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CT Problems & Testing Techniques

Peter Fong
p USA
OMICRON electronics Corp.

Content
1. Differences Between Protection and Metering CTs
2 Wh
2.
What to T
Test?
?
3 What to Watch Out For?
3.
4. New Methods Available

OMICRON

9 November 2009

Page 2

Protection CT
Need to operate at high fault current with acceptable
accuracy
Must have high excitation voltage to avoid saturation
Multiple ratios
Transient characteristic is important
Testing mainly concerned with saturation level
Burden is important

OMICRON

Page 3

Metering CT

Must be accurate over a range of current


Must be accurate over a range
g of burden
Operate in range of load current
Desirable to saturate early to protect the meter
Testing mainly concerned with accuracy
Burden is important

OMICRON

Page 4

Protection CT Classes
C x00
C Rating: Less than 10% Relay Current Error at
20x Rated Current (5x20A = 100A) into 1, 2, 4, or
8 Burden
x00: The terminal voltage which the CT must
maintain
i t i within
ithi th
the C R
Rating
ti (C100
(C100, C200
C200, C400
C400,
C800)

OMICRON

Page 5

Determining C-Rating
1. Find Vexc where Iexc = 10A
2. Calculate Vterm = Vexc 100A*Rct
3. Round Vterm down to nearest 100,
200 400
200,
400, 800V corresponding
di tto
C100, C200, C400, C800
E.g. For Rct = 0.9:
Vexc = 400V at Iexc = 10A
Vterm = 400V 100V (0.9) = 310V
C200 Rating

OMICRON

Page 6

Will the CT Saturate?


Apply Anticipated Fault Current and determine if the voltage
impressed on the CT will be greater than the CT rating:

E.g. For maximum Fault current of 24,000A into a 1200/5 C200 CT


with
ith 1 secondary
d
b
burden
d and
d safety
f t margin
i off 2
2:
Isec = (24,000 * 5)/1200 = 100A
310V > 2x 100A * 1 = 200V
CT is o.k.
OMICRON

Page 7

What could go wrong?


With the same C200 CT
CT, we use the 600/5A tap instead:
Vterm = 200V 100V (0.9) = 110V
Isec = (24,000 *5)/600 = 200A
110V > 2x 200A *1 = 400V
->> CT nott o.k.
k X
* Be careful about using a lower
p The combination of a lower
tap.
kneepoint and higher secondary
current could significantly bring
down the saturation level of the CT
for the same application.
application
OMICRON

Page 8

What else could go wrong?

Impedance is too high due to long lead lengths


Poor quality (i.e. low burden rating) CTs are used due to cost or
space constraints
Small loads are put on powerful buses, and CT ratios are
selected based on load current rather than fault duty
Low ratio zero sequence CTs are placed on systems having
high ground fault duty
Unusual burdens (e.g. stablizing resistors) are placed in the CT
circuit

OMICRON

Page 9

Metering CT Classes
0.3 B 0.1
Metering Class CT
Accuracy in % (e.g. 0.3%)
when 100% primary
current is applied.
Doubles when 10%
primary current is applied
(e.g. 0.6%)

OMICRON

Maximum Burden (e.g. 0.1 )

Page 10

Rating Factor (RF)


Multiples of Rated Current which the CT can
maintain accuracy
T i l RF
Typical
RF: 1
1, 1
1.5,
5 2
2, 3
3, 4
E.g.
g 200/5A CT with RF 2 means the CT will
maintain its accuracy certification up to 400A

OMICRON

Page 11

Secondary Burden
CT accuracy is rated up to its maximum burden
rating
Over-burdening
O
b d i will
ill ttend
d tto produce
d
error iin ffavor off
the customer
Burden build-up
build up due to aging
loose connections
corrosion
broken
b k stranded
t d d wires
i

Need to have excess burden capacity during


installation
OMICRON

Page 12

TABLE. CT System Failure Modes


Fa ilue Mode

Te st Te chnique
for Fa ilure Mode

Possible Ca use
of Fa ilure Mode

W ire Verification
W ire Verification
W ire Verification
W ire Verification
W ire Verification
Burden Test
Burden Test
Burden Test
Burden Test
Burden Test
Burden Test

Installation Error
Installation Error
Installation Error
Installation Error
Installation Error
Vibration/W ind/Installation Error
Moisture
Installation Error
Installation Error
Installation Error
Installation Error

