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Wireless Power Transfer

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fully edited. Content may change prior to final publication. Citation information: DOI

10.1109/JESTPE.2014.2315997, IEEE Journal of Emerging and Selected Topics in Power Electronics

HUANG AND ZHANG: FREQUENCY, IMPEDANCE AND HF CONVERTERS OF 2- AND 4-COIL WPT

Converters of 2-Coil and 4-Coil Wireless Power

Transfer

Runhong Huang, and Bo Zhang, Member, IEEE

can be roughly divided into two kinds of inductively coupled and

strongly coupled magnetic resonances. In this paper, the

frequency characteristics, impedance characteristics and high

frequency (HF) converters of 2-coil and 4-coil magnetically

coupled WPT are outlined between inductively coupled power

transfer (ICPT) and resonant coupling WPT. First, the frequency

bifurcation in ICPT and frequency splitting in resonant coupling

WPT are analyzed, and the natural similarities are explained,

which have not been pointed out before. Second, the differences of

the conventional 2-coil (often used in ICPT) and 4-coil WPT are

analyzed by their input impedance characteristics. The results

show that the 2-coil WPT is appropriate for short-range and the

4-coil WPT suitable for mid-range applications. In the end, as one

of the most important parts of magnetically coupled WPT systems,

HF converters used in WPT systems are summarized and a new

soft-switched converter is put forward, which has 70% efficiency

though it is not precisely designed.

Index TermsFrequency bifurcation and splitting, high

frequency converter, impedance matching, magnetic coupling,

wireless power transfer (WPT).

I. INTRODUCTION

has been pursued by human beings for more than one

century. Beginning from Teslas works [1], [2], the study on

magnetically coupled WPT has never stopped. In 1960s,

Kusserow used the magnetic field to remotely power an

implantable blood pump [3]. In the meantime, Schuder et al.

began their project named Transcutaneous Energy

Transmission (TET) at the University of Missouri-Columbia,

which made a considerable progress of magnetically coupled

WPT applied to implantable devices [4]. In 1990s, the

researchers from The University of Auckland made a big

contribution to the practical applications of magnetically

coupled WPT. And they named it the inductively coupled

Manuscript received December 28, 2013; revised March 26, 2014; accepted

April 1, 2014. This work was supported in part by the Key Program of the

National Natural Science Foundation of China under Grant 50937001,

Guangdong Provincial Special Funds for Strategic Emerging Industries LED

Industry Project under Grant 2010A081002004 and Electric Power Research

Institute of China Southern Power Grid under Contract SEPRI2011K1168B01.

The authors are with the School of Electric Power, South China University

of Technology, Guangzhou 510640, China (e-mail: huang.rh@mail.scut.edu.cn;

epbzhang@scut.edu.cn).

works are summarized and the modern trends of ICPT for

transportation applications are pointed out [7], [8]. In 2007, the

researchers from Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT)

published their newest progress in magnetically coupled WPT,

which used the strongly coupled magnetic resonances, lighting

up a 60 W bulb 2 m away wirelessly [9]. And the model was

explained by coupled-mode theory (CMT) [10]-[12].

Since the great success of MIT, the studying enthusiasm of

magnetically coupled WPT was motivated [13]-[15]. Shortly

after, different from the CMT modeling, the circuit theory was

put forward to explained the resonant coupling WPT almost at

the same time in [16]-[18]. Additionally, an important concept

of frequency splitting in resonant coupling WPT was put

forward and explained by CMT [11], [19]-[21] and circuit

theory [15], [22]-[24], and addressed by impedance matching

and/or frequency tracking technology [25]-[27]. However, the

natural differences and similarities between frequency splitting

in resonant coupling WPT and frequency bifurcation in ICPT

[28], [29], are not explained clearly. In [30], the authors think

that the frequency bifurcation is related to the system stability,

but the frequency splitting focuses on the output characteristics.

However, it should be noted that the stability problem is with

respect to the zero phase angle (ZPA) controlled systems [29].

