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It has been a true joy working on the topic. I would like to thank all
to whom I owe my gratitude for their support.
Especially my friends and colleagues at my college deserve special
thanks for their valuable time and support.
I would like to thank my theme paper guide Prof. Saurabh Raj for
his tremendous support and enthusiasm. Thanks Mr. Saurabh Raj, our
dear faculty member, for his valuable inputs at the starting of my
research. Last but not the least; I would like to thank Sachin and Rohit,
who helped me with various thoughts during my theme paper


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The project was undertaken to understand and analyze the different


For any firm its very much essential to implement the different stages of
“PROJECT MANAGEMENT” for successfully completing the projects.
This report mainly throws light on the different stages of Project
Management. This report also tells what are the necessary activities that
should be carried at the different stages of Project management for its
successful completion. The later part of the project deals with the

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Table of Contents

TABLE OF CONTENTS.........................................................................................................4
PROJECT PLANNING ACTIVITIES.....................................................................13
PROJECT MANAGING CRITICAL SUCCESS FACTORS............................................22
PROJECT MANAGING ACTIVITIES...................................................................22
Manage Risk........................................................................................................22
Communicate Information...................................................................................22
Manage Schedule.................................................................................................23
Document the Work Results................................................................................24
Manage Organizational Change...........................................................................24
Manage Scope......................................................................................................24
Manage Quality....................................................................................................25
Manage Costs.......................................................................................................26
Manage Issues......................................................................................................26
Conduct Status Review Meetings........................................................................27
Review Project Life Cycle Phases Checkpoints..................................................27
Execute the Procurement Plan.............................................................................27
Administer Contract/Vendor................................................................................28
PROJECT CLOSEOUT ..................................................................................30
Conduct Final Acceptance Meeting.....................................................................30
Conduct Project Closeout Meeting......................................................................30
Conduct Knowledge Transfer..............................................................................31
Stage 1: Development of the Film……………………………………………….30-
Stage 2: Preproduction of the film……………………………………………... 39-
Stage 3: Production of the film………………………………………………....41-42
Stage 4 :- Post-production of the film…………………………………………..43-46
Stage 5 :- Distribution of the film…………………………………………….....47

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Project Initiation Stage

Every project starts with an idea. That idea may be the result of a unique
thought or design, it may respond to a regulatory mandate, it may answer
a call for operational maintenance, or it may be as simple as providing
scheduled updates. In essence, projects are generated for many different
reasons; however, projects warrant special consideration for uniqueness,
importance, cost, priority, and duration of effort. Accordingly, potential
projects, so as not to underestimate their value-add and timing, need to be
subjected to an assessment process that will allow the sponsor,
stakeholders, project team, and other interested parties to validate the
potential project benefits and timing. This assessment of potential
projects occurs during the Initiation Stage. During this stage, a potential
project is conceptualized, justified, authorized, and funded by the
appropriate governing bodies.


1) Assign Project Champion/Leader:- Although a project manager
may not have yet been selected, a project champion/leader should be
assigned. The project champion may or may not be the eventual project
manager. This project champion is responsible for defining the project
purpose, establishing the critical success factors, gathering strategic and
background information, determining high-level planning data, and
developing estimated budgets and schedules for the life of the project.
The project champion will coordinate resources and activities to complete
the necessary activities in order to develop the Project Charter.

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2) Identify an Executive Sponsor:- The sponsor is an executive

responsible for the strategic direction of a project. An Executive Sponsor
should have the authority to define project goals, secure resources, and
resolve organizational and priority conflicts. Multiple studies indicate a
direct correlation between the lack of project sponsorship and project
failure. Well-meaning but costly mistakes include substituting a steering
committee for a sponsor, and assuming that a big- budget and highly
visible project does not need a formal sponsor. The Executive Sponsor’s
primary role is to:

Champion IT projects from initiation to completion

Participate in the development and selling of the project business case

Present overall vision and priorities for the project

Assist in determining final funding and project direction

Serve as executive liaison to key State stakeholders, e.g., legislators,

agency directors and managers

Chair the project steering committee

3) Define the Business Need/Opportunity:- The need/opportunity

statement should provide a general discussion, in business terms, of the
needs or opportunities that are to be addressed. Typically, a need or
opportunity relates to the need to:

Provide necessary services more efficiently or effectively, or new

services mandated by law

Obtain needed information that is not currently available

Reduce the costs of operations

Generate more revenue

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Avoid unnecessary increases in a Department’s budget.

4) Identify Business Objectives and Benefits:- Business objectives

define the results that must be achieved for a proposed solution to
effectively respond to the need/opportunity. Objectives are the “success
factors” against which the Department can measure how well the
proposed solution addresses the business need or opportunity. Each
objective should:

Relate to the problem/opportunity statement

Be stated in business and observable/measurable terms

Be realistically achievable.

In establishing objectives, decide whether the proposed solution will

impact costs, Department operations, or both.

5) Define Overall Project Scope:- Provide a concise, measurable

statement of what the project will accomplish, and, if appropriate, what it
will not try to accomplish. Project scope is documented at a high level in
the Project Charter. Discuss the proposed solution and the business
processes that will be used with the solution and describe their
The level of detail in this section must be sufficient to allow for detailed
scope and solution development in the Scope Statement, developed in the
Planning stage. Note: Scope creep (adding work without corresponding
updates to cost, schedule and quality) may render original plans
unachievable. Therefore, initial clarification of scope, and adherence to
the plan throughout the project, are of the utmost importance.

