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Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia

September 4-5, 2014

ICEIM 2014
2014 3rd International Conference on Engineering and Innovative Materials
ICEES 2014
2014 4th International Conference on Energy and Environmental Science
ICMAA 2014
2014 International Conference on Mechanical, Aeronautical and Automotive Engineering



















































Dear Participants,
Welcome to IACSIT 2014 Conferences in Kuala Lumpur! We are confident that over the two days you will get
the theoretical grounding, practical knowledge, and personal contacts that will help you build a long-term,
profitable and sustainable communication among researchers and practitioners in a wide variety of scientific
areas with a common interest in Engineering and Innovative Materials, Energy and Environmental Science,
Mechanical, Aeronautical and Automotive Engineering.

For the conferences of ICEIM 2014, ICEES 2014 and ICMAA 2014, we had received more than 220
submissions, and around 80 excellent papers were accepted for presentation. Congratulations for these

We wish to thank our outstanding keynote speakers Dr Muhammad Yahaya and Dr. R. Sivakumar for sharing
their deep insights on future challenges and trends in Engineering and Innovative Materials, Energy and
Environmental Science, Mechanical, Aeronautical and Automotive Engineering.

A special thanks to all the researchers and students who with their work and participate in the conference.

Hope you enjoy the conference, the food, the hospitality, and the beautiful and charming environment of the
city of Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia!

IACSIT Committee


Conference Agenda Overview

Thursday, Sept. 04, 2014

10 :00 am to 5:00 pm

Duta Room( Level 1)

Arrival and Registration

Friday, Sept. 05, 2014

9:00am to 9:15am

Opening Ceremonies

Keynote Address:
9:15am to 10:15am

Dr Muhammad Yahaya
Emeritus Professor in School of Applied Physics, UKM

10:15am to 10:30am

Group Photo & Coffee Break

10:40am to 11:40am

Dr. R. Sivakumar B.Engg., M.Engg., Ph.D

RMK Engineering College, Tamilnadu, India

11:50am to 12:40am


( Level 2)

Keynote Address:


Session 1: Advanced Materials Engineering and Processing

Duta Room( Level 1)

Technologies A 13 presentations

1:00pm to 3:50pm

3:50pm to 4:00pm

Tembusu 1
Engineering 14 presentations
( Level 2)
Session 3: Intelligent Control and Civil Engineering 12
Tembusu 2
( Level 2)
Coffee Break
Session 4: Advanced Materials Engineering and Processing Duta Room( Level 1)
Session 2: General Mechanical Engineering and Electrical

Technologies B 13 presentations

4:00pm to 6:50pm

Session 5: Advanced Materials Engineering and Processing

Technologies C 13 presentations
Session 6: Clean Energy, Environment Pollution Assessment
and Control 17 presentations

7: 00pm to 8:30pm

Tembusu 1
( Level 2)
Tembusu 2
( Level 2)



Instructions for Oral Presentations

Devices Provided by the Conference Organizer:
Laptops (with MS-Office & Adobe Reader)
Projectors & Screen
Laser Sticks

Materials Provided by the Presenters:

PowerPoint or PDF files
Duration of each Presentation (Tentatively):
Regular Oral Session: about 15 Minutes of Presentation including 2-3
Minutes of Q&A

Plenary Speech: 55 Minutes of Presentation, 5 Minutes of Q&A

*Certificate of Participation can be collected in front of the registration counter.
*The organizer will not provide accommodation, so we suggest you make an early reservation.
*One best presentation will be selected from each session. The best one will be announced when each
session ends, and will be awarded by the session chair after each session in the meeting room.
*The attendee should provide the authors authorization or attendees passport ID when the attendee is
none of the authors.

Conference Secretariat Contact:

ICEIM 2014: Ms Emma Wang (;
ICEES 2014: Ms Rebecca Yang(
ICMAA2014:Ms Carrie Zhou (
Tel: +1-661-888-4278; +86-28-86528298



ICEIM 2014

2014 3rd International Conference on Engineering and Innovative Materials

ICEES 2014

2014 4th International Conference on Energy and Environmental Science

ICMAA 2014

2014 International Conference on Mechanical, Aeronautical and Automotive Engineering



All accepted papers of ICEIM 2014 will be published in the Advanced Materials Research Journal (ISSN:
1022-6680) as a special issue.
*Advanced Materials Research (ISSN: 1022-6680) is Indexed by Elsevier: SCOPUS and Ei
Compendex (CPX) Cambridge Scientific Abstracts (CSA), Chemical Abstracts
(CA), Google and Google Scholar, ISI (ISTP, CPCI, Web of Science),
Institution of Electrical Engineers (IEE), etc.

All accepted papers of ICEES 2014 will be recommended to be published into one of the journals below:
Journal of Clean Energy Technologies (ISSN: 1793-821X, DOI: 10.7763/JOCET)
Indexed by Chemical Abstracts Services (CAS), Electronic Journals Library, EBSCO, Ulrich's Periodicals Directory,
BE Data, Google Scholar, ProQuest and DOAJ, and sent to be reviewed by Ei Compendex and ISI Proceedings.
International Journal of Environmental Science and Development (ISSN: 2010-0264, DOI: 10.7763/IJESD)
Indexed by Chemical Abstracts Services (CAS), CABI, DOAJ, Ulrich Periodicals Directory, Crossref, ProQuest, and
sent to be reviewed by Ei Compendex and ISI Proceedings.

All accepted papers of ICMAA 2014 will be recommended to be published into one of the journals below:
Journal of Automation and Control Engineering; (ISSN: 2301-3702,DOI: 10.12720/joace)
Indexed by EI (INSPEC, IET), Ulrich's Periodicals Directory, Google Scholar, EBSCO, Engineering & Technology
Digital Library and Electronic Journals Digital Library.
International Journal of Materials, Mechanics and Manufacturing (ISSN: 1793-8198, DOI: 10.7763/IJMMM)
Indexed by Chemical Abstracts Services (CAS), Engineering & Technology Digital Library, EBSCO, ProQuest,
Crossref, Ulrich's Periodicals Directory, DOAJ, and Electronic Journals Library .


Cover Art:

Sponsored by:


Synthesis and Application of ZnO Nanorod Arrays

Dr Muhammad Yahaya
Emeritus Professor in School of Applied Physics, UKM Malaysia
9:15 am, Friday, 5th Sept, 2014--Tembusu--(Level 2)

One-dimensional ZnO semiconductor nanomaterials have been extensively studied due to their peculiar
properties which are different from bulk structure. ZnO has a direct band gap of 3.37 eV at room
temperature and large exciton binding energy and biocompatible hence its nanowires and nanorods have
been regarded as one of the most promising materials for nanoscale application in optoelectronic devices
in the ultraviolet (UV) region such as ultraviolet laser diodes, optical detectors and gas sensor. ZnO
nanowires and nanorods have been synthesized by varieties of different techniques such as pulsed laser
deposition, magnetron sputtering and sol-gel. Each method has its own advantages and weaknesses but
the focus is to optimize the preparation parameters.

In this paper we review the preparation of nanorod

arrays of ZnO and highlight the application of ZnO in Photocatalytic, sensor and other applications.

Dr Muhammad Yahaya is an Emeritus Professor of Physics at Universiti Kebangsaan. Dr Muhammad
Received his Ph.D at Monash University in 1979 and Drs from ITB, Indonesia in 1973. Dr Muhammad has
35 years of teaching and research experience with Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, Brown University, USA,
Monash University, Australia. He was appointed Head of Physics Department (74-79), Deputy Dean,
Center of Postgraduate studies (1994-1999), Director, Research Management Centre, (1999-02) Director,
Centre of Academic Advancement, (02-07). Dr Muhammad maintains a diverse research interest including
thin films, electronic property of metals, solar energy and computer in physics communication. Dr
Muhammad holds membership to various organizations and institutions. He is actively involved in Physics
and Science Terminology, Writing Malay language Text book in Physics. Dr Muhammad is currently a
member of editorial board, UKM . He is currently the president, Malaysian Solid State Science and
Technology, Fellow Malaysian Institute of Physics , member IEEE and member Malaysia Materials Science.
Dr. Muhammad has received many awards for his academic and professional excellence. He received
commonwealth Scholarship and Fellowship plan to pursue his Ph.D (1975) DAAD -German Fellowship
(1984), Fullbright fellowship (1984-1985), JSPS Fellowship and Associate member of ICTP, Italy, Fellow,
Academy Science Malaysia (2006-now), KMN (1995) Anugerah KMN (1995),Tokoh Ilmuan MABBIM
(1997),Award, Recognition of Service UKM (1999), ANS- Negeri Sembilan(2004), Award Prominent
Physics Figure UPM (2005)- 100 years world year of physics, DSPN (Dato Penang (2007).


Innovative Biomaterials
Dr. R. Sivakumar
B. Engg., M. Engg., Ph. D,
RMK Engineering College, Tamilnadu, India
10:40am, Friday, 5th Sept, 2014--Tembusu--(Level 2)

Biomaterials design has evolved from passive constructs that mimic the structural and mechanical
characteristics of native tissues to bioactive constructs that incorporate instructive signals to the scaffold
and offer control over cellular functions. To achieve this, combination of Natural and synthetic biomaterials
that closely imitate native extracellular matrix assemblies with novel fictionalization strategies to improve
properties such as mechanical characteristics or efficiency of cellular uptake to modulate cellular functions
and facilitate functional neotissue formation. Monofunctional transglutaminase and multifunctional
polymeric systems have been designed and developed as means of anchoring therapeutic molecules onto
scaffolds. In addition, hollow nano- and microspheres are employed as vehicles for encapsulation and
subsequent localized and sustained release of bioactive molecules at the site of the injury.

Professor Sivakumar is a Professor and Head of Department of Electronics and Communication Engineering
at RMK Engineering College, Tamilnadu, India. He has been teaching in the Electronics and Communication
field since 1997. He obtained his Masters degree and PhD from College of Engineering Guindy, Anna
University, Chennai. His research interests include Bio Signal Processing, Medical Image Processing,
wireless body sensor networks and VLSI. He has published over 22 journal and 35 conference papers over
the last several years.

He has taught a wide variety of Electronics courses including Digital Image

Processing, Multimedia Compression Techniques, VLSI Design, Medical Electronics and Electronic Circuits.
Dr.Siva is a life member of the Indian Society of Technical Education, Senior Member of IACSIT and a
member of IEEE. Dr.Siva has been invited to Chair and speak at various conferences; more recently, he
was Conference Chair at the ICCTS 2012 in Delhi & ICIAE 2012 in Bangalore.


Detailed Schedule
Thursday, September 4th

Duta Room ( Level 1)

Arrival and Registration

1000 1200
1300 1700

After sign, you will collect your conference package, including:
Original Receipt
Journal (Only for Author Attendee)
Representative / Pass Card with Tie
Printed Program
Lunch Coupon
Dinner Coupon
*Participation Certificate (collected from Session Chair after the presentation)
Conference Souvenir
Computer Bag


Please check on all these materials as soon as you get the package; if any of them is not included in the
package, please let us know at once; If any of them gets lost after the registration, no additional one
would be provided. Your understanding will be appreciated!

