetry zC must be 0. In order to calculate yC the static moment about the z axis
is calculated. Only the upper and lower parts contribute to the static moment about the
z axis.
Sz = 0.1 bh(0.5h +
1
1
0.1 h) 0.05 bh(0.5 h + 0.1 h) = 0.0275 bh2
2
2
7
(2.8)
yC =
Sz
= 0.11h
A
(2.9)
The moment of inertia Iz0 z0 is calculated by three individual contributions. The moment
1
of inertia for a rectangular crosssection is given by 12
bh3 .
The upper ange:
Iz0 z0 =
1
b (0.1h)3 + 0.1 bh (0.55h yC )2 = 0.01944 bh3
12
(2.10)
Iz0 z0 =
1
0.5b (0.1h)3 + 0.05 bh (0.55h + yC )2 = 0.02182 bh3
12
(2.11)
1
0.1 bh3 + 0.1 bh yC2 = 0.00954 bh3
12
(2.12)
The web:
Iz0 z0 =
The total moment of inertia Iz0 z0 is given as the sum of the three contributions:
(2.13)
i2z =
Iz0 z0
= (0.451 h)2
A
(2.14)
The radius of inertia can be viewed as an average distance for all parts of the crosssection
from the elastic center. The radius of inertia has to be smaller than the maximum distance
from the elastic center to any point in the crosssection. In the example the anges have
the major contribution to the moment of inertia and therefore the value of iz is close to
h/2.
The moment of inertia Iy0 y0 is also calculated as a sum of contributions from the upperand lowerange and the web.
Iy0 y0 =
1
1
1
0.1 hb3 + h (0.1b)3 + 0.1 h (0.5b)3 = 0.009458 hb3
12
12
12
(2.15)
i2y =
Iy 0 y 0
= (0.1945 b)2
A
(2.16)
As the section is symmetric about the y axis the socalled centrifugal moment of inertia
R
Iy0 z0 = A y 0 z 0 dA = 0. This is important for the following stress analysis of the crosssection.
8
ydA = 0
zdA = 0
(2.17)
yzdA = Iyz = 0
x = Ex
The axial force, N , is
Z
N=
x dA =
(2.19)
Ex dA = EAC
Mz =
Z
A
yx dA =
yEx dA = EIzz z
(2.20)
My =
zx dA =
zEx dA = EIyy y
(2.21)
Through the formulas (2.19)(2.21) the strain distribution from (2.1) can be rewritten as:
x =
N
Mz
My
y+
z
EA EIzz
EIyy
(2.22)
This formula shows that a bending moment Mz only gives a curvature z , see Equation
(2.1), and similar for a bending moment My . This decoupling is a consequence of the
chosen coordinate system. The axes in this system are therefore described as principal
axes.
The stress distribution  Navier's formula  is given by:
x =
N
Mz
My
y+
z
A
Izz
Iyy
(2.23)
9
The maximal stresses are found on the contour of the prole. For symmetric proles it is
often convenient to introduce the moment of resistance, Wz , as:
Wz =
Izz
ymax
(2.24)
The numerical value of the maximum stress from a bending moment Mz is given by:
bending =
Mz
Wz
(2.25)
Mmax = Wz Y
(2.27)
The crosssection has A = 0.32h2 , and the elastic center is dened by:
yC =
Sz
= 0.65h
A
and
zC =
Sy
= 0.55h
A
(2.28)
The moments of inertia about axes through the elastic center and parallel to the y  and
z axis, Iz0 z0 and Iy0 y0 are:
1
1
0.2hh3 + (0.5h yC )2 0.2h2 + 0.6h(0.2h)3 +
12
12
(0.9h yC )2 0.12h2 = 0.02907h4
1
1
=
h(0.2h)3 + (0.7h zC )2 0.2h2 + 0.2h(0.6h)3 +
12
12
(0.3h zC )2 0.12h2 = 0.01627h4
Iz0 z0 =
Iy0 y0
(2.29)
Iy0 z0 =
y 0 z 0 dA
(2.30)
The integral can be calculated by dividing the crosssection into simpler parts. Contribution from a rectangular part with sides parallel to the coordinate axes is:
(2.31)
Iz0 y0 = A yP zP
where A is the area of the part and the elastic center for the part has coordinates (yP , zP ).