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6) Define Project Objectives:- Define the objectives of the project as they

relate to the goals and objectives of the organization. Project objectives
are used to establish performance goals—planned levels of
accomplishment stated as measurable objectives that can be compared to
actual results. Performance measures should be derived for each goal.
These measures can be quantified to see if the project is meeting the
agency’s objectives. Project performance can then be traced directly to
the agency’s goals, mission and objectives, enabling participants to
correct areas that are not meeting those objectives.

The project objectives can be described in two ways:

Hard Objectives—These relate to the time, cost, and operational

objectives (scope) of the product or process.

Soft Objectives—These relate more to how the objectives are achieved,

and which may include attitude, behavior, expectations and

7) Identify Project Constraints and Assumptions:- All projects have

constraints, and these need to be defined from the outset. Projects have
resource limits in terms of people, money, time and equipment. While
these may be adjusted up or down, they are considered fixed resources by
the project manager. These constraints form the basis for managing the

Ensure Alignment with Strategic Direction:- Review the alignment of the

proposed project with supporting documents such as:

Statewide Strategic plan

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Agency Strategic plan

Agency IT Strategic plan (SIRMP)

Statewide Enterprise Architecture

Agency Architecture

Statewide Applications Portfolio

Agency Applications Portfolio

Current business and technical environment

State mandates

8) Identify and Engage Key Stakeholders:- Stakeholders are individuals

and organizations that have a vested interest in the success of the project.
The identification and input of stakeholders help to define, clarify, drive,
change, and contribute to the scope and, ultimately, the success of the
To ensure project success, the project management team needs to identify
stakeholders early in the project, determine their needs and expectations,
and manage and influence those expectations over the course of the

9) Identify Key Potential Risks:- Projects are full of uncertainty. As such,

it is advisable to perform and document an initial risk assessment to
identify, quantify and establish mitigation strategies for high-level risk
events that could adversely affect the outcome of the project.

10) Determine Cost and Schedule Estimates:- Estimate the one-time

development and acquisition costs, as well as the on-going maintenance
and operations costs expected to be associated with the project. Articulate

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the anticipated benefits of the project, including tangible and intangible

operational benefits, cost savings, cost avoidance and other benefits.

Identify the high-level tasks for the project. For example, tasks could
include the typical steps of any project life cycle, and the following:
procurement, conversion, training for end users, training for technical
staff, post-implementation support, etc

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Project Planning Stage

The Project Planning Stage follows the Project Initiation Stage and is
considered to be the most important stage in project management. Project
planning is not a single activity or task. It is a process that takes time and
attention. Project planning defines the project activities and describes
how the activities will be accomplished. Time spent up front identifying
the proper needs and structure for organizing and managing projects
saves countless hours of confusion and rework in the Managing
(Execution and Controlling) Stage of the project.

The purpose of the Project Planning Stage is to:

More clearly define project scope

Establish more precise cost and schedule of the project (including a list of
deliverables and delivery dates)

Establish the work organization

Obtain management approval

Provide a framework for management review and control.Without

planning, a project’s success will be difficult, if not impossible. Team
members will have limited understanding of expectations,activities may
not be properly defined, and resource requirements may not be
completely understood. Even if the project is finished, the conditions for
success may not have been defined. Project planning identifies several
specialized areas of concentration for determining the needs for a project.
Planning will involve identifying and documenting scope, tasks,
schedules, risk, quality, and staffing needs. The identification process

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should continue until as many of the areas as possible of the chartered

project have been addressed.
The planning process involves the following steps:

Estimate the size of the project

Estimate the technical scope of the project

Estimate the resources required to complete the project

Produce a schedule

Identify and assess risks

Negotiate commitments


The following is a list of key activities required to plan a project:
1) Assign Project Manager:- A project manager’s daily
responsibilities typically include some or all of the following:

Provide day- to-day decision-making on critical project issues as they

pertain to project scope, schedule, budget, methodology and resources

Providing direction, leadership and support to project team members in a

professional manner at project, functional, and task levels.

Ensure project documentation is complete and communicated, e.g.,

project charter, scope statement, project schedule, project budget,
requirements, testing, and others

Identify funding sources and facilitate the prioritization of project


Manage the planning and control of project activities and resources

Develop and manage project contracts with vendors

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Report project components status and issues to the executive project

sponsor and the project steering committee

Using, developing, and improving upon the project management

methodology within the agency.

Providing teams with advice and input on tasks throughout the project,
including documentation, creation of plans, schedules, and reports.

Resolving conflicts within the project between resources, schedules, etc.

Influencing stakeholders and team members in order to get buy-in on

decisions that will lead to the success of agency projects.

Delegating responsibility to team members.

2) Refine Project Scope:- The development of a Project Scope

Statement provides the basis for future project decisions. This

statement is of singular importance to the project because it sets
the overall guidelines as to the size of the project. The content of
this statement, at a minimum, will include the following:

Project Results/Completion Criteria: What will be created in terms of

deliverables (and their characteristics) and/or what constitutes a
successful phase completion.

The Approach to be Used: What type of process or technology will be


Content of the Project: What is and is not included in the work to be done

Approval by Executive Sponsor and Key Stakeholders

3) Determine Procurement and Sourcing Strategy:- Develop a

Procurement and Sourcing Strategy that identifies the needs of the

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project that can be met by purchasing products or services from

outside the agency. The Procurement and Sourcing Strategy deals
with the following:

 What to procure

How does this product serve the needs of the project and the
agency as a whole?