Each regular registration covers only one package. Additional package will be charged.

Some attendees may arrive on Sep. 5th, kindly be noted that you can register at the registration desk
from 9 am onwards.



Friday Morning, September 5th

Opening Ceremony

Duta Room( Level 1)

Opening Ceremonies

9:00am to 9:15am

9:15am to 10:15am

Dr Muhammad Yahaya
Emeritus Professor in School of Applied Physics, UKM Malaysia

Plenary Speech 1:
Synthesis and Application of ZnO Nanorod Arrays
Dr Muhammad Yahaya
Emeritus Professor in School of Applied Physics, UKM Malaysia

10:15am to 10:30am

Group Photo & Coffee Break

Plenary Speech 2:
Innovative Biomaterials
10:40am to 11:40am

Dr. R. Sivakumar,
B. Engg., M. Engg., Ph. D
RMK Engineering College, Tamilnadu, India

11:50pm12:40pm Lunch Time


Caf@Lanson (Lobby)

Please be noted that lunch coupon is necessary for entering the restaurant.
After lunch, 15 minutes for you to have a rest. Please arrive on time to the conference
room by 12:50 am. Thank you!



Friday Afternoon, September 5th

-PAPER SESSIONSSession 1: Advanced Materials Engineering and Processing Technologies A

Chair: Dr. Md. Hasanuzzaman, University of Malaya, Malaysia

13 presentations
Time: 1:00pm to3:50pm
Venue: Duta Room( Level 1)


Optimization of Multi-Pass Pocket Milling Parameter using Ant Colony Optimization

M. F. F Ab Rashid, W. S. W. Harun, S. A. C. Ghani, N. M. Z. Nik Mohamed and A. N. Mohd Rose
Universiti Malaysia Pahang, Malaysia
AbstractIn material removal process, milling is one of the oldest processes that were introduced to remove unwanted
material using rotated cutting tool. Although a lot of research to improve the process has been done, the process
improvement is not stopping there because of evolving new material, method and technology. This paper presents a
study to optimize multi-pass pocket milling parameter using Ant Colony Optimization (ACO). Two objectives were set
in this work; obtaining optimum surface roughness value (R a ), and minimize machining time (Tm), while the
independent variables were spindle speed, feedrate and depth of cut. The numerical experiment confirm that the ACO is
having better performance compare with other algorithms (including Genetic Algorithm) for this particular problem.
Moreover, result from ACO algorithm able to meet required machining specification.


FTIR and Electrical Studies of Hexanoyl Chitosan-Based Nanocomposite Polymer Electrolytes

F. H. Muhammad, A. F. M. Fadzil, and Tan Winie
Universiti Teknologi MARA, Malaysia
AbstractFilms of hexanoyl chitosan-based polymer electrolytes were prepared using solution casting technique. The
interactions between hexanoyl chitosan-lithium perchlorate (LiClO4) and dimethyl carbonate (DMC)-lithium perchlorate
(LiClO4) were investigated using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). The FTIR results showed that there is
a possible complexation between the electron donor of hexanoyl chitosan and DMC with lithium salt due to the shifting
in the wavenumber and changes in the intensity of the infrared bands. The obtained spectroscopic data has been
correlated with the conductivity performance of hexanoyl chitosan-based polymer electrolyte. The ionic conductivity
was increased with addition of filler TiO2 and plasticizer DMC to the electrolyte system.


Solidification Behaviour of a H21 Tool Steel

Meilinda Nurbanasari, Panos Tsakiropoulos, and Eric J. Palmiere
Institut Teknologi Nasional, Bandung, Indonesia
AbstractSolidification behaviour of a H21 tool steel has been studied. The aim of this work is to give better
understanding of the as cast microstructure of the steel.

The investigated H21 tool steel was made using induction

vacuum furnace with air cooling. The microstructure observation was carried out using optical and electron microscopy.
X ray diffraction and nano hardness were also used for phase and carbide identification. The results show that the as cast


microstructure consisted of ferrite and coarse primary M6C carbide that is rich in tungsten. The nano hardness of
ferrite was 5.1 0.3 GPa and there was inhomogeneity in as cast microstructure, which is indicated by the nanohardness
values from bulk grain to grain boundary precipitates varied between 4.8 to 8.9 GPa. Comparison between prediction
and experimental results shows that the calculated phase diagram was not in agreement with the solidification
microstructure of the H21 tool steel.


The Breakdown of Carbide Network in a H23 Tool Steel by Hot Axisymmetric Compression
Meilinda Nurbanasari, Panos Tsakiropoulos, and Eric J. Palmiere
Institut Teknologi Nasional, Bandung, Indonesia
AbstractThe effects of hot axisymmetric compression to break down the primary carbide network of the H23 tool
steels were studied. This current study only focused on one strain rate of 0.01 s-1. The samples were deformed at 3
different temperatures (1000, 1050 and 1100 oC) with solutioning temperatures 1100 and 1250 oC, respectively.
Afterwards, the samples were cooled by water quenching.

The techniques used in this current study for investigation

were the optical and electron microscopes and Vickers hardness test. The results show that hot axisymmetric
compression had broken down the primary carbide network in the direction perpendicular to the compression axis and
the carbides became finer. Although the highest hardness (274 HV) was achieved after solutioning at 1250 oC, followed
by deformation at 1000 oC, however the microstructure analysis indicated that the optimum hot axisymmetric
compression condition was solutioning at 1250 oC and deformation at 1000 oC.


A Study Of LiMn(2-X)FexO4 Cathodic Nano Material For Lithium-Ion Batteries

A. F. M. Fadzil and F. H. Muhammad
UiTM Puncak Alam Campus, Malaysia
AbstractLiMn1.5Fe0.5O4 is synthesized using sol-gel method and annealed at 8500C for 24 hours. It is then
characterized using X-ray diffraction (XRD) and charge discharge analysis. The bulk material are then proceed to further
grinding to become nanosize. The nano sample is then characterized using XRD and charge discharge performance, and
the specific capacities of the two materials are compared. Nano sample of LiMn1.5Fe0.5O4 shows higher specific
capacity which is 160.16 mAhg-1 compares to the bulk which gives only 128.663mAhg-1. This shows that with smaller
particle size, the battery performance has improved in terms of its capacity.

Synthesis of C-2-Ethoxycarbonylmethoxyphenyl Calix[4]Resorcinarene Using Salicylaldehyde as

Basic Material and its Aplplication as Adsorbent of Pb(II) Metal Cation
Putri Widya Mulya, Jumina, Dwi Siswanta, and Budiana I Gusti M. Ngurah
Gadjah Mada University, Indonesia
AbstractSynthesis of C-2-ethoxycarbonylmethoxyphenyl calix[4]resorcinarene and its application for adsorption of


Pb(II) metal cation have been carried out. C-2-ethoxycarbonylmethoxyphenyl calix[4]resorsinarene was produced in
three steps i.e (1) esterification of 2-chloro acetic acid, (2) reaction ethyl 2-chloro acetate with salicylaldehide in to yield
2-ethoxycarbonylmethoxy benzaldehyde, and (3) reaction 2-ethoxycarbonylmethoxy benzaldehyde with resorcinol in
acidic condition to yield C-2-ethoxycarbonylmethoxyphenyl calix[4]resorcinarene. The prepared compounds were
characterized by FTIR, 1H-NMR dan 13C-NMR spectrophotometers. The adsorption kinetic of Pb(II) adsorption in
batch followed pseudo 2nd order kinetic model. The isotherm study showed that the adsorption followed Langmuir


The Structural Application of Bio-composites: A Comparison of Mechanical Properties between

Bio-composites and Glass Reinforced Composites


Z. A. Rasid
Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, Malaysia
AbstractGreen composite or bio-composite refers to a type of composite materials that consists of natural fibres and
bio-polymers as its constituents. The green composite has generated great interest in research world and industries due to
its advantages of renewability, biodegradability and sustainability. However due to its low mechanical properties,
bio-composites has limited structural application, the area that is dominated by glass reinforced composite. As such the
aim of the numerous researches on the bio-composite is to prepare green composite to have properties that can replace
GRP as structural components. This paper is to compare mechanical properties of bio-composite taken from vast
literature and the glass reinforced polymer composite. The properties under consideration include the tensile strength and
modulus, flexural strength and modulus, elongation at break and the impact strength. It was found that with careful
consideration on the chosen types of fibres and matrix, the treatment given to fibres and matrix and the manufacturing
process, bio-composites can be at par or better than the glass mat thermoplastic composite.


In situ Deposition of Conducting Polymer onto Pineapple Leaf Fiber

Saiful Izwan Abd Razak, Noor Fadzliana Ahmad Sharif, Nadirul Hasraf Mat Nayan , and Ida Idayu
Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, Malaysia.
AbstractThis paper reports the properties of newly developed electrically conductive natural fiber made up of
pineapple leaf fiber (PALF) and conducting polyaniline (PANI). The results revealed that the in situ coating of PANI (1
wt.%) showed minimal reduction on the PALF tensile strength. Percolation concentration of the PANI was observed at 5
wt.% and its corresponding electron micrograph showed good polymer deposition with the characteristic globular PANI
formation plus no fiber damages. This fiber material has potentials for many applications such as composites,
electroactive fillers and conductive sheets.


Synthesis and Characterization of Octaethoxycalix[4]arene for Heavy Metal Cations Adsorbent

Budiana I Gusti M. Ngurah, Jumina, Chairil Anwar, and Mustofa
Universitas Nusa CendanaKupang, Indonesia
AbstractSynthesis, characterization and evaluation of octaethoxycalix[4]arene as the heavy metal cations adsorbent
has been carried out. The synthesis of the target molecule was conducted in five steps. The first step was synthesis of
2,4-diethoxy benzaldehide via Riemer-Tieman reaction of resorcinol and chloroform, followed by o-ethylaton, reduction
using NaBH4 and ciclytation using AlCl3 catalyst. The characterization was performed by IR, 1H-NMR, 13C-NMR and
Mass spectrometry. In this research the study of adsorption was also investigated. The product was obtained as white
solid, melting point at 205oC-207oC with 69.74% yield. The adsorption result showed that optimum pH of the Cr3+ was
7 and the optimum pH of the Pb2+ and Cd2+ were 5. The percentage of Pb2+ and Cd2+cations which removed by
octaethoxycalix[4]arene were 55.556% and 89.895% respectively. When the pH was 7, adsorption Cr3+ almost 100%.
Equilibrium adsorption data of octaethoxycalix[4]arene was carried out at 298 K. Two isotherm models (Freundlich and
Langmuir) were tested for modeling the adsorption isotherms. The Langmuir isoterm model showed more applicable
than Freundlich. The Adsorption of octaethoxycalix[4]arene was determined on acidity where optimum adsorption
happened in bonderline acidity level. The study of kinetic adsorption showed that octaetoxycalix[4]arene followed the
kinetic model of Ho. The adsorption capacity (mol/g) and adsorption energy (kJ/mol) octaetoxycalix[4]arene adsorbent
in adsorption of Cr(III), Pb(II) and


Cd(II) were (211.30: 26.46), (12.07: 26.64) and (67.730:26.46).