In this paper, we will explain their natural differences and

similarities both by their input impedance characteristics via

circuit theory in Part II.

Moreover, between the 2-coil WPT in the conventional ICPT

system and the 4-coil WPT in resonant coupling, there have

been many papers discussing their differences and similarities

[31]-[33]. In [33], the authors think that the two coupling

regimes are the same except for their impedance matching

methods. However, they only compare them by experiments. In

[34], [35], the authors proposed a 3-coil links and

recommended that the 2-coil links are suitable for strongly

coupled regime that needs large power, and 4-coil links are

used in the loosely coupled regime but high efficiency is

needed. In this paper, we will explain the reason why 2-coil

WPT is suitable for short-range and 4-coil for mid-range

applications by input impedance characteristics in Part III.

In addition, the power converters at kHz range operating

frequencies for ICPT are analyzed in [36]. But the converters

discussed are suitable for intermediate frequency (IF), not for

frequencies in megahertz ranges. The MHz range operating

2168-6777 (c) 2013 IEEE. Personal use is permitted, but republication/redistribution requires IEEE permission. See

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This article has been accepted for publication in a future issue of this journal, but has not been fully edited. Content may change prior to final publication. Citation information: DOI

10.1109/JESTPE.2014.2315997, IEEE Journal of Emerging and Selected Topics in Power Electronics

HUANG AND ZHANG: FREQUENCY, IMPEDANCE AND HF CONVERTERS OF 2- AND 4-COIL WPT

Zin

C1

R1

R2

C2

k12

RS

L1

VS

L2

RL

Parameter

RS

L1

C1

R1

k23

TABLE I

PARAMETERS OF 2-COIL WPT

Value

Parameter

50

L2

20H

C2

12.67pF

R2

0.5

RL

0.001-0.3

f0

Value

20H

12.67pF

0.5

50

10MHz

RS

VS

Zin

Zin magnitude, ()

(a)

(b)

Fig. 1. Circuit model. (a) Model of 2-coil WPT; (b) simplified equivalent

circuit.

the circuit models of series-series (SS) type of ICPT and

2-coil resonant coupling WPT are with the same topology,

as shown in Fig.1. In Fig. 1(a), VS denotes the high

frequency voltage source, RS the inner resistance of the

source, L1, C1 and R1 the equivalent inductance,

capacitance and resistance of coil 1 respectively, L2, C2

and R2 the equivalent inductance, capacitance and

resistance of coil 2 respectively, k12 the coupling

coefficient between coil 1 and coil 2, and RL the load. In

Fig. 1(b), the input impedance of the system is

represented by Zin, whose real part represents the power

consumed by R2 and RL.

A. Frequency Bifurcation

According to [28], [29], the frequency bifurcation

phenomena refer to that when the ICPT works under some

conditions or the system parameters change, two or more ZPA

Fig. 2. Zin magnitude of 2-coil WPT. The green line indicates Zin magnitude at

natural frequency and red lines at bifurcated frequencies.

1.2

x 107

1.15

ZPA frequency, f (Hz)

of the nonradiative (near-field) characteristics of magnetic [9],

which means that it can reduce the magnetic field strength to

very low level to meet the standard [37]. In [37], the power

amplifier (PA) topologies were discussed from Class A to Class

F topologies. And the Class E topology was recommended for

its high efficiency and simple structure. Meanwhile, Class E

topology used in magnetically coupled WPT has been widely

reported [24], [26], [38]-[42]. In this paper, the comparison of

different topologies will be summarized briefly and a

soft-switched converter will be proposed in Part IV. The

experimental results show that the proposed converter has 70%

efficiency though it is not precisely designed. Meanwhile, the

purpose of Part IV is to provide an appropriate topology to

make WPT be practical. And the conclusion is drawn in the

end.

1.1

1.05

1

0.95

Critically coupled

0.9

0.85

0.35

0.3

Coupling coefficient, k12

Fig. 3. ZPA frequencies vs. k12.