Does the product or something similar already exist somewhere

else within the agency?

Is there a service provider available in the marketplace for this


 When to procure

 How to procure

 How much to procure

4) Refine Project Schedule

5) Define Project Organization and Governance:- Every agency has

a limited number of resources to perform tasks. A project

manager’s primary role is to find a way to successfully execute a
project within these resource constraints. Resource planning is
comprised of establishing a team possessing the skills required to
perform the work (labor resources), as well as scheduling the tools,
equipment and processes (non-labor resources) that enable
completion of the project.

Identify an Executive Steering Committee

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 The Executive Steering Committee will act as the principal

decision-making authority regarding the strategic direction of
the entire project. The Executive Steering Committee will also
provide executive project oversight and conduct regular
decision-making on critical project issues as they pertain to
project scope, schedule, budget, methodology, resources, etc.

 The Executive Steering Committee will include Executive

representation from State agencies, the Office of Technology
PMO, and appropriate stakeholders.

Identify required skill sets by role

 It is helpful in the planning process to develop a list of skills

required, first for execution of the project and then for
execution of each task. This skills list may then be used to
determine the type of personnel required for the task.

Develop project organization

 Project organization is used to coordinate the activity of the

team and to define the roles and responsibilities of team
members. Project organization is needed for every project, and
the project manager must always be identified.

The optimal size of the project team is driven by three principal factors;
the total number of tasks to be performed, the effort needed to perform
the tasks, and time frame for the project’s completion.

6) Establish Project Life Cycle Phase:- To ensure that the project

progresses satisfactorily, management checkpoints or milestones

should be clearly defined with planned dates to measure progress.
Checkpoints are high-level milestones. Senior management uses

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them to approve the completion of a phase or milestone and as

go/no-go decision points to proceed with the project. The
checkpoints ensure that the products and services delivered meet
the project objectives in the time frame established by senior

7) Refine Project Cost Estimate and Budget:- Paralleling the project

schedule development is budget planning. Budgeting, performed at

the initial stages of project planning, is the determination of costs
associated with the defined activities. The steps associated with
budgeting are highly dependent on both the estimated lengths of
tasks and the resources assigned to the project.
Initial budgetary estimates are often based on availability of funds
or may be dictated by legislation. These parameters may or may
not coincide with the actual funds needed to perform the project.
For this reason, budget estimates are refined in the Planning Stage
until they are baselined at the beginning of the Project Managing

8) Identify Potential Project Risks:- A risk is any factor that may

potentially interfere with successful completion of the project. A

risk is not a problem—a problem is a situation that has already
occurred; a risk is the recognition that a problem might occur. By
recognizing potential problems, the project manager can attempt to
avoid or minimize a problem through proper actions.
It is important to plan for the risk management process to ensure
that the level, type and visibility of risk management are

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commensurate with both the risk and importance of the project to

the organization.

9) Determine Process for Issue Identification and Resolution:- The

purpose of the issue management process is to provide a

mechanism for organizing, maintaining, and tracking the resolution
of issues that cannot be resolved at the individual level. The
approach consists of issue control mechanisms and a well-defined
process that enables the project team to identify, address and
prioritize problems and issues.

10) Determine Process for Managing Scope Change:- Project scope

management can be just as important to scope planning as the

Scope Statement itself. This effort describes how the project scope
will be managed and how scope changes will be integrated into the
project. The scope change management process will:

Define process for identifying and documenting potential changes to


Define process for review and approval of scope change

Describe which planning documents need to be revised due to scope


Develop Organization Change Management Approach:-

Some of the details related to organizational change management will not
become apparent until the completion of detailed design of the solution.
The expectation during the Planning Stage is to develop a high-level
understanding of the impact of the project on the organization. The
project team will:

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Identify potential organizational changes and impact

Refine business process improvement opportunities

Identify training needs (e.g., magnitude)

Determine knowledge transfer resources and processes

11) Develop Quality Management Approach:- The quality

management process is the application of quality theory, methods
and tools to focus on business and project requirements and to
manage work processes with the objective of achieving continuous
improvements or radical redesign.

“Quality Planning” involves identifying which quality standards are

relevant to the project and determining how to satisfy them. The activities
within the quality planning process basically translate existing quality
policy and standards into a Quality Plan through a variety of tools and

“Quality Assurance” is the evaluation of overall project performance on a

regular basis to provide confidence that the project will satisfy the
relevant quality standards. It utilizes quality audits to ensure that quality
standards and the business and project requirements are met.
12) Develop Project Communication Approach:- Communications

planning involves defining the information needs of project

stakeholders and team members, as well as identifying which
people need what information, when it will be needed, and how
they will get it. Communication is the cornerstone of how work
gets done among different parties within a project.
Communications planning is a process that overlays all other parts
of project planning as well as the other project management stages.