In the example Iy0 z0 is given by:
y 00 = y 0 cos v + z 0 sin v
z 00 = y 0 sin v + z 0 cos v
(2.33)
The idea is to determine the angle v so that the centrifugal moment disappears. The
coordinate transformation is inserted in the denition of Iy00 z00 as:
Z
A
y 00 z 00 dA =
(2.34)
Using the denitions of Iy0 y0 , Iz0 z0 and Iy0 z0 together with sin 2v = 2 sin v cos v and cos 2v =
cos2 v sin2 v Equation (2.34) can be stated as:
tan 2v =
2Iy0 z0
Iz0 z0 Iy0 y0
(2.35)
The moment of inertia Iy00 y00 and Iz00 z00 can be found be inserting the coordinate transformation in the denition:
(2.36)
tan 2v =
2 0.012h4
0.02907h4 0.01627h4
v = 30.96o
(2.37)
and
(2.38)
At =
E1
E2
b1 t1 + hb0 +
b2 t2
E0
E0
(2.39)
12
Szt =
E1
1
E2
1
b1 t1 ( (h + t1 ))
b2 t2 ( (h + t2 ))
E0
2
E0
2
(2.40)
yC =
Szt
At
(2.41)
It is noticed that the coordinate of the elastic center does not depend on the choice of
reference E modulus.
The moment of inertia Iz0 z0 t around an z 0 axis through the elastic center is calculated as:
Iz0 z0 t =
E1 1
1
1
( b1 t31 + b1 t1 ( (h + t1 ) yC )2 + ( b0 h3 + b0 hyC2 +
E0 12
2
12
E2 1
1
( b2 t3 + b2 t2 ( (h + t2 ) + yC )2
E0 12 2
2
(2.42)
The linear strain distribution is related to the internal forces N , Mz and My as:
x =
N
Mz
My
y0 +
z
0
0
E0 At E0 Iz z t
E0 Iyyt
(2.43)
where the coordinate y 0 is measured from the z 0 axis through the elastic center.
The stresses in the dierent parts of the material depend on the E modulus. In material i
the stress is:
x =
Ei N
Mz 0 My
(
y +
z)
E0 At Iz0 z0 t
Iyyt
(2.44)
13
The stressdistribution is linear within the individual parts, but not over the entire crosssection due to discontinuities in the E modulus. The fundamental assumption that a plane
in the crosssection remains plane is still valid.
The stresses are independent of the chosen reference E modulus, which otherwise would
have lead to a physically unsound method.
1
A = ((y2 y1 )(z3 z1 ) (z2 z1 )(y3 y1 ))
2
(2.45)
The following formulas are calculated by means of the socalled area coordinates or triangular coordinates. More details on this can be found in various textbooks on the Finite
Element Method, see e.g (Zienkiewicz 1977). Direct integration in the y z system is a
tedious process. The static moment about the z  and y axis are given by:
Z
1
(y1 + y2 + y3 )A
3
A
Z
1
zdA =
(z1 + z2 + z3 )A
3
A
ydA =
(2.46)
1
yC = (y1 + y2 + y3 )
3
and
1
zC = (z1 + z2 + z3 )
3
14
(2.47)
The moments of inertia, Izz , Iyy and Iyz are given by:
Z
1 2
(y1 + y22 + y32 + 9yC2 )A
12
A
Z
1 2
2
z dA =
(z1 + z22 + z32 + 9zC2 )A
12
A
Z
1
yzdA =
(y1 z1 + y2 z2 + y3 z3 + 9yC zC )A
12
A
y 2 dA =
(2.48)
The algorithm works in the same procedure as the previous examples. It should be noted
that the integrals can be regarded as sum of contributions of each triangle similar to the
previous examples.
1. Loop over all triangles to nd the area and static moments about the initial coordinate
axis.
2. Determine the elastic center and make a coordinate transformation which places
Origo in the elastic center.
3. Loop over all triangles to nd the moments of inertia, Iyy , Izz , Iyz .
4. Calculate the angle for the rotated principal system and the corresponding principal
moments of inertia, see Equations (2.352.36).
In Figure 2.6 examples of triangulated crosssections are shown. In the rst example
the triangles are constructed manually, whereas the triangles in the last example can be
constructed automatically using only information on the nodal points on the contour.
Chapter 3
Shear forces and torsional moment
Calculation of the shear stress distribution due to a shear force or a torsional moment is a
complicated problem which involves solution of a 2dimensional boundary value problem.
There is only a very limited number of analytical solutions and for general crosssections
it is necessary to use a numerical method e.g. based on a Finite Element discretization or
some approximate solution.