0.05

working at ZPA frequency because the phase angle of Zin will

be zero at this condition, which will improve the transfer power

and efficiency. In Fig. 1, the Zin can be derived as

2 M122

Zin Z1

RS ,

(1)

Z2

where is the angular frequency, Z1 RS R1 jL1

Z 2 RL R2 jL2

1

jC2

and

mutual

1

,

jC1

inductance

be one, two or three. Given

RS RL , L1 L2 L, C1 C2 C, R1 R2 R, and M12 M ,

(2)

2168-6777 (c) 2013 IEEE. Personal use is permitted, but republication/redistribution requires IEEE permission. See

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This article has been accepted for publication in a future issue of this journal, but has not been fully edited. Content may change prior to final publication. Citation information: DOI

10.1109/JESTPE.2014.2315997, IEEE Journal of Emerging and Selected Topics in Power Electronics

HUANG AND ZHANG: FREQUENCY, IMPEDANCE AND HF CONVERTERS OF 2- AND 4-COIL WPT

Then the possible ZPA frequencies may be

2L

2L

1

( RL R) 2 [ ( RL R) 2 ]2 4( L2 M 2 ) 2

C

C

C .

2( L2 M 2 )

(5)

Assumed R=0, and 1=2, equation (6) can be achieved.

RL2 402 L2 RL2 4M 2 04 L2 0,

(6)

which is the same result as in [28], [29]. Define the quality

factor Q=0L/RL, then 1and 2 can be represented as

(2 Q 2 ) (2 Q 2 ) 2 4(1 k 2 )

.

2(1 k 2 )

When 1=2, the coupling coefficient k satisfies

1,2

1

1

1

,

(8)

Q

4Q 2

which is exact the same as the so called splitting coupling in

[30]. It can be seen from the above analysis that Zin is mainly

influenced by , RL and M. The following will analyze the

influence of M. The simulation parameters are shown in Table I.

Therefore, the relationship among the Zin magnitude, working

frequency f and k12 is shown in Fig. 2. And the relationship

between ZPA frequencies and k12 is shown in Fig. 3, where the

three ZPA frequencies are obviously shown.

In Fig. 3, the critically coupled point satisfies

2 M 2

R1 0 c RS R1 R2 .

(9)

RL R2

Then the critical coupling coefficient kc can be derived

Mc

1

kc

.

(10)

L1 L2 Q

B. Frequency Splitting

According to [22], [43], the frequency splitting phenomena

refer to that in the over coupled region, there are two splitting

frequencies can satisfy the maximum transfer power condition.

And the S parameter was defined in [22] as (11) to analyze the

frequency splitting phenomena.

RS

(11)

.

RL

Taking Fig. 1(a) for example, according to KVL, the system

equations are

jM12 I1

VS Z1

.

(12)

0 jM

Z 2 I 2

12

S21 2

VL

VS

Frequency, f(Hz)

1.2

x 107

1.15

(7)

1/ 2

Cri

uple tically

coup

d

led

U nd

er c

oup

led

S21 magnitude,

2L

2L

1

( RL R) 2 [ ( RL R) 2 ]2 4( L2 M 2 ) 2

C

C

C ,

2( L2 M 2 )

(3)

1

(4)

0

,

LC

O ve

r co

1.1

1.05

1

0.95

Critically coupled

0.9

0.85

0.35

0.3

0.25

0.2

0.15

0.1

Coupling coefficient, k12

0.05

Fig. 5. Splitting frequency vs. k12, indicated by the solid black line.

jk12 L1 L2 RL

VL

(13)

.

VS Z1 Z 2 2 k122 L1 L2

As the parameters shown in Table I, the relationship among

S21 magnitude, k12 and f is shown in Fig. 4. It can be seen from

Fig. 4 that there are three regions of over coupled, critically

coupled and under coupled. In the over coupled region, S21

magnitude splits into two peak values. Once passing the critical

coupled region, S21 magnitude decreases exponentially with the

decrease of k12.