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It addresses the way in which we transfer/share information about

what needs to be done, how it will be done, when it needs to be
done, who will do it, status reporting, issues management, problem
resolution, etc.
13) Develop Configuration Management Approach:- Implementation

of configuration management processes should be carried out on

all projects, especially large or complex projects. In short,
configuration management is a necessity. Configuration
management processes should be implemented at the agency level
to ensure a consistent general approach, with consideration given
to the special functions or needs of the project itself. The
complexity or size of the configuration system is less important
than its functionality and intent.
Effective configuration management requires an effective and
well-defined Configuration Management effort. The following are
Configuration Management functions:
 Defining who will be responsible for and have authority
over configuration management
 Setting standards, procedures, and guidelines for the full
project team to follow
 Defining tools, resources, and facilities to be used for
configuration management
14) Develop Project Plan:- The Project Plan is completed in the
Planning Stage of a project. For large projects, this stage may be
run as a mini-project with a team of people dedicated to
performing the effort. For very small projects, the plan may be
developed by a group of people as a part-time job. Because various
skill sets are required to complete a successful Project Plan, it is a

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difficult task for one person to develop the entire plan. During this
project stage, details of the plan are determined and an approach is
defined. The full Project Plan is then developed.
Project Managing (Execution and Controlling)

A project manager’s responsibilities do not stop once the planning of the

project is done. Because a project manager is responsible to internal and
external stakeholders, the project team, vendors, executive management
and others, the visibility of the position is intensified because many of
these people will now expect to see and discuss the resulting deliverables
that were detailed in the Planning Stage. As a project manager, keeping
oneself from getting “down in the weeds,” especially on large projects,
will be important. This will allow the project manager to focus attention
on enabling the project plans and processes and managing the
expectations of customers and stakeholders.
Once a project moves into the Managing Stage, the project team and the
necessary resources to carry out the project should be in place and ready
to perform project activities. The Project Plan should have been
completed and baselined by this time as well. The project team, and
specifically the project manager’s focus, now shifts from planning the
project efforts to participating in, observing and analyzing the work being
The project plan managing process ensures that planned project activities
are carried out in an effective and efficient way while ensuring that
measurements against project plans, specifications, and the original

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project feasibility concept continue to be collected, analyzed and acted

upon throughout the project life cycle. Without a defined project
managing process, each project team would execute projects using its
own best practices, experience, and methods, while certain control,
tracking and corrective action activities would be missed.

Project Managing Critical Success Factors

Major functional deliverables arrive in six-month to 12-month intervals

(e.g., immediate business value achieved)

Stakeholder communication

Proactive project governance process

Stakeholder buy-in of key deliverables and milestones

Regular checkpoints for continuous validation of the business case


The following is a list of key activities required to execute and control a

Manage Risk

Risk identification, monitoring and resolution are key tools for

successfully completing a project. Part of controlling a project during the
Managing Stage is to have an established risk management process. This
process is a primary part of project planning and is kept current until
project closeout.

Communicate Information

The project Communications Plan is an important factor in the Managing

Stage. A large part of a project manager’s responsibility during this stage

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of the project is keeping the stakeholders informed of project status. Joint

project reviews are a good way to bring visibility to all areas of the
project. They provide an opportunity to discuss important issues and

make management decisions on the project with input from several

sources. Joint project reviews can involve the project manager, project
team members, project stakeholders and agency management, depending
on the issues being discussed. The frequency and topics covered at these
meetings should be outlined in the Communications Plan.

Manage Schedule

The procedures defining the process to update schedules to depict current

work efforts are key to ensuring that accurate schedules are maintained.
Without these procedures, invalid data may cause inaccurate schedule
performance reporting. Data collection and validation involves the
following steps:

Collecting and validating schedule status; for example, data that reflects
start, finish and estimates to complete work

Validating data attributes and associations used to report schedule

information; for example, task relationship to the work breakdown
structure, project lifecycle phase, functional organization or integrated
master schedule

Validating work effort to ensure that the schedules accurately depict the
way work is being accomplished and reported.

Attributes of Schedule Control include:

Influencing the factors that create schedule changes to ensure that

changes are beneficial

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Determining that the schedule has changed

Managing the actual changes when and as they occur.

Document the Work Results

Results are the outcomes of the activities performed to accomplish the

project. Information on work results provides input on which deliverables
have been completed and which have not; to what extent quality
standards are being met; to what extent contractual obligations are being
met; and what costs have been incurred or committed. These valuable
data need to be collected and fed into an agency performance reporting

Manage Organizational Change

All agencies that develop and execute projects have formal and informal
policies that may affect Project Plan execution. Project execution may
also lead to the realization of the need for new polices or alteration of
existing policies. Any consideration for new agency policies and
procedures should be documented during the Managing Stage and
reviewed for implementation.

Manage Scope

Scope control is a straightforward concept. The intent of implementing a

scope control process is to identify and manage all elements (e.g., people
and requirements) inside and outside of the project that increase or
decrease the project scope beyond the required or defined need of the
original, agreed-upon project Scope Statement.

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Attributes of scope control include:

Influencing the factors that create scope changes to ensure that the
changes are beneficial

Determining that a scope change has occurred

Managing the actual changes when and if they occur.

Manage Quality

Quality assurance incorporates a process of evaluating overall project

performance on a regular basis to provide confidence that the project will
satisfy the relevant quality standards. Accordingly, while it is important
that each team member be responsible for the quality execution of tasks,
a quality team is typically included in the project team and plays an
integral role in the execution of quality throughout the project. This team
ensures that the quality plan is executed as planned. As an organization’s
quality processes mature, the need for the external quality unit decreases.
This quality team reports functionally to the project manager, but must
also have a reporting chain outside the project to facilitate problem
escalation. Problem escalation is the process of moving a problem to a
higher management level if sufficient attention is not given by the project
manager. The independent reporting chain provides a check and balance
on the project.
Quality control involves monitoring specific project results to determine
if they comply with relevant quality standards and identifying ways to
eliminate causes of unsatisfactory results

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Manage Costs

Projects may fail to control costs, or go over budget, for many reasons.
Often it is not a single problem but a series of small problems that,
combined, permit cost control to be sacrificed and prevent the project
from being completed successfully. Cost control contains the following

Influencing the factors that create changes to the Project Budget Estimate
to ensure that the changes are beneficial

Determining that the Project Budget Estimate has changed

Managing the actual changes when and as they occur.