Electroless Deposition of Copper Nanostructures in Aqueous Solution



Michael Tan, Lance de Jesus, Kathy Lois Amores Ellaine Datu, and Mary Donnabelle Balela
University of the Philippines, the Philippines.
AbstractThis paper reports a simple and low cost process for the synthesis of various Cu nanostructures by electroless
deposition. Oxidation-stable Cu nanoparticles and nanowires were prepared in aqueous solution in the presence of
protective agents. When gelatin is used as protective agent, only spherical Cu nanoparticles with a mean diameter in the
range of 37 to 44 nm are formed in the solution. Smaller nanoparticles are prepared at a higher concentration of gelatin.
When ethylene diamine is used instead of gelatin, one-dimensional growth of Cu nanowires is favored. Varying the
amount of EDA and gelatin provides morphological control over the nanostructures.


Zinc Oxide Nanostructures Formed by Wet Oxidation of Zn Foil

Christian Mark Pelicano, Zainovia Lockman, and Mary Donnabelle Balela
University of the Philippines, the Philippines
AbstractZinc oxide (ZnO) nanostructures were successfully grown by wet oxidation of zinc (Zn) foil in water at 90 C
for 2 to 8 h. The effect of etching the Zn foil before oxidation treatment on the morphology of ZnO nanostructures was
investigated. Hemispherical structures of ZnO nanowires, nanorods and nanotubes were produced on etched Zn foil at
different oxidation times.
grains after etching.

The growth of hemispherical structures was possibly due to the formation of pits along the

Without etching, relatively aligned nanorods were formed after wet oxidation with the structure

becoming coarser after longer oxidation time. The anisotropic growth ZnO nanostructures on the surface of Zn foil by
wet oxidation could be due to the inherent growth habit of ZnO crystal.


Electroless Deposition of Silver Nanoparticles and Nanowires in Ethylene Glycol

Nathaniel De Guzman, Aurelia Mechilina, and Mary Donnabelle Balela
University of the Philippines, the Philippines
AbstractSilver (Ag) nanostructures, such as nanoparticles and nanowires, were formed by electroless deposition in
ethylene glycol at 160 oC for 1h. Polyvinyl pyrrolidone (PVP) were used both as a capping agent and structure-directing
agent to prevent agglomeration and promote the growth of Ag nanowires. The effect of its molecular weight and
concentration on the morphology of Ag was examined by X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy
(SEM). XRD analysis showed peaks corresponding to the face-centered cubic (FCC) structure of metallic silver.


low PVP molecular weight of 10,000, spherical Ag nanoparticles with a mean diameter of about 170 nm were formed.
A mixture of Ag nanoparticles and nanowires were produced when the molecular weight was increased to 55,000 and

Synthesis of Zeolite A from Coal Fly Ash by Alkali Fusion and Hydrothermal
Jumaeri, Sri Juari Santosa,Sutarno, and Eko Sri Kunarti
Semarang State University, Indonesia


AbstractZeolite A has been synthesized by a modified alkali fusion followed hydrothermal process.


was performed at a temperature of 90 C for 4 h in a stainless steel reactor. Characterization of the synthesized zeolite
was conducted using various techniques, i.e. X-ray Diffraction (XRD), Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), Fourier
Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR), Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) and measurement of cation exchange capacity
(CEC). The characterization results showed that zeolite A was selectively obtained by this method. The diffract gram,
SEM image, and IR spectra of the synthesized zeolite A showed a similarity with the commercially available zeolit A.



Session 2: General Mechanical Engineering and Electrical Engineering

Chair: Prof. D. S. Robinson Smart, Karunya University, India

14 presentations
Time: 1:00pm to3:50pm
Venue: Tembusu 1 (Level 2)

Equilibrium and Kinetic Studies of Benzene and Toluene Adsorption onto Microwave Irradiated
Coconut Shell Activated Carbon
Nasri Noor Shawal, Mohammed Jibril, Ahmad Zaini Muhammad Abbas, Hamza Usman Dadum, mohd.
Zain husna and Ani Farid Nasir
Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, Malaysia


AbstractConcern about environmental protection has increased over the years and the presence of volatile organic
compounds (VOCs) in water poses a threat to the environment. In this study, coconut shell activated carbon (PHAC) was
produced by potassium hydroxide activation via microwave for benzene and toluene removal. Equilibrium data were fitted
to Langmuir, Freundlich and Tempkin isotherms with all the models having R2 > 0.94. The equilibrium data were best
fitted by Langmuir isotherm, with maximum adsorption capacity of 212 and 238mg/g for benzene and toluene,
respectively. The equilibrium parameter (RL) falls between 0 and 1 confirming the favourability of the Langmuir model.
Pseudo-second-order kinetic model best fitted the kinetic data. The PHAC produced can be used to remediate water
polluted by VOCs.

Kinetics of CO2 Adsorption on Microwave Palm Shell Activated Carbon

Nasri Noor Shawal, Hamza Usman Dadum, Saidina Amin NorAishah, Mohammed Jibril, Ahmed
Murtala Musa, and Mohd Zain Husna
Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, Malaysia
AbstractActivated carbon was prepared from palm shell by pyrolysis followed by K2CO3 assisted microwave heating.


Effects of temperature on adsorption capability and kinetics of the sorbent towards CO2 adsorption was also studied. The
results indicated that, the amount CO2 adsorbed decrease as the adsorption temperature increases. The kinetic data were
obtained using a static volumetric method at 303.15, 343.15, 378.15, and 443.15 K and at pressures up to 4 bar.


kinetics of CO2 adsorption on the activated carbons was examined using the pseudofirst-order equation and
pseudosecond-order equations. Weber and Morris intraparticle diffusion model was applied to examine the mechanism of
the adsorption system. Lowest CO2 uptake recorded was 0.3 mmol/g at 443.15 K and 0.5 bar while the highest was
7.45mmol/g obtained at 303.15 K and 4 bar. The kinetics followed pseudosecond-order model. Pore diffusion is not the
sole rate diffusion mechanism.


Experimental Investigation of Effect of Rotary Abrasive Jet Nozzle on Coating Removal Rate and
Surface Finish
D. S. Robinson Smart, D. P. Rufus , and Lijin George


Karunya University, Coimbatore, India.
AbstractAn abrasive jet machine can be used effectively for removing the existing coating on the surfaces .A rotating,
variable angle abrasive jet nozzle has been designed to produce a swirling abrasive jet .The horizontal and the vertical

angles of the abrasive jet nozzle has been adjusted as 50 ,40 respectively[1] . Investigations have been

carried out to evaluate the effect of Garnet and SiO2 abrasives and the speed of the rotation of the nozzle on coating
removal rate. Coated Mild steel, Galvanized Iron and Aluminium were used as specimens for investigations. The rotary
abrasive jet nozzle provides the swirling abrasive jet and intensifying the

shearing action as the speed increases

gradually and reached up to 355 rpm. The surface roughness of the coating removed samples for various rotary speed of
the abrasive jet nozzle were observed and measured. The surface roughness was found to be more closely associated with
the speed of rotation of the abrasive jet nozzle.

Development of Grounding Device to Reduce Current Variation in Submerged Arc Welding Process for
Pressure Vessel Fabrication
Supphachan Rajsiri, Kanokporn Penpondee and Sittiphun Tuntawiroon
Mahidol University, Thailand
AbstractThis study developed a device to solve welding problems that occur in the manufacturing of a pressure vessel
for cryogenic applications under the ASME Section VIII Division 1. The cylindrical body of the vessel was assembled


with short pre-fabricated cylinders and caps using submerged arc welding.
mounted to the top half of the spherical cap.

The rotatable grounding electrode was

However, the relatively long distance between the welding and the electrode

grounding locations, especially in longer vessels, restricts the flow and the distribution of the electrical current.
Radiographic testing identified lack of fusion as the major reason for the restricted flow of the electrical current.
also caused additional work on welding repair.

To address this issue that compromised both top-outer and bottom-inner

vertical positions for circumference welding, a new grounding device was developed to reduce the flow distance.
electrical conductivity was also improved through a series of welding tests.
average welding current increased arc stability.



The investigation showed that a greater

Radiographic testing confirmed that the vessels were welded completely

suggesting the grounding device utility for increasing welding joint soundness of the circumference weldment.

Structural Response of Offshore Blast Walls under Accidental Explosion

Shaikh Atikur Rahman, Zubair Imam Syed, Kurian V. John and M. S Liew
Universiti Teknologi PETRONAS, Malaysia
AbstractAdequate blast resistant barriers are requisite to protect personnel and critical systems from the consequences of
an accidental explosion and subsequent fire. Many of the blast walls currently installed in offshore structures were
designed using simplified calculation approaches like Single Degree of Freedom models (SDOF) as recommended in


many design guidelines. Over simplified and 17ehavior17 explosion load used for response calculation and design of
blast wall can lead to inadequate or overdesign of offshore blast walls. Due to lack of presence of a well-accepted design
guidelines supported by extensive study, the protection provided by the conventional blast walls for offshore structures can
be inadequate. In-depth understanding of structural response of blast walls under different blast loading can provide better
design practice of blast walls for adequate protection. In this study, structural responses of conventional offshore blast
walls were investigated. A computation fluid dynamics (CFD) approach was used to predict effect of different explosions
on the barrier walls and non-linear finite elements analyses were performed to study the 17ehavior of the blast-loaded
walls under different explosions. Effect of different parameters related to blast wall and accidental explosions were
investigated to gain detail understanding of structural 17ehavior of typical steel blast wall.


Experimental durability assessment of heavy vehicle structures
Hui-Jun Yi and Yong-cheol Shin
Hyundai Rotem Company, South Korea


AbstractThis paper presents proposing the experimental procedure and method for assessing the durability of
special-purpose vehicles. The proposed test method was used for durability analysis with regard to the effects of dynamic
loads that are generated on an independent vehicle suspension system and on welded structures. Furthermore, selected
partial structure and simplified the load histories block, calculated by dynamic finite element analysis were used. It is
proved that this new method significantly reduces the time and expense consumed by practical vehicle durability
assessment during structural changes and development of series vehicles in the initial design stage.

A Study of Efficiency Eccentric Drilling-Milling Chuck

Hasan Al Dabbas
Philadelphia University, Jordan
AbstractThe articles describe the design and results of study of specifications of a drill and milling chuck.
The results of the study eccentric chuck rounds with the key in static and during cutting. A feature of the chuck used in
manual, pneumatic and electric drills drilling, CNC milling, multi-purpose, woodworking and other machines, the


existence of two kinematics chains, it possible to obtain high gain and reinforce the rigidity of the cutting tool with a
cylindrical shank. This demonstrates the effectiveness of their use in the Machine-assembling manufacture.
Eccentric drilling and milling chuck designed for fast and secure clamping tools with cylindrical shank (drills,
countersinks, reamers, milling cutters, etc.) right and left but self-rotation within specified range and other multi-purpose
machines. Chuck design is to provides fast replacement tool, accuracy, durability, and reliable clamping of the hand or a
key on a principle of self-locking chucks efficiently and conveniently used in surgical operations - for opening holes in the
bones, that require low weight and dimensions as well as the reliability of fixation drill or other tool with quick changeover
to another clamp diameter.