In the literature some exact solutions are given, see e.g (Timoshenko and Goodier 1951),
(Seely and Smith 1967), (Gere and Timoshenko 1991) or for a more modern approach
(Krenk 1989). In this context two analytical solutions are presented. The rst deals with
shear in a rectangular crosssection, and the second with torsion in an elliptic crosssection.
The rest will be based on approximate methods.
The displacement in direction of the beam axis is denoted ux and the displacement perpendicular to the beamaxis and along the yaxis is denoted uy . As = 0 there will be
no displacements in the zdirection.
An exact solution to this problem is given in Equation (3.1).
P
1
P 1
5
1
(`x x2 )y +
( y y3
)
EI
2
GAk 4
12 (h/2)2
P
P 1 2 1 3
x
( `x x ) +
=
EI 2
6
GAk
ux =
uy
(3.1)
1
where the shear area Ak = 56 bh and the moment of inertia I = 12
bh3 .
The only nonvanishing strain components are the normal strain xx and the shear strain
xy .
P
(` x)y
EI
1
1 P 5 5 y 2
=
(ux,y + uy,x ) =
( (
))
2
2 GAk 4 4 h/2
xx = ux,x =
xy
(3.2)
The only nonvanishing stress components are the normal stress xx and the shear stress
xy .
P
xx = Exx = (` x)y
I
P 5 5 y 2
3 P
y 2
xy = 2 Gxy =
( (
) )=
(1 (
))
Ak 4 4 h/2
2 A
h/2
(3.3)
The normal stress is seen to correspond to a linear variation in the bending moment, see
Chapter 2. The shear stress has a parabolic variation over the crosssection as shown in
Figure 3.1. Integration of the shear stress over the crosssection gives the shear force P .
The equivalent shear area Ak denes the shear stiness together with the shear modulus
E
.
G = 2 (1+)
The displacements over the crosssection means that "plane sections remain plane" is no
longer valid. The displacement mode which is nonplanar is often described as crosssectional warping. The warping part in Equation (3.1) is nonunique, but by enforcing
energy orthogonality between normal stress from bending and normal stress from nonuniform warping the displacement is uniquely determined. A discussion of energy orthogonality can be found in (Krenk 1989). Without this orthogonality a false value of Ak is
determined, see (Timoshenko and Goodier 1951) which gave a value of 23 A.
The shear stiness can be calculated in an alternative way only relying on the distribution
of shear stresses, see (Gere and Timoshenko 1991) or (Krenk 1989). The method is based
17
on complementary energy, and only the results are given. The complementary energy for
a section of a beam is given by:
Z
V
Ec = V
dx = dAdx
G Ak
A G
(3.4)
Through the shear distribution an estimate of the shear area Ak can be given. This is
useful when the exact solution is not known, and the method will be applied in a following
section dealing with Iproles.
Vy = M,xz
(3.5)
z
where M,x
is the variation along the beam axis of the bending moment about the zaxis.
Figure 3.2 shows a part of the beam where a cut is made. In the cutting surfaces equivalent
sectional forces are introduced equivalent to the stresses. The forces F and F +dF represent
the normal stresses, and the shearing force H the shear stresses along the cut.
(3.6)
If the thickness of the cut, t, is reasonably small the shearing force can be assumed to be
constant. In this way an estimate of the shear stress is given by:
average =
H
t
(3.7)
18
It should be noted that Grashof's formula determines the shear stresses directed in the
beam axis. But due to the symmetric stress tensor which states that xy = yx this is
also the shear stress in the ydirection. The shear force in a beam theory secures both
equilibrium for the vertical direction (yaxis) and equilibrium due to changes in bending
moments. Even though the shearing force H is determined exact Grashof's formula is still
an approximate method as the force has to be distributed over a thickness.
Izz =
1
h h
7
t h3 + 2 (2 t) ( )2 = t h3
12
2 2
12
(3.8)
The shear stress in the anges will be directed in the zdirection. The magnitude is
determined by using Grashof's formula on the upper left ange cut for z = zd . The
shearing force is:
h V
h
H = 2 t( zd )
4
2 Izz
(3.9)
The variation of the shearing force is linear, and the value for zd = h4 is 0. The shear stress
is assumed constant over the cut, and the shear stress for zd = 0 is:
f = 2 t
h h
4 2
V
7
th3
12
2t
=3
V
14 h t
(3.10)
The shear stress in the web is found by the same procedure. The stress for y = h2 is four
times the size in the ange. It is due to the double contribution to the static moment and
that the thickness is only half of the ange thickness.