Cost control includes the following:

Monitoring cost performance to detect variances from the Project Plan

Ensuring that all appropriate changes are recorded accurately in the

Project Budget Estimate

Preventing incorrect, inappropriate or unauthorized changes from being

included in the Project Budget Estimate
Informing appropriate stakeholders of authorized changes

Manage Issues

The purpose of the issues management process is to provide a mechanism

for organizing, maintaining and tracking the resolution of issues that
cannot be resolved at the individual level. The approach consists of issue
control mechanisms and a well-defined process that enables the project
team to identify, address and prioritize problems and issues.

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Conduct Status Review Meetings

While the project manager is responsible for relaying project status to

parties outside the project team, the project team is, in turn, expected to
report status to the project manager. This includes communicating
information on both a formal and informal basis. Formal mechanisms
such as status reports, status meetings, and action item reviews can be

very specific. Informal processes, such as hallway conversations, can be

very helpful as well.
A standard requirement of all projects is to provide reports to both
executive management and the project team. Although the frequency of
the reports may sometimes vary, they should correspond with the
executive meetings or when the project manager deems necessary.

Review Project Life Cycle Phases Checkpoints

Senior management ensures that the project is progressing satisfactorily

by reviewing management checkpoints or project milestones. Senior
management uses them to approve the completion of a phase or milestone
and as go/no-go decision points to proceed with the project. Depending
on the size and complexity of the project, the checkpoint review will be
linked to project funding. The checkpoints ensure that the products and
services delivered meet the project objectives in the time frame
established by senior management.

Execute the Procurement Plan

As indicated in the Planning Stage of this methodology, there will be

times within the Managing Stage when an agency may have to go outside
its resource pool to purchase products or services needed to deliver the
project. In these cases, the project Procurement Plan will be put into
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action. State agencies will have a defined set of guidelines and policies
that provide the infrastructure for project purchasing that should be
integrated within the Procurement Plan. These guidelines will outline the
policy for solicitation, source selection and contract administration.
Although the solicitation and contracting responsibilities may not always
be managed by the project manager, it is still important that the project

manager have a fundamental understanding of the agency’s contracting

and procurement policies.

Administer Contract/Vendor

The project manager will be responsible for ensuring that the vendors,
once contracted to do the work, meet the contractual agreements
specified within their contracts. Project managers will also be responsible
for tracking, reviewing and analyzing the performance of contractors on a
project. This performance reporting will be the basis for any contractual
changes that need to be made during the life of the contract. Finally,
project managers will play an important role in oversight and review of
any contract changes that will affect the project.

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Project Closeout Stage

The last major stage of a project’s life cycle is project closeout. Project
closeout is completed once all defined project tasks and milestones have
been completed and the customer has accepted the project’s deliverables.
This stage also consists of the planning for the initial outcomes
assessment and the associated report. Outcomes assessments focus on the
level of achievement of the business objectives derived from the project.

Project closeout includes the following key elements:

Verification of formal acceptance by Key Stakeholders and Steering


Redistributing resources—staff, facilities, equipment and automated


Closing out any financial issues such as labor charge codes and contract

Documenting the successes, problems and issues of the project

Establishing the criteria, responsibility and timeframe for producing the

initial Outcomes Assessment Report

Documenting “lessons learned”

Celebrating project success

Producing a Project Closeout Report

Completing, collecting and archiving project records

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Project Closeout
The following is a list of key activities required prior to project closeout:

Conduct Final Acceptance Meeting

The issue of primary importance with project closure is the acceptance of

the product and project deliverables by the customer for which they were
created. Product testing and acceptance is performed in accordance with
the project’s Quality Plan and in accordance with the delivery
methodology selected for the project. That is, the Enterprise Project
Management Office recognizes three separate and distinct, but
interrelated methodologies associated with an engagement. These are; the
Strategic Planning methodology (SIRMP), the Project Management
methodology (PM Methodology and Templates), and the Discipline
Layer’s methodology

Conduct Project Closeout Meeting

In conducting the project closeout meeting, the project manager provides

a forum to discuss the various aspects of the project, focusing on project
successes, problems, issues, “lessons learned”, and future process
improvement recommendations. Using the information and
documentation from the Final Acceptance meeting as a basis for
discussion; some typical questions to answer in this meeting include the

To what extent did the delivered product meet the specified requirements
of the project?

Was the customer satisfied with the end product?

Were cost budgets met?

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Was the schedule met?

Were risks identified and mitigated?

Did the project management methodology work?

What could be done to improve the process?

The project closeout meeting typically includes the following people:

Project team

Stakeholder representation—including external project oversight

Executive management

Maintenance and operations staff

Conduct Knowledge Transfer

All documentation that has anything to do with the product itself

(including design documents, schematics, technical manuals) that have
not already been turned over to the operations and maintenance
organizations must be completed and turned over to the project manager
for appropriate disposition.