Development of Formaldehyde Detector

Crystalynne D. Cortez, Franz Christian Bato, Theofill Jake G. Bautista, Julius Mel G. Cantor, Celestino
L. Gandionco, and Stephany P. Reyes
Centro Escolar University, Philippines
AbstractThe study was a development of a detector that can sense the presence of formaldehyde in air measured in parts


per million (ppm). The prototype used storage device (SD) technology to save real time data. The objective of the study
was to design and develop a system that can detect formaldehyde concentration and indicate if the reading was below or
above the permissible level for formaldehyde. The device can be used in chemical laboratories and mortuaries for air
quality monitoring, to lessen the harmful effects of formaldehyde. Developmental method and prototyping technique were
used in the study to come up with a working product of the detector. The microcontroller unit was programmed using C
programming language. Tests were conducted using 5ml of formaldehyde placed in 5 liters container to determine the
accuracy of the system. The device had obtained an average accuracy of 98.33% for the three trials.


Diode Parameters of Heterojunctions Comprising p-Type Si Substrate and n-Type -FeSi2 Thin Films
Nathaporn Promros, Suguru Funasaki, Motoki Takahara, Mahmoud Shaban, and Tsuyoshi Yoshitake
King Mongkuts Institute of Technology Ladkrabang, Thailand
Abstractn-Type -FeSi2/p-type Si heterojunctions have been successfully fabricated by facing-targets direct-current


sputtering at a substrate temperature of 600 C without post-annealing and their current-voltage characteristics were
measured at low temperatures ragne from 300 K down to 50 K. The ideality factor, saturation current and series resistance
were estimated by the thermionic emission theory and Cheungs method. By the thermionic emission theory, we calculated
the ideality factor from the slope of the linear part from the forward lnJ-V and estimated the saturation current density
from the straight line intercept of lnJ-V at a zero voltage. As decreasing temperatures from 300 down to 50 K, the value of
ideality factor increased from 1.2 to 15.6, while the value of saturation current density decreased from 1.6 106 A/cm2
to 3.8 1010 A/cm2. From the plots of dV/d(lnJ)-J and H(J)-J by Cheungs method, the obtained values of series
resistances are consistent with each other. The series resistances analyzed from both plots increased as decreasing

Experimental Study of a Piezoelectric Rain Energy Harvester

Voon-Kean Wong, Jee-Hou Ho and Eng-Hwa Yap
The University of Nottingham, Malaysia
AbstractOver the past few decades there has been significant advancement in the development of microelectronics. This


has attracted attention of micro-scale energy harvester systems that could harvest energy from the operating environment
of the microsystem. In this paper, rain energy harvesting using piezoelectric beam is tested. This paper seeks to create an
experimentally validated proof of concept piezoelectric rain energy harvester using a piezoelectric beam. A rain simulator
consists of six solenoid valves is designed to simulate different rain types. The effect of multiple water droplets impinging
different positions on the piezoelectric beam is studied in this paper. Results show that a 4.5 0.2 mm diameter water
droplet falling at height of 0.82 m impinging the piezoelectric energy harvester is capable of generating a peak power of
0.16 mW.

Validation of the Developed Multi-Gas Monitoring System

Crystalynne D. Cortez
Centro Escolar University, Philippines
AbstractThe study was a validation of a developed gas monitoring system. The objective of the study was to determine
the accuracy of the prototype in identifying gas concentrations. Experimental research method was utilized in the study. In


evaluating the systems ability to sense carbon monoxide, toluene, methane, liquefied petroleum gas (LPG), smoke and
ammonia, three trials tests using cigarette smoke, kitchen lighter gas and aromatic spirit of ammonia were conducted. The
device was found to be sensitive with toluene, ammonia, smoke, carbon monoxide, LPG and methane. The system attained
the accuracy of 90.10% in detecting LPG and 97.32% for methane using kitchen lighter gas test; 79.81% for carbon
monoxide and 80% for smoke using the cigarette smoke test; and 85.54% for ammonia and 71.93% for toluene. In
addition, an accuracy of 95.39% was attained as the device was compared to the reading of an existing PETC device in
measuring carbon monoxide.

The Correlation between Variations of Pressure against Temperature Distribution in Supersonic Subsea
Compact Wet-Gas Separators
Ahmad M. F. A and Mohd Hashim F. M
Universiti Teknologi PETRONAS, Malaysia
AbstractConventional wet gas separators are used as a mean to remove free water using gravitational and momentum
principle. However, these separators create setback in terms of its efficiency. As an alternative, supersonic compact wet
gas separator have been designed in Universiti Teknologi PETRONAS Gas Separation Research Center (UTP GSRC)
which uses supersonic flow to separate natural gas and free water for gas transmission pipelines. For the preliminary


design, it is important to determine the flow behavior according to the design of the separators. The results can provide
information on whether the design can be accepted or improvement should be taken into consideration. It is therefore an
objective of this paper to numerically simulate and analyze the correlation between variations of pressure against
temperature distribution in the separators design. From the initial pressure variation against temperature results, it can be
concluded that the initial pressure ranges from 5 MPa to 6.7 MPa are the best to be used for achieving better separation

Investigation on Microstructure and Mechanical Properties of Squeeze Cast Al-Si Alloys by Numerical
Mona Kiaee, Shamsuddin Sulaiman, Tang Sai Hong and MohammadAli Mohammadi
University Putra Malaysia, Malaysia
AbstractSince squeeze casting process is considered as a new technology for light alloys like aluminum and magnesium,


more basic research is required for a scientific understanding of the practice. In distinct, as a cost-effective and
resource-efficient tool, advanced numerical modelling in conjunction with dynamic boundary conditions and capabilities
of predicting the formation of casting defects have to be fully developed for the optimization of squeeze casting processes.
In squeeze casting, an external pressure is applied to molten metal before, during and after its solidification, which makes
the condition at the casting die interface different from other typical casting techniques.
In this paper, Finite Difference Method (FDM) is used to investigate the effect of heat transfer during squeeze casting
process and the relationship between casting temperature and solidification on Al-Si alloys.

Finite Element Study of Deformation Behaviour of Al- 6063 Alloy Developed by Equal Channel Angular
Jamshid Nemati, S. Sulaiman, G. H. Majzoobi, B. T. H. T. Baharudin, and M. A. Azmah Hanim
University Putra Malaysia, Malaysia

AbstractThe objective of this work is to evaluate the equivalent plastic strain levels induced by equal channel angular
extrusion (ECAE) in an annealed Al-6063 alloy after six passes at a temperature of 200C following route A with a
constant ram speed of 30 mm/min through a die angle of 90between the die channels using the finite element method
(FEM). ECAE process is simulated using the DEFORM-3D software through a three-dimensional analysis. Grain
refinement is simulated by forcing the element size to zero. It is found that for a very fine mesh the PEEQ converges to

Session 3: Intelligent Control and Civil Engineering

Chair: Prof. Kok Swee Sim, Multimedia UniversityMalaysia

12 presentations
Time: 1:00pm to 3:50pm
Venue: Tembusu 2 (Level 2)


Investigation of Threading Building Blocks Framework on Real Time Visual Object Tracking
Mei Choo Ang, Elankovan Sundararajan, K. W. Ng, Amirhossein Aghamohammadi and T. L. Lim
Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia,Malaysia


AbstractObject tracking plays important roles in various applications such as surveillance, search and rescue, augmented
reality and robotics. This paper presents an investigation on multi-threading framework capability for color-based object
tracking applications. A multi-threading framework based on Threading Building Blocks (TBB) was implemented on a
multi-core system to enhance the image processing performance on a real-time visual object tracking algorithm. Intel
Parallel Studio was used to implement this parallel framework. The performance between sequential and multi-threading
framework was evaluated and compared. We demonstrated the multi-threading framework was approximately two times
faster when compared to the sequential framework in our experiments.

Workability of Self-Compacting Concrete Using Blended Waste Materials

Brabha H Nagaratnam, ME Rahman, AK Mirasa, and MA Mannan
Curtin University Sarawak, Malaysia


AbstractThis paper presents the workability properties of Self-Compacting Concrete (SCC) containing a ternary mix
binder using Ordinary Portland Cement and agro-industrial wastes i.e; palm oil fuel ash (POFA) and low calcium based fly
ash (FA). The mixtures were prepared with 0 to 40% cement replacement using agro-industrial wastes at 10% intervals.
Water to binder ratio and cement content is kept constant at 0.38 and 540 kg/m3 respectively. Self-compact-ability
parameters investigated were Slump flow, J-Ring, V-Funnel, Sieve Stability and Visual Stability Index Tests. It is found
that agro-industrial wastes provide a positive effect on the workability properties of self-compacting concrete.

Hardware Design of Bipedal Locomotion Robot

K. S. Sim, C. P. Tso, G. Y. Lim , and M. C. Foo
Faculty of Engineering and Technology Multimedia University, Malaysia
AbstractThis paper aims to design and develop a control system for the biped robot. The Peripheral Interface Controller


(PIC) main controller board is designed to control the servo motor controller board which assures the biped robot to
maintain its stability. This robot consists of PIC microcontroller, servo controller, servo motor, and sensors. The bracket
parts are fabricated to mount the servo motors by constructing the biped structure. The PIC microcontroller provides
interface among the sensors input, servo motor controller, and servo motor. The biped robot is able to walk in a stable
motion under a flat plane. The sensors feedbacks enable the controller to adjust the stability of biped robot. The biped
robot is able to perform walking steps and crouching action through the configuration of trajectory angle values of the
servo motors.

An Ambulatory Assistant Wheelchair for Individuals with Lower Limb Weakness

K. S. Sim, C. Y. Yeo , C. P. Tso, and T. Rakgowa
Faculty of Engineering and Technology Multimedia University, Malaysia

AbstractWe propose a low cost prototype of an ambulatory assistant wheelchair designed for patients with lower limb
weakness. The device has similar functions as a motorized wheelchair powered by battery. However, passive leg exercise
function is available to assist lower limb therapy. The walking aid is integrated with an auto-brake mode, similar to a roller
walker. The feature Android Remote Controller Add-ons is an application of Android platform device which assists
patients to drive and park the wheelchair beside their stationary chair, bed, or make other indoor transport.


Space Ballooning
Rahul Munagala
SRM University, India
AbstractSpace is the frontier of the future, bringing new adventure to a new type of pioneer. Technology is the gateway
to this un-chartered territory and will allow the senior design class to explore and obtain a glimpse of space though a
balloon-borne high altitude satellite.
In this paper I am going to describe about the innovative methods of designing the Balloon satellites and their applications.


Ballon satellites can be described as the cost-effective satellites (< 819 USD) that could be launched using helium
balloons. The satellite will be a facility that can provide common services to an altitude of till 30 km. The data will be
relayed to a ground system where the information will be analysed, displayed, and used to track and recover the system.
This balloon satellites fitted with orient able propellers at the bottom, fitted with cameras can be used for spying, patrolling
at the defence areas similar to UAV's. Weather changes in the atmosphere can be continuously monitored using these
satellites. The satellite shall broadcast real-time data, which shall include temperature, pressure, position, humidity, altitude
etc. When these satellites reach near space, the helium filled balloon bursts because of expansion inside the balloon, at that
point of time when a propulsion engine is used to propel it into the space, saving the cost for rockets. Moreover, the
satellite shall be reusable and will be tracked back using a parachute for inter space missions and thus being eco friendly.