Wiring Problems
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11

Cross Phasing of a CT
Cross Phasing of a CT/PT
X1X2/H1H2 Reversal of a CT
X1X2/H1H2 Reversal of a PT
Meter Socket W ire Error
Loose Connections
Corroded Connections/Terminals
Insulation Stripping Error
Excessive W ire Length/Small W ire
Broken W ire Strands
Meter Overburdened

P i
Primary/Secondary
/S
d
Current
C
t Shunt
Sh t Problems
P bl
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19

Shorted Turns (W iring & Leakage Current) Ratio/Burden Test


Shorted Turns (Turn to Turn)
Ratio/Burden Test
Shorted Turns (Turn to Ground)
Ratio/Burden Test
Theft (Secondary Shunt)
Ratio/Burden Test
Theft (Primary Shunt)
Ratio/Burden Test
Theft (CT W rap)
Ratio/Burden Test
Theft (Primary Tap)
Ratio/Burden Test
Theft (Secondary Tap)
Ratio/Burden Test

Lightning/Ground Fault
Lightning/Ground Fault
Lightning/Ground Fault
Tampering
Tampering
Tampering
Tampering
Tampering

Current T ransformer Problems


20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30
31
32

Open Secondary
Shorted Secondary
Magnetized CT
Dual Ratio Error
Inaccurate Ratio on CT
W ire W rap Error on CT
Inaccurate Rated Burden on CT
CT Burden Manufacturer Error
CT Mounted Backwards
Polarity Dot on W rong Side of CT
Overburdened CT
Overdriven CT
CT Phase Shift

Ratio Test
Ratio Test
Ratio/Burden Test
Ratio Test
Ratio Test
Ratio Test
Burden Test
Burden Test
W ire Verification
W ire Verification
Ratio/Burden Test
Ratio/Burden Test
W ire Verification

Installation Error/Tampering
Installation Error/Tampering
Lightning/Ground Fault
Installation Error
Manufacturer Defect
Manufacturer Defect
Manufacturer Defect
Manufacturer Defect
Installation Error
Manufacturer Defect
Secondary Burden
Excessive Current
Harmonic Loading

Page 13

What To Test?

OMICRON

Page 14

Tests for Protection CT


Commissioning:
Ratio, Polarity, Rct, Saturation
Secondary Burden
If possible for transient studies and network modeling:
Remenance Flux Factor, Secondary Time Constant

Maintenance
M i t
/ Fault
F lt Investigation:
I
ti ti
Saturation, Rct
Secondary
y Burden

OMICRON

Page 15

Tests for Metering CT


Commissioning:

Ratio and Phase at 0%, 25%, 50%, 100% of Rated Burden


Ratio and Phase at 10%
10%, 50%
50%, 100%
100%, (up to RF)
Calculation of RCF (Ratio Correction Factor)
Secondary Burden

Routine:
Same if possible
Not convenient - need to send CT back to test lab
Can use portable tester for quick verification and send CT
back to test lab if in result is suspect

OMICRON

Page 16

What to Watch Out For?

OMICRON

Page 17

Ratio Test (Bushing CT)

OMICRON

Short the bushings and


windings you are not testing
D
Demagnetize
ti th
the CT b
before
f
test
Test Voltage should be below
th saturation
the
t ti kneepoint
k
i t
Beware of EM interference
(use coaxial cable or test at
off-frequency)
ff f
)

Page 18

Saturation Test

OMICRON

Test on full winding


If testing on tapped winding,
be careful of auto
auto-transformer
transformer
effect
Do not short any taps
R i th
Raise
the ttestt voltage
lt
slowly
l l
Lower the test voltage to
demagnetize CT
Beware of insulation level of
all parts of CT circuit and use
safe test voltage levels

Page 19

New Methods (Saturation Test)


Low voltage, variable frequency saturation test
Above 120Vac,, frequency
q
y is reduced to p
produce
higher flux in CT to saturation level
Result is transformed back to 60Hz
Can test effective saturation voltage of up to 30kV
with test voltage of only 120Vac
Safe for the CT
CT, Safe for the operator

OMICRON

Page 20

New Methods (Ratio Test)


Magnetizing branch of the CT is measured accurately
for losses
Use measured data for ratio, saturation, Rct to
determine ratio and phase accuracy at different levels
of burden and primary current
No need for external Burden
On-site verification of metering
g class CT p
possible ((to
0.1 class)

OMICRON

Page 21

Summary
CT is not so straight-forward
Protection and Metering
g CTs have different
considerations
Choose the tests that are appropriate to the type of CT
Take care of on-site conditions when testing CT
New methods are available to make CT testing safer
and easier

OMICRON

Page 22

Thank you for your attention!

OMICRON

9 November 2009

Page 23