Project Business Case

Project Plan, including the Project Scope Statement, Risk Management

Plan, etc.

Financial Records


Meeting notes

Status reports, issue tracking and change management documents

Contract file

Technical documents

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Documents, files, programs, tools, etc., placed under configuration


Other documents/information (e.g., project presentations, project audits)

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Film is a term that encompasses motion pictures as individual projects, as

well as the field in general. The origin of the name comes from the fact
that photographic film (also called film-stock) has historically been the
primary medium for recording and displaying motion pictures. Many
other terms exist - motion pictures, the silver screen, photoplays, the
cinema, picture shows, flicks - and commonly movies.

Films are produced by recording actual people and objects with cameras,
or by creating them using animation techniques and/or special effects.
They comprise a series of individual frames, but when these images are
shown rapidly in succession, the illusion of motion is given to the viewer.
Flickering between frames is not seen due to an effect known as
persistence of vision - whereby the eye retains a visual image for a
fraction of a second after the source has been removed.

Film is considered by many to be an important art form; films entertain,

educate, enlighten and inspire audiences. The visual elements of cinema
need no translation, giving the motion picture a universal power of

Any film can become a worldwide attraction, especially with the addition
of dubbing or subtitles that translate the dialogue. Films are also artifacts
created by specific cultures, which reflect those cultures, and, in turn,
affect them. Hence, the filmmaking production cycle consists of five
main stages:

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1. Development
2. Preproduction
3. Production
4. Post-production
5. Distribution

An entire production cycle typically has three parts. The first part
consists of development. The second part comprises preproduction and
production. The third part consists of post-production and

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Stage 1: Development of the Film

In the Development Stage of Film Making, an idea is fleshed out into a

viable script. The producer of the movie will find a story, which may be
from books, other films, true stories, original ideas, etc. Once the theme,
or underlying message, has been identified, a synopsis will be prepared.

• Step Outline: This is followed by a step outline, which breaks the

story down into one-paragraph scenes, concentrating on the
dramatic structure. A step outline is a detailed telling of a story
intended to be turned into a screenplay for a motion picture. The
step outline details every scene and beat of a screenplay`s story,
and often has indications for dialog and character interactions. The
scenes are often numbered for convenience. It is more detailed and
specific than either a treatment or an outline. It can also be an
extremely useful tool for a writer working on a spec script.

• Treatment: Next, a treatment is prepared. This is a 25 to 30 page

description of the story, its mood and characters, with little dialog
and stage direction, often containing drawings to help visualize the
key points. A treatment or more properly film treatment is a piece
of prose, typically the step between scene cards (index cards) and
the first draft of a screenplay for a motion picture. It is generally
longer and more detailed than an outline (or one page synopsis)
and shorter and less detailed than a step outline but it may include
details of directorial style that an outline omits. They read like a
short story. There are two types in this:

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1. Original Draft Treatment: Generally long and detailed. It`s

compiled of full scene outlines put together. (During the writing
2. Presentation Treatment: Generally the scene card
descriptions written out in order. These only have the essential
and important story events that make up the scenes. It`s the full
story in it`s simplest form. Usually starting with the Concept,
then the Theme then Character the detailed synopsis of about 4
- 8 pages of master scenes. Treatments are widely used within
the motion picture industry as selling documents, whereas
outlines are generally produced as part of the development

• Screenplay: The screenplay is then written over a period of

perhaps six months, and will be rewritten several times to
improve the dramatization, clarity, structure, characters, dialog,
and overall style. A screenplay or script is a blueprint for
producing a motion picture. A screenplay differs from a script in
that it is more specifically targeted at the visual, narrative arts,
such as film and television, whereas a script can involve a
blueprint of "what happens" in a comic, an advertisement, a
theatrical play and other "blueprinted" creations. The major
components of a screenplay are action and dialogue. The
characters, when first introduced in the screenplay, may also be
described visually. Screenplays differ from traditional literature
conventions in ways described below, and in not involving
emotion-related descriptions and other aspects of the story that
may not be visually apparent in the end-product. A script for a

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television program is sometimes called a teleplay. Someone who

writes screenplays is a screenwriter. The art of writing a screenplay
is known as screenwriting and is dealt with separately.

• Writing on Spec or Assignment: Screenplays can be written either

on "spec" or as assignment.

• Writing on assignment. Assignments are commissioned by

production companies or studios on the basis of pitches from

producers or writers, or literary properties they already own.
Most established writers do most of their work on assignment
and will only "spec" scripts which they think no-one will pay
them to write, or if they cannot find assignment work. An
assignment may be for an original screenplay, or for a
screenplay based on another work such as a novel, film, short
story, magazine article, non-fiction book or, increasingly,
computer game. It may also, however, be for a re-write of an
existing script, and in fact this is how a large proportion of
writers in the modern studio system make their living. Re-
writing scripts is an art in itself and an extremely lucrative one
at that.

• Spec Scripts: Spec scripts (short for speculative) are written

independently by screenwriters in hopes of optioning and

eventually outright selling them to producers or studios. The
writer`s agent will identify a number of prospective buyers
who may range from small independent producers to
executives working in the major studios, and attempt to build

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up `heat` under the script. The script is sent out

simultaneously to all the prospective buyers, usually to be
read over the weekend, in the hope of attracting bidding.