Solving the derivative |VL/VS|/k12=0 of (13), the critical

coupling coefficient kc is

kc | 0

( RS R1 )( R2 RL )

.

02 L1 L2

(14)

kc |0

1

.

Q

(15)

the relationship between splitting frequency and k12 is shown in

Fig. 5. The following analysis will illustrate that the curves in

Fig. 3 and Fig. 5 are exact the same.

2168-6777 (c) 2013 IEEE. Personal use is permitted, but republication/redistribution requires IEEE permission. See

http://www.ieee.org/publications_standards/publications/rights/index.html for more information.

This article has been accepted for publication in a future issue of this journal, but has not been fully edited. Content may change prior to final publication. Citation information: DOI

10.1109/JESTPE.2014.2315997, IEEE Journal of Emerging and Selected Topics in Power Electronics

HUANG AND ZHANG: FREQUENCY, IMPEDANCE AND HF CONVERTERS OF 2- AND 4-COIL WPT

3000

C1

Zin

R1

R2

C2

R3

C3

R4

k12

2500

C4

k34

RS

Re(Zin), ()

L1

VS

2000

L2

1500

TABLE II

PARAMETERS OF 4-COIL WPT

Value

Parameter

50

L2, L3

1.0H

C2, C4

253pF

R2, R3

0.1

k23

0.1

f0

500

10-3

C. Natural Similarity

It can be seen from Fig. 3 and Fig. 5 that in the over coupled

region, there are three ZPA frequencies, while there are only

two splitting frequencies satisfying the maximum transfer

power condition. According to the Maximum Transfer Power

Theorem, when the source impedance and the load impedance

are conjugated matched, the transfer power will be maximized.

With respect to Fig. 1(b), the frequency must satisfy the two

conditions as follows to achieve maximum transfer power:

1) The imaginary part of input impedance Zin equals to zero;

2) The real part of input impedance Zin equals to RS.

From the analysis above, both the frequency bifurcation and

splitting satisfy condition 1). Moreover, if the source

impedance is purely resistive, the phenomena of frequency

bifurcation and splitting are the same in nature. In [22], [43],

the frequency splitting was analyzed by its output

characteristics. In our study, the frequency splitting phenomena

can also be predicted by its input impedance characteristics, i.e.

under some conditions, there are two splitting frequencies can

satisfy the impedance matching condition.

III. INPUT IMPEDANCE OF 2-COIL AND 4-COIL WPT

A. Two-Coil WPT

As for the 2-coil WPT, the green line in Fig. 2 can be

represented as Fig. 6. It can be seen from Fig. 6 that the real part

of Zin decreases with the decrease of the coupling coefficient

dramatically, which means the nearer, the larger the transfer

efficiency. Once passing the critically coupled point, it is

impossible to transfer power efficiently. That is why the

conventional ICPT works at a relatively short-range distance

but high transfer power.

B. Four-Coil WPT

The 4-coil WPT was proposed in [9], whose equivalent

circuit model is shown in Fig. 7. The crossing coupling

coefficients are ignored. In Fig. 7, the Zin can be derived

2 M122 ( Z3 Z 4 2 M 342 )

Zin Z1

RS ,

(16)

Z 2 Z3 Z 4 2 M 342 Z 2 2 M 232 Z 4

Parameter

RS, RL

L1, L4

C1, C4

R1, R4

k12, k34

Value

20H

12.67pF

0.5

0.001-0.3

10MHz

900

800

700

600

Re(Zin), ()

10-1

10 -2

Coupling coefficient, k12

500

400

300

200

Critically coupled

100

0

Over coupled

100

Under coupled

Mid-range

10-1

10-2

10-3

Coupling coefficient, k23

Invalued

area

10-4

0.014

0.012

Coupling Coefficient, k23

100

RL

k23

1000

L4

L3

0.01

0.008

0.006

0.004

Invalued area

0.002

0

1.5

2

Distance, D (m)

