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Magnetic Resonance

F.Z. Shen1, W.Z. Cui2, W. Ma2, J.T. Huangfu1*, L.X. Ran1

1

Department of Information and Electronic Engineering, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310027, China

2

Xian Institute of Space Radio Technology, Xian 710000, China

*Email:huangfujt@zju.edu.cn

Coupling

Abstract

Wireless energy transfer by coupled magnetic resonances is a

popular technology in which energy can be transferred via

coupled magnetic resonances in the non-radiative near-field.

In this paper, we use coupled inductance model in circuit

theory to analyze the power transfer efficiency of this

technology, instead of using coupled mode theory (CMT).

The analysis result is verified by some simulations and

experiments.

1 Introduction

Recently, the wireless power transfer technology is becoming

peoples interest and has many applications, such as RFID

and so on. Paper [1] and [2] proved the feasibility of

wireless power transfer via strongly coupled magnetic

resonances theoretically and experimentally. They used the

coupled mode theory (CMT), and got the relation between

transfer efficiency and system parameters (loss, coupling

coefficient and so on). They proposed the strong coupling

regime, in which efficient wireless non-radiative mid-range

energy transfer could be implemented. We feel in

mathematical essence, the coupled inductance model in

circuit theory is identical with CMT. So instead of using

CMT, we do circuit analysis using coupled inductance model,

and get the same relationship between transfer efficiency and

system parameters, giving an easier understanding of

strongly magnetic resonance. In fact, similar circuit

analysis existed in many papers [3,4], but the analysis results

were not related to the concept of strong coupling regime.

In this paper, we consider the wireless power transfer

technology from the familiar electric equipment: the

transformer. Transformers also utilize the coupling of two

inductances, realizing the effect of voltage transformation. If

the primary and secondary coils are not on the same iron core

or even without iron cores, the transformer becomes a simple

device for wireless power transfer. But the energy transfer by

this device is restricted to very close-range. Adding capacitor

(or utilizing the coils parasitic capacitor) to make the primary

and secondary circuit loop resonant, could improve the

performance greatly. In section 2, we analyze the nonresonant coupling situation, and give the reason why it is only

we analyze the resonant coupling situation, and give the

relationship between power transfer performance (power

transfer efficiency and power transfer rate) and system

parameters. In section 4, we describe a simple experiment to

verify our analysis result.

2 Non-resonant coupling

Consider such a device: one coil connected to a sinusoidal

source, another coil connected to the load. Suppose the

parasitic capacitor is negligible. The equivalent circuit is as

shown in Figure 1. In the figure, r represents the source

internal resistance. R1 and R2 represent the loss resistances of

the two coils. Rload is the load, and represents the coupling

coefficient of the two coils, which is defined by

N L1 L2

Using the circuit model of two coupled inductance [5], one

can get the equivalent impedance Z (as marked in Figure 1):

R1 jZL1

N 2Z 2 L1 L2

jZL2 R2 Rload

(1)

transformer. For ideal transformer, L1 and L2 are infinite, R1

and R2 are zeros, and is 1. Thus the above equation becomes

602

L1

Rload

L2

(2)

transformer. Note that there is no imaginary part because of

the assumption of infinite L1 and L2 and = 1. If any one of

the assumed conditions fails, a large imaginary part will

emerge. The non-zero imaginary part brings a non-zero

reactive power, which means the decrease of the obtained

power on the load. And with the decrease of , loss

resistances R1 and R2 will take up more and more percentage

in the real part, which means the decrease of power transfer

efficiency. The power transfer rate and efficiency will

decrease quickly since decreases quickly with the increase

of the distance of the two coils.

Figure 3 Relation curves between and system parameters

3 Resonant coupling

To reduce the reactive power, the imaginary part should be

eliminated in the equivalent impedance. As an example, we

connect capacitances in primary and secondary circuit loops

as shown in Figure 2. (We choose series resonance because

current in series resonance is very large and is beneficial to

magnetic induction.)

must be large enough, which means the Q factor of the coil

should be large, so in paper [1, 2], it is called strongcoupling regime when 22L1L2/R1R2 is much larger than 1.

It should be noted that, for a given 22L1L2/R1R2, there is an

optimum Rload/R2 to reach the highest value of .

In the system of Figure 2, the obtained power on the load is

Pload

Make the primary and secondary circuit loops resonate at the

same frequency, then at this frequency, the equivalent

impedance is

R1

N 2Z 2 L1 L2

Z r 2

Psource 1

K

Z r

Psource

4rZ

K (5)

r Z 2

Equation (4). In equation (5), the first two terms represents

the variation of the sources output power which is caused by

the resistance mismatch to the source, and is the percentage

of the output power going onto the load. So the product of the

two is the received power on the load. When assuming R1 =

R2 = 2 , r = Rload = 50 and Psource= -10 dBm (these are the

parameter values in the experiment we described below), the

relationship between Pload and is as shown in Figure 4.