• The Development Process Once a studio has purchased or

commissioned a script, it goes through the process of revisions and
rewriting until all stakeholders are satisfied and ready to proceed.
It is not uncommon for a script to go through many, many drafts on
its journey to production. Very few scripts improve steadily with
each draft, and when a certain avenue has been exhausted the
writer will often be replaced and another brought in to do a re-
write. Occasionally it becomes impossible to satisfy all such
parties, and the project enters "development hell".

• The Shooting Script: A shooting script is a version of a script

from which a movie is actually shot; it includes scene numbers,
camera angles and certain directors` notes -- and it is generally
fiercely marked up by the script supervisor and other production
workers, while the writer`s draft is simply the skeleton around
which the production is built. Sometimes, it is far more practical
and economical to shoot some scenes consecutively on the same
day, even though the scenes appear in the original script far apart
from each other. In doing so the producer benefits the cost savings
related to renting the equipments for only a single day rather than
two different days. At other times, the benefit may be that the
location for the shoot is only available for a limited time in which
all the scenes must be shot, even though they are not consecutive

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in the original script. Thus, once again, the scenes will be

rearranged in the shooting script so that they may be shot
consecutively on the

same day. This is a main benefit of shooting scripts: they allow the
best possible utilization of all available resources.

Once a script is approved for production, and pre-production begins,

it is scene-numbered and page-locked. Scenes are numbered for easy
reference, and page-locking allows everyone to keep the same copy of
the script even if the script changes. Changes are supplied as colored
pages which people involved in production insert in their script, replacing
or adding to the pages already there. Since writing often goes on even
during production itself, most real shooting scripts are a rainbow of
gold, pink, blue, green and other colors.

• Transcripts: A screenplay is different from a transcript. A

transcript is simply a copy of what dialogue finally appeared
onscreen, without regard to the original script, the stage
directions or action. A full post-production transcript may also
include descriptions of the action on-screen, but since it is
generally not written by a professional writer but either a
production assistant or a fan, it may not be particularly entertaining
to read. Many published screenplays available at booksellers or
downloaded from the internet are in fact glorified post-production
transcripts rather than shooting scripts.

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A film distributor should be contacted at an early stage to assess the

likely market and hence financial success of the film. Distributors will
consider factors such as: the film genre, the target audience, the historical
success of similar films, the actors who might appear in the film and the
potential directors of the film. All these factors imply a certain attraction

of the film to a possible audience and hence the number of "bums on

seats" during the theatrical release. The movie pitch is then prepared and
presented to potential film financiers. If the pitch is successful and the
movie is given the "green light" then financial backing is offered,
typically from a major film studio, film council or independent investors.
A deal is negotiated and contracts are signed.

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Stage 2: Preproduction of the film

In preproduction of a film making, the movie is designed and planned.

The Production Company is created and a production office established.
The production is storyboarded and visualized with the help of
illustrators and concept artists. A production budget will also be drawn
up to cost the film. The Producer will hire the following pre-production

The director, who is primarily responsible for the acting in the movie and
managing the creative elements.

The assistant director manages the shooting schedule and logistics of the
production among other tasks.

The casting director finds actors for the parts in the script. This normally
requires an audition by the actor. Lead actors are carefully chosen and are
often based on the actor`s reputation or "star power."

The location manager finds and manages the film locations. Most
pictures are shot in the predictable environment of a studio sound stage
but occasionally outdoor sequences will call for filming on location.

The production manager manages the production budget and production

schedule. He or she also reports on behalf of the production office to the
studio executives or financiers of the film.

The director of photography (DOP) or cinematographer creates the

photography of the film. He or she cooperates with the director, director
of audiography (DOA) and assistant director (AD).

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The art director manages the art department, which makes production
sets, costumes and provides makeup & hair styling services.

The production designer creates the look and feel of the production sets,
costumes, make up and hairstyles, working with the art director to create
these elements.

The storyboard artist creates visual images to help the director and
production designer communicate their ideas to the production team.

The director of audiography (DOA) or sound director (SD) manages the

audio experience of a film. He or she cooperates with the director, DOP,
and AD.

The sound designer creates new sounds with the help of foley artists.

The composer creates new music.

The choreographer creates and coordinates the movement and dance -

typically for musicals. Some films also credit a fight choreographer

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Stage 3: Production of the film

Here the movie is actually created and shot. More crew will be recruited
at this production stage such as the property master, script supervisor,
assistant directors, production sound mixer, stills photographer, picture
editor, and sound editor. These are just the most common roles in
filmmaking and the production office will be free to create any unique
blend of roles to suit a particular film.

A typical day`s shooting begins with an assistant director following the

shooting schedule for the day. The film set is constructed and the props
made ready. The lighting is rigged; the camera and sound recording
equipment are set up. At the same time the actors are wardrobed in their
costumes and attend the hair and make-up departments. The actors
rehearse their script and blocking with the director. The picture and
sound crews then rehearse with the actors. Finally, the action is shot with
as many takes as the director sees fit.

Each “take” of a shot follows a slating procedure and is marked on a

clapperboard, which helps the editor keep track of the takes in post-
production. The clapperboard records the scene, take, director, producer,
date and name of the film written on the front, displayed for the camera.
The clapperboard also serves the necessary function of providing a
marker to sync up the film and the sound take. Sound is recorded on a
separate apparatus from the film and they must be synched up in post-

The director will then check to see if the shot was good or not. The script
supervisor, sound and camera teams mark every take as either good (G)
or not good (NG) on their respective report sheets. Every report sheet
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records special facts about each take. When shooting is finished for the
scene, the director declares a "wrap." The crew will "strike," or
dismantle, the set for that scene. The director approves the next day`s
shooting schedule and a daily progress report is sent to the production
office. This includes the report sheets from continuity, sound and camera
teams. Call sheets are distributed to the cast and crew to tell them when
and where to turn up the next shooting day.