2.5

where Z1 RS R1 jL1

1

1

, Z 2 R2 jL2

,

jC1

jC2

1

1

, Z 4 R4 RL jL4

.

jC4

jC3

Then the relationship between Zin and the coupling

coefficient at natural frequency is shown in Fig. 8, whose

parameters are shown in Table II. It can be seen from Fig. 8 that

as for the 4-coil WPT, when the distance is small, Zin is

relatively small, which means the frequency splitting

Z3 R3 jL3

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10.1109/JESTPE.2014.2315997, IEEE Journal of Emerging and Selected Topics in Power Electronics

HUANG AND ZHANG: FREQUENCY, IMPEDANCE AND HF CONVERTERS OF 2- AND 4-COIL WPT

phenomena occur. At the mid-range distance, Zin increases with

the decrease of coupling coefficient, and reaches its maximum

value. When the distance is too long, the expression of Zin in (16)

is meaningless. That is why the 4-coil WPT proposed by MIT is

suitable for mid-range wireless power transfer.

In addition, according to Zin of 4-coil WPT, the effective

working distance of 4-coil WPT can be approximately

predicted. Given

2

2

(17)

R2 R3 ( R4 RL ) 02 M 34

R2 02 M 23

( R4 RL ),

whose solution of k23 can be

k23

M 23

L2 L3

R2 R3

M 342 R2

1

,

2

0 L2 L3 ( R4 RL ) L2 L3 Qcoil

(18)

M 342 R2

can be ignored. And Qcoil is

( R4 RL ) L2 L3

the quality factor of the resonant coils, which are with the same

parameters.

In [9], the quality factor of the resonant coil is about 1000,

and then the minimum coupling coefficient is 0.001. It can be

seen from the relationship between coupling coefficient and

distance, shown in Fig. 9 (according to the formula in [44]) that

the effective distance of the MIT model is about 2.4 m, which is

consistent with the experiments.

TABLE III

COMPARISON OF EFFICIENCY

Maximum efficiency

Practical efficiency

50%

<30%

78.5%

<60%

100%

60%

100%

70-80%

100%

90%

100%

90%

Types of PA

Class A

Class B

Class C

Class D

Class E

Class F

Leq

C0

Vin

Ceq

L0

Req

Parameter

Vin

L0

C0

TABLE IV

EXPERIMENTAL PARAMETERS

Measured value

Parameter

12V

Leq

128H

Ceq

3.77nF

Req

Measured value

12.0H

2.18nF

7

A. Comparison of Power Amplifiers

In [36], the comparison of basic full-bridge, half-bridge and

push-pull current or voltage fed converters is analyzed in detail.

But they are suitable for ICPT working at kHz range operating

frequencies. In MHz range, the Colpitts oscillator used in [9] is

with very low efficiency. Therefore, it is vital to find a high

efficient power amplifier topology applied to resonant coupling

WPT. In [37], the power amplifier topologies were discussed

from Class A to Class F topologies. On one hand, as the

conventional linear power amplifiers like Class A, B, AB and C,

the efficiency are relatively low, which make them not suitable

for resonant coupling WPT. On the other hand, the

switching-mode power amplifiers like Class D, E, DE and F,

have their own virtues and drawbacks. For example, the upper

frequency of Class D is limited by the output capacitance of the

switching device. Class E is the soft-switching topology and

with simple structure, but it is only preferable to Class D at

frequencies higher than about 3 MHz and is with the drawback

of high switch voltage stress [45]. Although Class DE and F can

achieve over 90% of efficiency, they are sensitive to the loading

conditions. In addition, Class D and Class DE are also with the

drawback of hard control of dead time. The maximum and

practical efficiencies of the power amplifiers mentioned above

are shown in Table III, which makes it clear to choose an

appropriate topology.

B. Proposed Converter

Inspired by the design idea of Class E, a soft-switched HF

converter is proposed, as shown in Fig. 10, which has the

virtues of simple structure and 100% efficiency in theory. In

(a)

(b)

(c)

Fig. 11. Experimental results of proposed converter. (a) Switch voltage US;

(b) switch current IS; (c) output voltage UR.