19
1
1 h
h
V
H = ( t h2 + ( yd )t( + yd ))
2
2 2
2
Izz
(3.11)
The shearing force will vary parabolic along the web, and the value of the shear stress in
the middle (yd = 0) is:
5
w = t h2
8
V
7
th3
12
= 15
V
14 h t
(3.12)
The remaining part of the shear stress distribution can be found by symmetry. In Figure
3.3 the shear stress distribution is shown, and it is noticed that the integral of the shear
stress in the ydirection equals the shear force V . The shear stresses in the zdirection
have no resultant force as expected.
The shear stiness can be calculated by means of Equation (3.4).
Z
A
Z 0.5h
2
V
1h
1
y 2 2
2
2
dA = (
) [4
2t 3 +
) ) t dy]
(15 3(
G
14 h t
34
0.5h
G
0.5h
2
V
= 1.0347
Ght
(3.13)
Ak = 0.966 h t
The normal assumption Ak = Aweb is seen to be very accurate. Another common approximation is to assume a constant shear stress along the web, and in the example this would
underestimate the maximum shear stress with 7 %.
The eect of the shear stresses in the ange is twofold. The rst eect is that the distribution along the web becomes more uniform than for a beam, and the second eect which
is much smaller is the contribution to the strain energy.
20
For crosssections build of dierent materials the methodology is the same. The only
dierence is that the contribution form each part should be weighted according to its
stiness.
An Iprole shown in Figure 3.4 is typical for stressedskin structures build of timber and
plywood. The anges are typically somewhat stier than the timber part. The three cuts
are the critical sections for shear.
In Grashof's formula the static moment and moment of inertia should be replaced by the
transformed (or weighted) parts. For cut II we get:
tII
Szt
V 1
Izzt tII
(3.15)
tII
where Szt
is the transformed static moment about the zaxis for part II, Izzt the transformed moment of inertia for the crosssection, V the shear force and tII the thickness of
the cut. It is noticed that the choice of reference modulus has no inuence on the shear
stress.
The warping displacements dene the socalled warping stiness of the crosssection, see
e.g (Timoshenko and Gere 1961).
1 Z
IV =
t(s)3 ds
3 C
(3.16)
The maximum shear stress will be in the parts with largest thickness, and the value is:
max =
MV
t
IV
(3.17)
For the example shown in Figure 3.6 the torsional moment of inertia is:
1
1
IV = (2 0.2bt3 + 2 h(0.8t)3 + bt3 ) = t3 (1.4b + 0.512h)
3
3
(3.18)
The torsional moment of inertia is low as it depends on t3 . For open proles stability often
limits the load carrying capacity.
22
A2C
1
C t (s)ds
(3.19)
IV = 4 R
where AC is the enclosed area and t is the thickness. The integral of t1 along the contour
of the prole C denes an average of the thickness.
The maximum shear stress is in the parts with smallest thickness as given in (3.20). It
should be noted that the shear ow is constant around the prole.
max =
MV
2AC tmin
(3.20)
Similar to the open proles closed proles subjected to a torsional moment will rotate
about the shear center and have axial displacements (warping). The warping stiness is
considerably larger and therefore the warping part is of less interest.
In the example shown in Figure 3.6 the torsional moment of inertia is:
23
IV = 4
b2 h2
1
2h 0.8t
+ 2b 1t
(3.21)
and the maximum shear stress will be in the parts with smallest thickness:
max =
MV
2 b h 0.8 t
(3.22)
The dierence between an open and a closed prole is illustrated by calculating IV and
max for an open prole with a similar geometry as in Figure 3.7. The cut that makes the
closed prole open can be placed anywhere on the prole.
The torsional moment of inertia is:
1
IV = (2 h(0.8t)3 + 2 bt3 )
3
(3.23)
max =
MV
t
IV
(3.24)
For h = 1.5b the ratios between the torsional moments of inertia and shear stresses are:
IVclosed
b 2
open = 1.3279( t )
IV
(3.25)
closed
max
t
open = 0.4911 b
max
(3.26)
and
It is seen that the torsional stiness is many times higher for closed proles than for open
proles. The shear stresses are on the other hand much larger for the open proles which
is due to the less eective way of carrying stresses shown in Figure 3.5 in opposition to the
stress pattern shown in Figure 3.8.