Master Slave Quadrotor Formation for Lifting Force Multiplication

T. Rakgowa, K. S. Sim , E. K. Wong , and M. E. Nia
Faculty of Engineering and Technology Multimedia University, Malaysia
AbstractOne way to increase the payload capability of quadrotor is to employ a team of quadrotors and control them in
fix formation to carry large dimension payload. This is also known as force multiplication technique. Therefore, this work


intends to explore a new concept to control a scalable team of quadrotors by introducing a supervisary quadrotor in a two
tier architecture or in master-slave mode.Once the payload is lifted, the supervisory quadrotor will guide the team of
quadrotors beneath it to the desired destination and gently put down the payload.. The advantage of this concept is that the
control algorithm can be easily adjusted when a new team of more powerful quadrotors or even multirotor vehicles
become available to carry the load. This is seen as an important development in pushing quadrotor technology for
industrial applications. Furthermore, this type of system is more flexible because it is able to operate in both indoor and
outdoor environment.

A Study on Regression Model Using Response Surface Methodology

Nooraziah Ahmad and Tiagrajah V. Janahiraman
Universiti Malaysia Kelantan, Malaysia.


AbstractResponse Surface Methodology (RSM) mostly employs statistical regression method as it is practical,
economical and relatively easy to use. The first and second order polynomial equation was developed using RSM. This
polynomial model usually refers as a regression model. In this research, the objective is to find the best response surface
method to model three factors and three levels parameters in machining. From the study, the Box-Behnken Design can
develop a good regression model rather than Central Composite Design or Full Factorial Design. While, the second order
regression model has proved to be more effective in predicting the performance of the given data set.


Embodied Carbon Potential of Conventional Construction Materials used in Typical Malaysian Single
Storey Low Cost House using Building Information Modeling (BIM)
Syed Shujaa Safdar Gardezi, Nasir Shafiq, Noor Amila Wan Abdullah Zawawi, and Syed Ahmad Farhan


AbstractThe housing sector of Malaysia plays a very prominent role in meeting the major requirements of
accommodation throughout the country. However, this sector consumes a handsome amount of resources among which the


construction materials are a prime resource.

Besides the valuable contribution of housing sector, the building materials

used make a significant contribution in embodied CO2 emissions. In order to access the magnitude of CO2 from housing
sector, it is necessary that effect of embodied CO2 emissions from the materials used in conventional housing construction
in Malaysia shall also be studied. This study focuses on the embodied CO2 emission from the materials used in
construction of a typical low cost house which are commonly adopted in Malaysia. The virtual model of selected single
storey low cost house was developed using Building Information Modeling (BIM) concept. The results highlighted that
bricks (37%), concrete (22%), mild steel (19%), steel rebar (7%) and roof tiles (6%) are the top five materials responsible
for CO2 emissions. The overall contribution of single storey house in terms of embodied CO2 emissions is observed to be
34 kg- CO2 / sq. ft. This study has helped to highlight the potential contribution of conventional materials used in typical
housing sector of Malaysia.

Comparative Study on Seismic Response of Reinforced Concrete Frames with SMA in Column and
Beam Plastic Hinge Zones
Mohamed Omar
Aswan University, Egypt
AbstractThis paper presents a comparative analytical study on seismic response of low rise three storeys concrete frame
reinforced with super-elastic material as rebar elements. The super-elastic shape memory alloy rebars were used as


reinforcement in two plastic hinge zones of the frame, beam plastic hinge zones and column plastic hinge zones. The
response of the frame structure with two different reinforced cases is compared to response of the frame structure
reinforced with regular steel material. Nonlinear dynamic time history analysis is performed in this study. Three different
great earthquake ground motions were used to determine the seismic response of the frame structures in terms of frame top
displacement time history and inter-storey drift along the frame height for different cases of reinforcements. Results
obtained from the analysis show that the seismic response of low rise frame reinforced with super-elastic SMA rebars is
affected by the zone of which SMA rebar are used in reinforcement. The SMA column reinforcement is more effective
than SMA beam reinforcement in reducing the frame response.

Assessment of Connection Arrangement of Built-up Cold-formed Steel Section under Axial Compression
Fadhluhartini Muftah, Mohd Syahrul Hisyam Mohd Sani, Mohd Fakri Muda , and Shahrin Mohammad
Universiti Teknologi Mara Pahang, Malaysia
AbstractCold-formed steel (CFS) with several of the advantages is selected in construction activity as structural and
non-structural element. CFS with variety of shape, dimension and grade is chosen to replace traditional material that
largely used before. In the study, CFS is utilised as a compression member to support beams element in the building. The


column made with CFS is important to sustain the load and build the stable equilibrium circumstances. The column
stability is the big issue that must be discussed and determined to prevent the buckling load, unmanageable deflection and
lastly building collapse. So that, the study of structural properties and column capacity under compression load of the
column is being investigated. Compression test of built up CFS channel that is attached at open side facing by using
bolting through the web of the channel. A tensile coupon specimen of channel is taken at the flange and web of CFS
channel to find the actual material properties the results that the CFS behave similar to a carbon steel with yield stress 500
MPa. Five arrangement of bolt that are margin of its mid height, compressed using a servo machine to get the axial
capacity of the column. Under constant length of 900 mm and constant material, the end distance of bolt to the tip of the
column are greatly affecting the column capacity by strengthening its bearing capacity. Hence, it is recommended that, the


end distance of bolt must be placed at 20 mm to improve the bearing strength of the column, and the spacing of columns
can be restudy for better results.

A Moderated Distance Based Broadcasting Algorithm for MANETs

Basim Alhadidi , Faisal Y Alzyoud and Ayman Alawin
AlBalqa' Applied University, Jordan
AbstractThe presence of new mobile computing devices rise the tendency to use ad hoc networks in which each device


connects to its neighbor without the need to connect to a fixed infrastructure network. Broadcasting is sending data packet
from a source node to the rest of nodes in the networks; it is characterized by no acknowledgement packets and no request
or clear to send dialogue packets. Broadcasting suffer from redundant rebroadcast, contention and collision, these
drawbacks lead to increase the delay and the number of dropped packets caused by contention (i.e. degrade in the quality
of service). Anew distance based broadcasting algorithm is proposed to enhance broadcasting in wireless mobile ad hoc
networks, this algorithm is analyzed and tested using GloMoSim network simulator, the simulated results are used to
compare with another two distance based broadcast algorithms.

Study of Fe(II) Biosorption using Pleurotus Spent Mushroom Compost in a Fixed-Bed Column
Ain Nihla Kamarudzaman, Tay Chia Chay, Amnorzahira Amir, and Suhaimi Abdul Talib
Universiti Teknologi MARA, Malaysia
AbstractThe potential use of Pleurotus spent mushroom compost as a biosorbent for Fe(II) removal from aqueous


solutions was investigated. The experiments were conducted in a fixed-bed column to investigate the influence of various
parameters such as flow rate, bed depth and initial concentration on the biosorption of Fe(II). The results of breakthrough
time, exhaustion time as well as the Fe(II) uptake and percentage of removal are highly influenced by the flow rate, bed
depth and the initial Fe(II) concentration. The results demonstrated that the breakthrough time and exhaustion time
increased with decreases in flow rate and initial Fe(II) concentration. Conversely, the breakthrough and exhaustion time
decreased as the bed depth decreases.

3:50 pm4:00pm;




-PAPER SESSIONSSession 4: Advanced Materials Engineering and Processing Technologies B

Chair: Prof. Muhammad Yahaya, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, Malaysia

13 presentations
Time: 4:00pm to 6:50pm
Venue: Duta Room( Level 1)


Solid Particle Erosion Behaviour of Martensitic and Nitrogen Alloyed Austenitic Stainless Steel
Ashish Selokar, Ravi Kant, D. B. Goel, and U. Prakash Hankuk Academy of Foreign Studies, Korea
Indian Institute of Technology Roorkee, India
AbstractIn the present work, comparison of solid particle erosive behaviour of 13/4 steel and Nitrogen alloyed austenitic
stainless steel (23/8N steel) have been studied using air jet erosion testing. Air jet erosion testing has been performed at various
angles for as received samples at 31 m/s velocity and a discharge rate of 3 gm per minute by alumina particles with angular
shape and 53-63m size. Microstructure, eroded surface characteristics, mechanical properties and erosion rate are characterized
by using scanning electron microscope, hardness and tensile testing. 23/8N steel shows good hardness coupled with high tensile
toughness and work hardening ability, which leads to improved erosion resistance. The surface morphology analysis of the worn
out surfaces, cumulative weight loss measurements and steady state of erosion rate results were used to understand the effect of
nitrogen on the degradation mechanisms. The results show that 23/8N steel exhibits excellent resistance to erosion in
comparison to13/4 steel.


The Influence of Carbon Addition on Microstructure and Mechanical Properties of Fe-22.0Al-5.0Ti Alloy
Ravi Kant, Ashish Selokar, Vijaya Agarwala, and U. Prakash
IIT Roorkee, India
AbstractThe effect of carbon addition on Fe-22.0Al-5.0Ti alloy on structure and properties has been investigated.
Microstructural and phase analysis have been investigated by using optical microscopy, scanning electron microscope (SEM)
equipped with EDAX. For low carbon addition (0.1 wt.%), two-phase microstructure consisting of precipitates of TiC in B2
matrix. The presence of large amount of carbon (1.0 or 1.5 wt.%) resulted formation of Fe3AlC0.5 and TiC precipitates in B2
matrix. The results show that the mechanical properties of Fe-22.0Al-5.0Ti increased with increase in the carbon content and
strongly depend upon nature and volume fraction of different precipitates. The volume fraction of precipitates increased with
increase in the content of carbon. The behavior of Fe-22.0Al-5.0Ti alloy was explained by the combined effect of precipitation
hardening and solid solution strengthening. The main effect of addition of carbon related to improvement in the compressive
strength without loss in the ductility. The decrease in the wear rate is mainly attributed to the high hardness of the composites
and as well hard TiC play a role of load carrying.


Porous GaN for Gas Sensing Application

N. H Mohd Noor, Z. Hassan, and F. K Yam
Universiti Teknologi MARA, Malaysia
AbstractPorous wide bandgap semiconductors have been widely studied in the last decade due to their unique properties
compared to the bulk crystals. GaN received attention from the researchers as an ideal material to fabricate chemical sensing


devices due to its excellent properties such as high thermal, mechanical and chemical stabilities, large band gap and high
breakdown voltage. In this work, porous GaN was prepared by ultraviolet (UV) assisted electroless chemical etching method.
The samples used in this study were commercial n-GaN grown on sapphire (Al2O3) substrates. The samples were initially
cleaned in 1:20 NH4OH:H2O, followed by second cleaning in 1:50 HF:H2O and final cleaning in 3:1 HCl: HNO3 and these
samples were etched in HF:H2O2:CH3OH under UV illumination for 60 minutes. The structural properties was characterized
using Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM). Hydrogen sensor was subsequently fabricated by depositing Pd Schottky contact
onto the porous GaN sample. The effect of sensing dilute H2 gas with different concentration which is 1% and 2% H2 in a N2
gas ambient was analyzed. The Schottky barrier height of the gas sensor samples was reduced upon exposure to gas. The porous
GaN resulted better sensitivity compared to the as grown GaN sample in H2 gas sensing.