Transmitting coil

Receiving coil

Proposed topology

DC supply

LED load

Drive circuit

inductance, C0 the shunt capacitance including the junction

capacitance of the switch and added capacitance. The

inductance Leq, capacitance Ceq and resistance Req consist of the

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10.1109/JESTPE.2014.2315997, IEEE Journal of Emerging and Selected Topics in Power Electronics

HUANG AND ZHANG: FREQUENCY, IMPEDANCE AND HF CONVERTERS OF 2- AND 4-COIL WPT

load network. Due to the symmetrical structure with Class E,

the operating principle of the proposed converter is the same as

Class E. The difference is when S is on, the currents through the

network are in the opposite direction. Similarly, when S is off,

the currents are also in the opposite direction. Based on the

symmetry and difference, the proposed converter will work

well at a several tens of watts level. With the same design

principle of Class E, the experimental parameters are shown in

Table IV. The input power is set to be about 10 W. And the

experimental results are shown in Fig. 11. In Fig. 11, the

zero-voltage soft-switching (ZVS) is achieved. The measured

efficiency of the proposed converter is about 70%, which is

lower than the expected. The reason is due to the relatively high

conduction loss of switching device of IRFP450, air inductance

Leq and capacitance Ceq. For example, the measured total

resistance of Leq and Ceq at 1MHz is as high as 3. Besides, the

load resistance has poor frequency and temperature

characteristics. It can be concluded that the efficiency and the

waveforms can be improved by adopting low-loss capacitor or

inductor. The experimental setup of the proposed converter

applied to resonant WPT is shown in Fig. 12, where the LED

load is adopted to demonstrate that the power is transferred

wirelessly. The input power is 10 W and the coils are

compensated to be resonant.

[6]

[7]

[8]

[9]

[10]

[11]

[12]

[13]

[14]

[15]

[16]

[17]

V. CONCLUSION

Frequency, impedance characteristics and HF converters of

magnetically coupled WPT are discussed in this paper. The

natural differences and similarities between frequency

bifurcation and splitting are analyzed by input impedance

characteristics, which show that if the source impedance is

purely resistive, the phenomena of frequency bifurcation and

splitting are the same in nature. In addition, the 2-coil WPT

(often used in conventional ICPT) and 4-coil WPT (used in the

resonant coupling WPT) are analyzed by their input impedance

characteristics, which show that they are distinguished with the

impedance matching method. Moreover, the results show that

the 2-coil WPT is appropriate for short-range and the 4-coil

WPT suitable for mid-range applications. As one of the most

important part of magnetically coupled WPT, the power

amplifiers from Class A to Class F topologies are summarized.

And a soft-switched converter is proposed and validated by

experiments, which achieve a 70% efficiency though it is not

precise designed.

[18]

[19]

[20]

[21]

[22]

[23]

[24]

[25]

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1109-1112.

China, in 1988. He received the B.Sc.

degree in electrical engineering and

automation from the School of Electric

Power, South China University of

Technology, Guangzhou, China, in 2012,

where he is currently working toward the

M.Sc. degree in power electronics and

power drives.

His research interests include wireless power transfer

technology and applications.

China, in 1962. He received the B.S. degree

in electrical engineering from Zhejiang

University, Hangzhou, China, in 1982, the

M.S. degree in power electronics from

Southwest Jiaotong University, Chengdu,

China, in 1988, and the Ph.D. degree in

power electronics from Nanjing University

of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Nanjing,

China, in 1994.

He is currently a Professor and the Vice Dean with the

School of Electric Power, South China University of

Technology, Guangzhou, China. He has authored or

coauthored more than 350 papers and seventeen patents. His

current research interests include nonlinear analysis and control

of power electronics and ac drives.

http://www.ieee.org/publications_standards/publications/rights/index.html for more information.

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