(3.27)
where is an angle in the interval [0; 2]. The distance from origo r is given by:
r2 () =
a2 b2
b2 cos2 + a2 sin2
(3.28)
24
ur = 0
u = r
1 a2 b2
ux = r 2 2
sin 2 ,x
2 a + b2
(3.29)
IV =
a3 b3
a 2 + b2
(3.30)
The maximum shear stress is found at the boundary in the point with smallest distance to
the center. The value is given by:
max =
2 MV
1
a b min (a, b)
(3.31)
25
For a rectangular section the shear distribution is more complicated, and the solution is
given as a series expansion, see e.g (Timoshenko and Goodier 1951). The shear ow is
illustrated in Figure 3.9 and the shear stresses are largest at the contour. Similar to the
elliptic crosssection the maximum shear stress is found at the point on the contour with
smallest distance to the center.
The torsional moment of inertia is given by:
1
b
b
IV = hb3 ( 0.21 + 0.018( )5 )
3
h
h
(3.32)
max =
3h + 1.8b
MV
h2 b2
(3.33)
The crosssectional warping stiness is much larger than for the open proles, and therefore
the warping part is of less interest.
26
References
Gere, J. M. and Timoshenko, S. P. (1991). Mechanics of Materials, Chapman and Hall,
London.
Krenk, S. (1989). Threedimensional elastic beam theory, part 1 and 2, Series F 114115,
Department of Structural Engineering, Technical University of Denmark.
Seely, F. B. and Smith, J. O. (1967). Advanced Mechanics of Materials, John Wiley &
Sons.
Timoshenko, S. P. and Gere, J. M. (1961). Theory of Elastic Stability, McGrawHill.
Timoshenko, S. P. and Goodier, J. N. (1951). Theory of Elasticity, McGrawHill.
Vlasov, V. Z. (1961). ThinWalled Elastic Beams. 2. ed., Israel Program for Scientic
Translations, Jerusalem.
Zienkiewicz, O. C. (1977). The Finite Element Method, McGrawHill.
27
Appendix A
MatLab procedure for polygon
%
% Cross : Calculates sectional properties for a polygon
%
% Coordinates for polygon.
%
% Skew profile Example section 2.5
h = 10
%
YZ = [ 0, 6;
8, 6;
8, 0;
10, 0;
10, 8;
0, 8];
%
% Number of points in polygon
%
n = size(YZ,1);
y1 = YZ(1,1);
z1 = YZ(1,2);
Area = 0;
Sy = 0;
Sz = 0;
%
% Loop over n2 triangles
%
for i=1:n2
y2 = YZ(i+1,1);
z2 = YZ(i+1,2);
y3 = YZ(i+2,1);
z3 = YZ(i+2,2);
yg = (y1 + y2 + y3)/3;
zg = (z1 + z2 + z3)/3;
dA = 0.5*((y2y1)*(z3z1)(z2z1)*(y3y1));
28
29
Appendix B
Solutions for some parametric proles
Geometry
Crosssectional properties
Normal force, shear
A=hb
Bending strong axis
1
Izz = 12
b h3
Wz = 61 b h2
Bending weak axis
1
Iyy = 12
h b3
Wy = 16 h b2
Torsion
Iv = 13 hb3 (1 0.627 hb (1
Ak = 56 A
h
12
iy =
b
12
1 b 4
( ) ))
12 h
Ak 2 h tw
30
iz =
Geometry
Crosssectional properties
Normal force, shear
A = 4 d2
Bending both axes
4
d
Izz = 64
3
Wz = 32 d
Torsion
4
Iv = 32
d
Normal force, shear
A dt
Bending both axes
Izz 8 t d3
Wz 4 t d2
Torsion
Iv 4 t d3
Ak =
iz =
96(1+)2
A
117+244+148 2
= 0.8A
d
4
Ak 12 A
iz =
2 2
Geometry
Crosssectional properties
Normal force
Shear z
Shear y
Elastic center
A h tw + b1 t1f + b2 t1f
Ak h tw
Ak b1 t1f + b2 t1f
b1 t1 b2 t1
f
f
yc =
A
Bending strong axis
1
Izz 12
h t3w + b1 t1f ( h2 yc )2 + b2 t2f ( h2q+ yc )2
Izz
Wz h +y
iz = IAzz

2
Wy max2I(byy1 ,b2 )
iy =
Torsion
Iv = 13 (h (tw )3 + b1 (t1f )3 + b2 (t2f )3 )
Table B.3: Parametric Isection
31
Iyy
A
Geometry
Crosssectional properties
Normal force
A h t w + 2 b tf
Shear z
Ak h tw
Shear y
A k 2 b tf
Elastic center
b2 t
zc = A f
Bending strong axis
1 3
Izz 12
h tw + 12 b tf h2
Wz 16 h2 tw + b tf h
iz =
32
Izz
A
iy =
Iyy
A