The Production of Light-Weight Ultrafine-Grained Metal Sheets Using Accumulative Roll Bonding Process
Fahad Riaz, Muhammad Talha Munir,Faraz Hussain,Tahir Ahmad, Muhammad Kamran, and Rafiq Ahmad
College of Engineering and Emerging Technologies University of the Punjab, Lahore Pakistan
AbstractAutomobile, aerospace and medical industries have more attraction for nano-crystalline and ultrafine-grained (UFG)
materials due to their better engineering applications and high durability. In this work, two different material, 99.99% pure
aluminium and 99.99% pure copper were processed by the Severe Plastic Deformation (SPD) also known as Accumulative Roll
Bonding (ARB) technique. During the ARB process, the metal sheet surfaces were stacked on top of each other and rolled
together with a thickness reduction of 50% per cycle. The material subjected to very high plastic shear deformation showed the
start of UFG microstructure to develop. An increasing trend of hardness was observed with increase in number of reduction
cycles for ARB processed Al-Al, Cu-Cu and Al-Cu sheets. However, ARB processed OFE copper showed slightly different
ductility behaviour in comparison to other ARB processed materials.


Finite Element Study of Deformation Behaviour of Al- 6063 Alloy Developed by Equal Channel Angular
J. Nemati, S. Sulaiman, G. H. Majzoobi, B. T. H. T. Baharudin, and M. A. Azmah Hanim
University Putra Malaysia, Malaysia
AbstractThe objective of this work is to evaluate the equivalent plastic strain levels induced by equal channel angular
extrusion (ECAE) in an annealed Al-6063 alloy after six passes at a temperature of 200C following route A with a constant ram
speed of 30 mm/min through a die angle of 90between the die channels using the finite element method (FEM). ECAE process
is simulated using the DEFORM-3D software through a three-dimensional analysis. Grain refinement is simulated by forcing
the element size to zero. It is found that for a very fine mesh the PEEQ converges to 1.046.


Prediction of Friction Stir Processed AZ31 Magnesium Alloy Micro-hardness Using Artificial Neural
Basil M. Darras, Ibrahim M. Deiab, and Ahmed Naser
American University of Sharjah, UAE
AbstractFriction stir processing (FSP) is a microstructural modification technique. In FSP, the material undergoes intense
plastic deformation, yielding a dynamically recrystallized fine grain structure. One of the most important issues that need to be
tackled in this field is the lack of predictive tools. That enables the selection of the optimum parameters required to achieve the
desired modifications on the mechanical properties of the processed materials. In this study, the effects of different FSP
parameters (rotational and translational speeds) on the resulting micro-hardness of friction stir processed AZ31 magnesium
sheets are examined. Variations of micro-hardness with longitudinal and through-thickness positions are also investigated.
Artificial neural networks (ANNs) are used to model and predict the resulting micro-hardness.



Simulating of Backward Extrusion Process of Nanostructured Al-6082 Material
Ahmed. S M. J. Agena
Zawia Higher Institute of Polytechnics- Azzawiah city - Libya
AbstractBackward extrusion (it is also called indirect extrusion) is an extrusion process in which the billet is placed in the
container cavity, and where the movement of the punch is in the opposite direction to the movement of the flow of the metal. In
this work the backward extrusion were applied on a nanostructured material. the extruded material were three types of

Al-6082 alloy Pass 1, pass 4(route C), pass8 (route C) which are produced by equal channel angular pressing

(ECAP), in addition to the annealed Al-6082 material. The experimental results show that the pass 8 (route C) has the maximum
value of extrusion loads and high value of hardness. From the finite element simulation it observed that the maximum value of
equivalent strain was when the pass 4 material was used, while the equivalent strain of pass 1 and pass 8 seem to be equal and
that the maximum flow stress was obtained when the pass 8 material was used. Well visible crack appeared at the top edge of all
cups that made from pass 8 material.

Glass Ceramization as an Alternative Production Route of Forsterite Glass-Ceramics for Possible

Multipurpose Uses
Taufik Aboud
Faculty of Engineering University of Tripoli, Tripoli / Libya
AbstractHomogenous, transparent and bubble-free glass was produced through the addition of an extra silica as a replacement
for its structurally analogous AlPO4 in an aluminophosphosilicate base glass. FT-IR, DSC, XRD and SEM coupled with EDX,
were all used to characterize the obtained glass, and to establish the effect of silica as a substitution for AlPO4 on the vibrational


spectra and crystallization behavior of the obtained glass.

Silica was found to lower the wavenumber of the main stretching vibrational band of aluminophosphosilicate glass, thus
counterbalancing the increment in the wavenumber of the main stretching band caused by P2O5 in the former base glass. The
obtained glass crystallized in bulk at relatively low temperatures, and the first phase to crystallize was enstatite. As temperature
was increased, both enstatite and forsterite coexisted. At yet higher temperatures, forsterite was the predominantly crystallizing
phase with just traces of enstatite.
Thus, it is believed that glass ceramization represents a challenging and yet a promising fabrication route with many
technological advantages, over other making techniques, such as sol-gel and solid-state or solid solution routes, for production
of forsterite-enstatite and forsterite ceramics. The obtained glass-ceramics are possible candidates for advanced applications,
utilizing properties of forsterite, such as bioactivity, dielectricity and birefringence, among many others.

Synthesis of Co/CNTs via Strong Electrostatic Adsorption: Effect of Metal Loading

Omid Akbarzadeh, Noor Asmawati Mohd Zabidi, Bawadi Abdullah, and Duvvuri Subbarao
Universiti Teknologi PETRONAS, Malaysia.

AbstractCobalt particles were deposited on treated CNTs via the Strong Electrostatic Adsorption (SEA) method. Cobalt
loading on CNTs support was varied from 5 to 20 wt%. Samples were characterized by N2 adsorption and HRTEM. The results
of TEM indicated that increasing the metal loading from 5% to 20% resulted in larger nanoparticles and also led to


Effect of CNT Arrays on Electrical and Thermal Conductivity of Epoxy Resins

Liangke Wu and Ji Ying
Zhejiang University, Malaysia



AbstractWith the development of electronic technology, thermal interface materials (TIMs) of excellent thermal conductivity
have been desired for circuit integration. In this study, carbon nanotube arrays (CNTAs) were utilized to prepare high thermal
conductive composites by infiltration into epoxy resin. The composite was cured in a drying oven at 60 oC for 4 h. The thermal
conductivity of the composite along axial direction reaches 2.24 W/mK at 120 oC, which is about 10 times of that of pure epoxy
resin. The results indicated that the great promise of epoxy/CNTA composites as thermal interface materials. However, the
electrical conductivity still remains at a low level, although it is increased by orders of magnitudes, the insulativity is beneficial
for the application of this composite in electrical industry.

Effect of Cell Material on the performance of PV System

Afroza Nahar, M. Hasanuzzaman, N. A. Rahim, and Md. Hosenuzzaman
University of Malaya, Malaysia


AbstractInterest of renewable energies is increasing due to the revising the energy policies for fighting against the emission of
Carbon-dioxide. To make the development of the civilization sustainable and cause less harm to the environment, clean energy
resources are very important. Many alternative renewable energy resources are available that can be used instead of fossil fuels.
Solar energy is one of the potential alternative renewable energies. This paper presents differents types of Photovoltaic cell
materials which is one of the most effective parameter for improvement of photovoltaic cell as well as Photovoltaic



Water Dispersion Conductive Polypyrrole Based on Nanocrystalline Cellulose

Ahmed A. Al-Dulaimi and W. D. Wanrosli
Universiti Sains Malaysia, Malaysia
AbstractConductive polypyrrole (PPY) was successfully synthesized via situ polymerization of pyrrole monomer in presence


of nanocrystalline cellulose (NCC) suspension as a dopant and template with a rarity sedimentation. PPY-NCC composite
having very good dispersion stability in aqueous media. The chemical structure of PPY and PPY-NCC was investigated by
using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. FTIR result shows that the synthesis of PPY in presence of NCC still retains its
chemical structures well. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) analyses shows obvious transformation in PPY morphology
from cauliflower-like spherical particles with 400-500 nm to nanofibers with 200nm length after composite with NCC.
Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) revealed the typical morphology of NCC rod-like nanostructure with length 150 23
nm and diameter 6.5 0.68 nm and the NCC nanorod is coated by a cover of PPY with irregular thickness.


Development of Natural Bio-Plantation Waste as Pulp for Paper Making

Guo Tong Ng and Chui Kim Ng
Tunku Abdul Rahman University College, Malaysia
AbstractThis project investigated the use of facile pulping methods to produce pulp from mixed bio-plantation waste fibres
using sodium hydroxide, ethanol and garbage enzyme. Papers were successfully made from mixture of corn husk fibres with
other bio-based green fibres such as banana stems and pineapple leaves. Soda pulping was found to be efficient in converting
the cellulosic bio-fibres to the pulps used for paper making. The papers produced have low tensile strength, high water
absorption, high bio-decomposition and degradation rate, as compared to commercial papers. SEM observation revealed that
paper made from mixed bio-fibres have lightly cross-linked structures compared to heavily cross-linked or compact network
structures found in commercial papers. The paper can be used in applications that require high water absorbency. The paper
making process is more environmental friendly as it reduces the usage of wood fibres and hence reduces the environmental
problem caused by deforestation.



Session 5: Advanced Materials Engineering and Processing Technologies C

Chair: Dr. Muralithran Govindan Kutty, University of Malaya, Malaysia

13 presentations
Time: 4:00pm to 6:50pm
Venue: Tembusu 1(Level 2)


Cementite Precipitation of a H21 Tool Steel after Hot Compression and Double Temper
Meilinda Nurbanasari, Panos Tsakiropoulos, and Eric J. Palmiere
Institut Teknologi Nasional, Bandung, Indonesia
AbstractThe cementite precipitation behavior in the martensite and banite of the H21 tool steel under high temperature
axisymmetric compression test and double temper was investigated. The main purpose on this work is to develop a better
understanding regarding the transformation mechanism of bainite and martensite in a H21 tool steel. The selected deformation

were 1100 oC and 1000 oC and the double temper process was carried out at 650 oC for 1 hour respectively. The

results showed that the cementite was sensitive to the stress. The applied stress has affected the Fe3C precipitation behaviour by
decreasing the number of variants carbides in tempered martensite and decreasing the number of a single variant carbides in
tempered lower bainite. The results were in agreement with a displacive mechanism of martensite and bainite transformation. It
was also found that hot deformation temperatures selected in this work have the same contribution in decreasing number of
variant carbides in tempered martensite and decreasing number of single variant carbides occurred in tempered lower bainite.