For productions using traditional film, the day`s takes, known as rushes,
(film negative) are sent to the laboratory for processing overnight. Once
processed, they return from the laboratory as dailies (film positive) and
are viewed in the evening by the director, cast and crew. For productions
using digital technologies, shots are downloaded and organized on a
computer for display as dailies. When the entire film is in the can the
Production Office normally arranges a wrap party to thank all the cast
and crew for their efforts.

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Stage 4 :- Post-production of the film

Here the film is assembled by the Film Editor. The modern use of video
in the film-making process has resulted in two workflow variants: one
using entirely film, the other using a mixture of film and video:

Film Workflow: The original camera film (negative) is developed and

copied to a one-light. A one-light workprint is a cinematographic term
used to describe a timed workprint made using a single setting of the
three lights (red, green and blue) used to make a colour film print. Since a
fully timed print requires the presence of a skilled person called a colour
timer (US) or film grader (UK), a one-light print is more economical for
printing dailies (positive) from rushes (negative).Cinematographers often
require one-light Workprints to better judge their film exposures. Work
print (positive) for editing with a mechanical editing machine. An edge
code is recorded onto film to locate the position of picture frames. An
edge code or edge number is a number printed on film for identification
or information purposes. There are three types of edge numbering:

Latent image edge numbering - applied by the film manufacturer

and visible only on processed film

Visible ink image edge numbering - applied by the film

manufacturer and visible on raw stock and processed film

Laboratory image edge numbering - applied by the laboratory

after film processing. Edge codes are also known as edge number, code
number, footage number, negative number, ink number, key number, key
edge number or Key Kode.

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Video Workflow: The original camera negative is developed and

telecined to video for editing with computer editing software. A time-
code is recorded onto video tape to locate the position of picture frames.
The first job of the film editor is to build a rough cut taken from
sequences (or scenes) based on individual "takes" (shots). The purpose of
the rough cut is to select and order the best shots. The next step is to
create a fine cut by getting all the shots to flow smoothly in a seamless
story. Finding the perfect transition point between shots is called
"trimming". After the fine cut has been screened and approved by the
director and producer the picture is "locked", meaning no further changes
are made.

Next, the editor creates a negative cut list (using Edge Code) or an edit
decision list (using Time code) either manually or automatically. These
edit lists identify the source and the picture frame of each shot in the fine
cut. Once the picture is locked, the film passes out of the hands of the
editor to the sound department to build-up the sound track. The voice
recordings are synchronized and the final sound mix is created. The
sound mix combines sound effects, background sounds, foleys, ADR,
dialogue, and music. The sound track and picture are combined together,
resulting in a low quality Answer Print (positive) of the movie. There
are now two possible workflows to create the high quality Release
Print (positive) depending on the recording medium:

Film Workflow: The cut list that describes the film-based Answer
Print is used to cut the Original Color Negative (OCN) and create a color

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timed copy called the Color Master Positive (positive) or Inter-positive

(positive) print. For all subsequent steps this effectively becomes the

master copy. The next step is to create a one-light copy called the Color
Duplicate Negative (negative) or Inter-negative (negative) print. It is
from this that many copies of the final theatrical Release Print (positive)
are made. Copying from the Inter-negative is much simpler than copying
from the Inter-positive directly because it is a one-light process; it also
reduces wear-and-tear on the Inter-positive print.

Video Workflow: The edit decision list that describes the video-
based Answer Print is used to edit the Original Color Tape (OCT) and
create a high quality Color Master Tape. For all subsequent steps this
effectively becomes the master copy. The next step uses a Film Recorder
to read the Color Master Tape and copy each video frame directly to film
to create the final theatrical Release Print (positive). Finally the film is
previewed, normally by the target audience, and any feedback may result
in further shooting or edits to the film.

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Stage 5 :- Distribution of the film

This is the final stage, where the movie is released to theaters or,
occasionally, to DVD or VHS. The movie is duplicated as required for
theatrical distribution. Press kits, posters, and other advertising materials
are published and the movie is advertised. The movie will usually be
launched with a launch party, press releases, and interviews with the
press, showings of the film at a press preview, and film festivals. It is also
common to create a Web site to accompany the movie. The movie will
play at selected theaters and the DVD is typically released a few months
later. The distribution rights for the movie and DVD are also usually sold
for worldwide distribution. Any profits are divided between the
distributor and the production company.

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To conclude I would like to say that project management requires greater
amount of skill and acuuracy, efficiency from the very first stage itself.
Even if one stage is wrongly done or accessed it will impact the whole
project. Each and every stage is very much crucialfor any project to be
Also , I think the following diagram is enough to give over all overview
of project management in the film making.

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9. Barnouw, E., & Krishnaswamy, S. (2nd Ed.). Indian film. New

York: Oxford
University Press.
10. The Indian Entertainment Industry - Strategy & Vision,
FICCI, March 2008
11. Bollywood Cinema: A Critical Genealogy, Vijay Mishra
Asian Studies Institute Victoria University of Wellington
12. HB Review, an article on Hollywood Vs Bollywood by Ashni

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