(3)

R2 Rload

efficiency

N 2Z 2 L1 L2

K

Rload

R2 Rload

u

2 2

N Z L1 L2 R2 Rload

R1

R2 Rload

Rload N 2Z 2 L1 L2

R2

R1 R2

Rload

1

R2

N 2Z 2 L1 L2 Rload

1

R2

R1 R2

Pload and

(4)

4 Experiment

shows this relation intuitively.

of 6 turns. As the way in Figure 2, we connected them with

two capacitors of 47 pF, and then connected them to a signal

generator and a spectrum analyzer respectively, as shown in

Figure 5.

603

The signal generator was set -10 dBm power level. Putting

the two coaxially aligned coils under different separation, we

got the result as Figure 5. From this figure, one can observe a

phenomenon which is a little beyond our intuition. That is, the

received power is not greatest when the two coils are put most

closely to each other. The received power reaches its

maximum value when the two coils are 3 centimeters away.

This is because when distance is 3cm, the equivalent

impedance (Equation (3)) is most close to the source internal

resistance; the output power of the signal generator is largest.

This phenomenon is consistent with our analysis result in

Figure 4.

Put the data in Figure 7 into Equation (4), we get the relation

between and distance, as shown in Figure 8. The quality

factor Q of the coil we used is only about 180. If we used an

optimized coil with a high quality factor Q, the efficiency will

still be high when distance is a few times of the coil size.

5 Conclusion

Figure 6 Received power vs. Distance

We have tested the resonant frequencies of the primary and

secondary circuit loop. They are all 9.45 MHz, so the coil

inductance is about 6nH. When testing the resonant frequency

of the primary (or secondary) circuit loop, we found that the

output voltage of the signal generator at resonant frequency is

about 1/30 of the maximum output voltage at other

frequencies. So from this point of view, we deduced that R1

(R2) is about 50/30=1.7 . From another point of view, when

assuming =-0.4 dB (the data at distance=3 cm from Figure

5), 22L1L2 = 2500 2 and R1=R2, using Equation (4), we

get R1=R2=2.4 . So we can estimate the loss resistances R1

and R2 are no more than 2.4 .

To estimate at different distances, using the data in Figure 5

and the relation curve in Figure 4 (where R1=R2=2 is

assumed), we can get the relation between and distance in

our experiment, as shown in Figure 7.

the load, if using resonant coils to implement wireless power

transfer. We presented how the transfer efficiency and the

obtained power on the load related to the system parameters.

In summarize, the key of high efficiency the Q factor of the

coil should be large, and as shown in Figure 3, there is an

optimum value of Rload to reach the highest value of . From

another point of view, to extract the maximum power from

the source, the equivalent impedance Z should be equal to the

source internal resistance. So there is a compromise of

selecting the value of Rload.

Further studies can be done by considering more than two

coils to implement wireless power transfer. The middle coil

can work as relay, making the equivalent impedance quite

different the present one, and the expression of will change

a lot. Then, longer work range and better performance may be

realized.

604

Acknowledgements

This work is sponsored by NSFC (Nos. 60531020, 60671003

and 60701007), 863 Project (No. 2009AA01Z227), NCET07-0750, ZJNSF (No.Y1080715), ZJSTP(No.2009C31141),

Ph.D. Programs Foundation of MEC (No. 20070335120) and

the National Key Laboratory Foundation (Nos.

9140C5304020901 and 9140C5304020704).

References

[1] Aristeidis Karalis, John D. Joannopoulos, Marin Soljai.

Efficient wireless non-radiative mid-range energy

transfer, Ann. Phys, volume 323, pp. 34-48, (2008).

[2] A. Kurs, A. Karalis, R. Moffatt, J.D. Joannopoulos, P.

Fisher, M. Soljai. Wireless power transfer via

strongly coupled magnetic resonances, Science, volume

317, pp. 83-86, (2007).

[3] HE Xiu, YAN Guo-zheng, MA Guan-ying. Mutual

Inductances Affecting Factors and Its Affection to the

Energy Transmission Efficiency of Wireless Energy

Transmission System, Measurement & Control

Technology, volume 26, pp. 57-60, (2007).

[4] Wu Ying. Study on New Contactless Power Supply

System, Chinese Academy of Sciences, (2004).

[5] Zhang suwen, Lu zhaoxiong. High-Frequency

Electronic Circuit, China Higher Education Press,

Third edition, (1993).

605

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