Investigation of Carbon Nanofiber Supported Iron Catalyst Preparation by Deposition Precipitation

Thien Duc Nguyen Van, Suriati Sufian, Nurlidia Mansor, and Noorhana Yahya
Universiti Teknologi PETRONAS, Malaysia
AbstractAn ammonia synthesis using magnetic field to replace Haber-Boschs ammonia production is great technological


challenge in novel magnetized catalysts area. The carbon nanofiber supported iron catalyst was prepared by modifying carbon
nanofiber support surface and later using urea to precipitate iron nitrate by deposition precipitation. It was found that the particle
size was in a range of 5-50nm and well dispersion of iron was shown by transmission electron microscopy. This was strongly
influenced by alteration of carbon nanofiber surface from hydrophobic to hydrophilic and with high adsorption sites as oxygen
functional groups and defects. The lower iron loading between 5 and 40%wt, the lower iron accumulation and the narrower the
particle size distribution of 10-20nm. The result suggests that the iron particles are in a good size range for iron catalyst activity
for ammonia synthesis as reported by Morawski and Figurski authors.


Characteristics of Potassium Acetate - Activated Coconut Shell Carbon

Nasri Noor Shawal, Mohammed Jibril, Ahmad Zaini Muhammad Abbas, Hamza Usman Dadum, Mohd. Zain
Husna,and Ani Farid Nasir
University Technology Malaysia, Malaysia
AbstractThere is significant portion of agricultural wastes in the world posing environmental challenge; however, they could
be converted into useful products like activated carbon. In this study, coconut shell based carbons were synthesized using


chemical activation with potassium acetate (PAAC), potassium hydroxide (PHAC) and physical activation by CO2 (CSAC).
The properties of potassium acetate-activated carbon were characterized and the results were compared with the other activation
methods. The pyrolysis temperature of 700oC for 2h yielded 32% of char. The BET surface area and pore volume of PAAC are
622m2/g and 0.31cm3/g; while 369m2/g and 0.19cm3/g, and 1354m2/g and 0.61cm3/g were recorded for CSAC and PHAC,
respectively. CSAC yielded lower surface area with approximately 88% micropores. On the other hand, PAAC yielded higher
surface area with approximately 50% of both micropores and mesopores, whereby this heteroporous property would suffice for
a wider range of application. From the Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy analysis, hydroxyls, alkenes, carbonyls and
aromatics functional groups were identified with more prominent peaks on the chemically activated porous carbons. From
thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), lignin decomposition occurred in a wider temperature range (390-650oC). The properties of
PAAC could offer a sustainable means for treatment of toxic waste streams.

Biopulping by Ceriporiopsis subvermispora towards Pineapple Leaf Fiber (PALF) Paper Properties
Nadirul Hasraf Mat Nayan, Saiful Izwan Abd Razak, and Wan Aizan Wan Abdul Rahman
Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, Malaysia
AbstractEnvironmental awareness and depletion of the wood resources are among vital factors that motivate various
researchers to explore the potential of agro-based crops as an alternative source of fiber material in paper industries such as


writing, printing, wrapping, and packaging. Fibers from agro-based crops are available in abundance, low cost, and most
importantly its biodegradability features, which sometimes referred as ecofriendly materials. This paper reports the biopulping
of pineapple leaf fiber (PALF) by Ceriporiopsis subvermispora towards the properties of its fiber and paper forms. The
individual fibers were characterized having good tensile properties at 0.3% of fungus treatment and favourable structural
properties as characterized by Fourier transform infra-red (FTIR) spectroscopy. It was also shown that the PALF paper achieved
desirable tear index value and uniform morphological observations compared to the conventional chemical pulping method.
This new approach of pulping PALF finds applications in paper and packaging products which requires biofriendly
characteristic and cost effective.

Hydrophobicity Characterization of Bio-Wax Derived from Taro Leaf for Surface Coating Applications
Nasri Noor Shawal, Ahmed Murtala Musa, Mohd Noor Naemah, Mohammed Jibril, Hamza Usman Dadum,
and Mohd Zain Husna
University Technology Malaysia, Malaysia
AbstractThe hydrophobic properties as well as the presence of 1-octacosanol of taro wax extracted from taro leaf were
investigated using various analytical techniques. The bio-wax extraction was achieved by immersing taro leaves samples in 500
mL chloroform at 50oC for 30 seconds and the step was repeated for the same sample using fresh chloroform. The solvent was


evaporated using rotary evaporator and the raw bio-wax solution was obtained. Hydrophobicity test showed the average time for
the test was 981s which exceeded the 300 s limited for hydrophilicity. TGA results indicate the existence of multi-components
in taro wax with the decomposition occurring at three stages. The DSC result showed that the taro wax is composed of at least
two contents, ie lower content with smaller melting point range of 50 to 60C as well as upper content with higher melting point
range of 65 to 75 oC. Contact angle of droplets of distilled water on the taro wax surfaces were found to be greater than 90 o and
this confirmed its hydrophobic property. The n-octacosanol presented was identified through FTIR and GC-FID analyses. The
functional compounds OH, CH3, CH2, and C=O were detected. From the GC-FID, the n-octacosanol was presented at 34.5 min
compared to the standard solution. Plant base taro wax can be a source of sustainable and renewable hydrophobic material for
use in HVAC application system.


Hydrophobic-Synthesis of Bio-based Epoxy Substrate using Methyl Ester and its Dust Deposition and
Decontamination Effects


Nasri Noor Shawal, Ahmed Murtala Musa, Shamsu Kamar Amalina Nurhidayah, Sing Tee Yee, Hamza
Usman Dadum, Mohammed Jibril, and Mohd Zain Husna
University Technology Malaysia, Malaysia
AbstractThis research investigated the prospect of using bio-based substrates for dust decontamination purposes. Initially,
bio-based novolac resin was prepared by condensation from the reaction between phenol, bio-oil phenolic fractions and
formaldehyde in an acidic medium. The prepared novolac was later transformed to epoxide with epichlorohydrine and 30
percent sodium hydroxide solution. The epoxy formulation was later enhanced with varying amount of methyl ester (10 wt%,
20wt% and 30wt% ). The samples were characterised using various techniques such as FTIR, GC-MS, contact angle etc. Dust
depositions and decontaminations tests were also conducted. The results indicated that the synthesized hydrophobic bio-based
sample possed some dust cleaning characteristics which when fully enhanced would lead to the emergence of bio-based dust
cleaning formulation will contribute immensely in mitigating the negative effect and toxicity of petroleum based products.

Methane Adsorption on Chemically Modified Microwave Irradiated Palm Shell Porous Carbon
Nasri Noor Shawal, Hamza Usman Dadum, Saidina Amin Nor Aishah, Ahmed Murtala Musa,
MOHAMMED Jibril, and MOHD ZAIN Husna
University Technology Malaysia, Malaysia


AbstractLow-cost palm shell was used as a precursor for preparation of porous carbons via chemical impregnation with
K2CO3 and microwave heating.

Volumetric adsorption setup was used to measure the adsorption capacity of methane at

303.15 K under pressure up to 4 bars.

The methane adsorption data was modelled by Langmuir, Freundlich, and

DubininRadushkevich (DR) isotherm equations. Langmuir and Freundlich models were found to have the best fit than DR
isotherm. The kinetics of methane adsorption on the microwave porous carbon followed pseudosecond-order model equation.
The highest methane adsorption capacity obtained was 3.533 mmol/g at 4 bar and 303.15 K. It was noticed that there is increase
in adsorption with increased in initial pressure. The porous carbon displayed good adsorption characteristics for methane.

Sugarcane Bagasse as the Potential Agro-waste Resource for the Immobilization of Lactobacillus rhamnosus
NRRL 442
Shahrulzaman Shaharuddin, Saiful Izwan Abd Razak and Ida Idayu Muhamad
Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, Malaysia

AbstractSugarcane bagasse was successfully developed to be used as immobilizing agent for Lactobacillus rhamnosus NRRL
442. Several different structural and morphology were obtained between the sugarcane bagasse and immobilized
probiotic-sugarcane bagasse. Sugarcane bagasse was able to preserved high cell viability (~98%) after immobilization. Also it
was shown that the bagasse was an excellent biomaterial for immobilizing Lactobacillus rhamnosus NRRL 442 and retaining
the cell viability.

Recycling of Pre-Fabricated Carbon-Fiber Waste as Filler for Sandwich Glass-Fiber Auto Parts
Pongpicha Yamkamon, Kiattisak Sritrakulchai, and Supphachan Rajsiri
Mahidol University,Thailand

AbstractThis study explored the possibility of recycling pre-fabricated carbon to use as filler in conjunction with talc to
produce glass-fiber reinforced unsaturated polyester composites.

Specimens with six different resin compositions were

prepared using hand lay-up technique. The structure and property relationship was characterized through tensile test and
microstructure analysis.

Mechanical properties incorporated with the failure analysis suggest that the recycling of carbon is

The application of the recycled carbon showed the improvement on the less variation on the mechanical properties.


The percent elongation at break tended to reduce, and traded-off with the deterioration on tensile strength at break and elastic
modulus. Mixing with 10-15 wt% recycled carbon and 5-10 wt% talc powder was suggested to yield the optimal tensile
properties. Moreover, the recycled carbon previously coated with unsaturated polyester guides the uniform distribution when
required to process with a high-polarity material by reducing the polarity effect.

Fabrication of ZnO Nanorod for Room Temperature NO Gas Sensor

Sin Tee Tan, Muhammad Yahaya, Chun Hui Tan, Chi Chin Yap
Akrajas Ali Umar, and Muhamad Mat Salleh


AbstractOne dimensional ZnO nanorod has been extensively studied in sensor application due to its unique properties in
direct energy band gap and high binding energy. In this report, ZnO nanorod arrays were synthesized via hydrothermal
approach. Highly oriented (002) nanorods array with diameter of (22.42 1.40) nm was successfully grown on the quartz
surface. A low cost and room temperature optical based NO sensor was introduced. ZnO nanorods array show a high sensitivity
upon the NO gas which is 20.1 % within 3 minutes. This newly established method can be potentially used in detection of other
toxicity gas.

Mangrove Tannin (Rhizophora Apiculata) Complexes with Copper (II) Ion as an Antifoulant in Antifouling
Paint for Fish Net
Azraa Achmad, Jain Kassim, Azwin Usol Ghafli and Hairul Hamdan
Universiti Sains Malaysia, Malaysia,

AbstractMangrove tannin was used to be complex with copper (II) ion. The optimum condition of copper tannate complex
was studied using four parameters which were copper dosage, pH solution, temperature and time. The copper tannate complex
was characterized by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive x-ray
spectroscopy (EDX) and brine shrimp toxicity assay. This study suggested that copper tannate complex has a great potential to
be develop as an alternative antifoulant.

Electrochemical Characteristics of an Optimized Ni-P-Zn Electroless Composite Coating

Amir Kordijazi
Sharif University of Technology-International Campus, Iran


AbstractAn optimized electroless solution was used to deposit the Ni-P-Zn composite coating. Potentiodynamic polarization
test, salt spray technique and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy were utilized to study electrochemical characteristics of
the as-deposited coating. All results demonstrate an excellent corrosion resistance of the as-deposited layer. Corrosion current
density of the coating was compared to some similar coatings reported in other papers to study reasons of its high corrosion
resistance. It was proved that the high corrosion protection of the coating is due to the optimization of P and Zn contents in the
coating composition.

Relative Effect of Sand Blasting and Acid Etching on the Surface Roughness of Pure Titanium and titanium
Alloy for Dental Implants
Yashkta Shivalingam Nadar, Muralithran Govindan Kutty, and Abdul Aziz Abdul Razak
University of Malaya, Malaysia
AbstractThe objective of this study is to investigate the effect of sandblasting and acid etching on the surface roughness and
morphology of pure titanium and titanium alloy to compare their relative contribution. Both of these samples were first
sandblasted and then acid etched using HCL and H2SO4 for different

duration and temperature. The results of this study

indicated that the roughness value for pure titanium increased after acid etching while the opposite occurred for the titanium


alloy. It is suggested that the decrease is due to significant over etching of the protective titanium oxide layer on the alloy.

Session 6: Clean Energy, Environment Pollution Assessment and Control

Chair: Dr. R. Sivakumar, RMK Engineering College, Tamilnadu, India

17 presentations
Time: 4:00 pm to 7:45pm
Venue: Tembusu 2 (Level 2)


Mitigating Climate Change via Non-Conventional Renewable Energy: Case of Sri Lanka
Amila Withanaarachchi, Julian Nanayakkara and Chamli Pushpakumara
University of Kelaniya, Sri Lanka.
Abstract In 1995 Sri Lanka produced 95% of the grid electrical energy needs from conventional hydro power plants. But today
Sri Lankas electricity generation sector is largely dominated by fossil fuel sources.

Though the Sri Lankas current carbon foot

print is much less than the global average, rising energy demand has resulted in escalated greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. The
focus of this study is primarily on Non-Conventional Renewable Energy sector and the challenges that need to be overcome for a
clean and sustainable energy future. The study took the form of three phases: primary data-gathering process through literature
review, semi-structured interviews, followed by an expert panel discussion. Results show that, as small hydro power potentials
have already been utilized, wind has come to the forefront as the most promising energy source. However, technical and
infrastructural limitations have hindered the further development of not only wind, but also biomass and solar energy sources.


Anaerobic Bioconversion of methane from Petrochemical wastewater using CSTR

Md. Nurul Islam Siddique and Zularisam Bin Abd Wahid
University Malaysia Pahang, Malaysia
AbstractThe effect of gradual increase in organic loading rate (OLR) and temperature on biomethanation from petrochemical
wastewater treatment was investigated using CSTR. The digester performance was measured at hydraulic retention time (HRT) of
4 to 2d, and start up procedure of the reactor was monitored for 60 days via chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal, biogas and
methane production. By enhancing the temperature from 30 to 55 C Thermophilic condition was attained, and pH was adjusted
at 7 0.5 during the experiment. Supreme COD removal competence was 980.5% (r = 0.84) at an OLR of 7.5 g-COD/Ld and
4d HRT. Biogas and methane yield were logged to an extreme of 0.80 L/g-CODremoved d (r = 0.81), 0.60 L/g-CODremoved d (r
= 0.83), and mean methane content of biogas was 65.49%. The full acclimatization was established at 55 C with high COD
removal efficiency and biogas production. An OLR of 7.5 g-COD/L d and HRT of 4 days were apposite for petrochemical
wastewater treatment.


Increase of Oxidation Stability of Biodiesel from Palm Fatty Acid Distillate (PFAD) by Antioxidant Additions
Herawati Budiastuti, Sri Widarti, and Riniati
The State Polytechnic of Bandung, The State Polytechnic of Bandung



Abstract Biodiesel is a renewable energy, possesses high cetane number and flash points, resulting in its suitable uses in diesel
machines and its safe distribution and storage, as well as low gas emission, and its function as lubricant. Disadvantages of the
biodiesel include its high density and viscosity, resulting in plug and ineffective injection system, and low oxidation stability. This
research studied about antioxidant additions to maintain oxidation stability of biodiesel. Induction period (IP) measuring kit, to
measure oxidation stability, was constructed by using modified Rancimat principle. The best operation conditions were at
temperature of 1100C and pressure of <100 Kpa/h, resulting in relation coefficient (r) of 0.996 and detection limits of 6.54 ppm
of oil samples. Palm fatty acid distillate (PFAD) used contains free fatty acids (FFA) of 86.43%. The IP of the biodiesel was only
1.7 hours. The optimum concentration of pyrogallol (PY) antioxidant added into biodiesel was 20 ppm whereas of propylgallate
(PG) was 40 ppm. At these concentrations, the biodiesel IP increased to become 7.1 and 6.5 hours, respectively. Additions of
these antioxidants fulfill the IP requirement of biodiesel measured by European Standard of EN 14214 (> 6 hours).


Energy Intensity Diagnostics contributed to Solar Dryers Energy Challenges

Fateme Esmailie; Mohammad Aminy; Hossein Ghadamian
Materials And Energy Research Center, Iran
Abstract the energy consumption of dryers as an energy-intensive industry system is discussed in the present paper. In order to
reduce this energy amount, solar dryers were applied since ancient times, among these kinds of dryers, high drying rate solar
dryers include fluidized bed and spouted bed were discussed in this research study. The experiment and calculation results
depicted that, the fluidized bed solar dryer has higher drying rate than spouted bed dryer, even though, spouted bed dryer has less
energy intensity consumption.


The Basic Research on the Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells(DSSC)

Arini Nuran, Terauchi Kento, Matsutake Daiki, Akira Fujiki
Shibaura Institute of Technology, Japan
Abstract The dye-sensitized solar cell (DSSC) is a new type of solar cell which converts the visible light into electricity by
using the photoelectrochemical system. It is based on the sensitization of the wide band gap semiconductors which is made up of
a sandwich-liked structure that consists of a semiconductor formed between a photo-sensitized anode and an electrolyte. In this
research, we focused on the TiO2 photoelectrode by evaluating the particle size of titania, determining the effects of molecular
binder PEG towards TiO2 paste preparation, as well as the effects of natural dye by comparing the blueberry, gardenia blue and
yellow and red yeast dye,


and evaluating the effect of the multilayer of TiO2.

Experimental Study of the Tow Hybrid Solar Collector PV/T

Abdelkrim Khelifa, Khaled Touafek and Hocine Ben Moussa
Unit of Applied Research in Renewable Energy (URAER), Algeria
Abstract the hybrid solar photovoltaic thermal PV/T offers an interesting option now; because the absorbed solar radiation is
converted into electric energy and heat (the conversion can be performed simultaneously or separately).
The objective of this work is to study experimentally and implement a prototype of the hybrid collector for measuring the
electrical and thermal performance. The results suggest that this type of collector is a good alternative to conventional
photovoltaic modules and thermal collectors installed separately.


Prediction Model of Air Pollutant Levels using Linear Model with Component Analysis
Arie Dipareza Syafei, Akimasa Fujiwara, and Junyi Zhang
Hiroshima University, Japan
AbstractThe prediction of each of air pollutants as dependent variable was investigated using lag-1(30 minutes before) values


of air pollutants (nitrogen dioxide, NO2, particulate matter 10um, PM10, and ozone, O3) and meteorological factors and temporal
variables as independent variables by taking into account serial error correlations in the predicted concentration. Alternative
variables selection based on independent component analysis (ICA) and principal component analysis (PCA) were used to obtain
subsets of the predictor variables to be imputed into the linear model. The data was taken from five monitoring stations in
Surabaya City, Indonesia with data period between March-April 2002. The regression with variables extracted from ICA was the
worst model for all pollutants NO2, PM10, and O3 as their residual errors were highest compared with other models. The
prediction of one-step ahead 30-mins interval of each pollutant NO2, PM10, and O3 was best obtained by employing original
variables combination of air pollutants and meteorological factors. Besides the importance of pollutants interaction and
meteorological aspects into the prediction, the addition spatial source such as wind direction from each monitoring station has
significant contribution to the prediction as the emission sources are different for each station.


Assessment of variability of Aerosol Optical Depth (AOD) using MODIS data in Bathinda, a north-western
district of India
Puneeta Pandey
The Centre for Environmental Sciences and Technology, Central University of Punjab, Bathinda, Punjab151001, India
AbstractElevated levels of air pollution in the recent years have laid greater emphasis on developing effective strategies for
management of air quality. The objective of the present study is to assess the spatial and temporal dimensions of aerosol load over
the district of Bathinda, a north-western district in Punjab, India for the year 2013 using MODIS data. The lowest AOD values
were observed in the month of January, April and December; while high AOD was observed during May, June, July, August and
November. The results of the study revealed that central parts of the district in general exhibited lower levels of AOD with
scattered pockets of high AOD in the district. The high aerosol load during July and August can be attributed to cloud
contamination during monsoon season; while that in the month of May and June can be attributed to the frequent dust storms
during these months due to Bathinda lying in the vicinity of Thar Desert. Since the city of Bathinda has been subjected to
industrialization and urbanization in the last few years, such study shall be essential in establishing baseline data and management
of air quality in the region.


Manganese Airborne Particles Behavior Affected by Indoor Air Psychrometric Parameters

Seyedtaghi Mirmohammadi, Syavash Etemadi Nejad, Jamshid Yazdani
Mazandaran University of Medical Sciences, Sari, Iran.
AbstractGenerally, many indoor airborne particles exist in the foundry factories, they are important with emphasis on human
health. One of the major particles based on health consequence on exposed subjects is manganese airborne particle. The current
research considered correlation between indoor psychrometric parameters and manganese concentration in the workplace. On the
whole, fifty samples were gathered by filter based on OSHA ID-121method in the workplaces. SPSS V.20 was used to find a
predictive model using linear regression model. The mean personal exposure to manganese was 1.626 mg/m3. The mean
measured psychrometric parameters were 29C, 52% and 1.2m/s for dry temperature, relative humidity and air velocity,
respectively. The correlations between personal exposures and indoor air parameters measurements showed a high significant
relationship between personal exposure and dry temperature and wind speed in the factory (P< 0.05). This study illustrated that
controlling dry temperature and air velocity is the main effective parameters on airborne manganese concentration in the
workplaces and decreased the personal exposure.


The Environmental Fate of Natural and Synthetic Oestrogens; Comparison Between Prediction Tools and
Experimental Values
E. A. Aziz, W. A Wan Omar, and N. A Zainodin,


Universiti Malaysia Pahang, Malaysia
AbstractThe increasing demand for clean water leads to reuse practices such as the uses of sewage effluent in crops irrigation.
However, the extent to which the effluent is safe to be used as irrigation water remains uncertain. Natural and synthetic
oestrogens are ubiquitous in effluents and they are present in the final effluents for the vast majority of waste water treatment
plants. Thus for this study, it was necessary to determine their sorption to soils in order to assess the possible human exposure
from irrigation water. EPISUITE uses a prediction model whereby the inherent chemical and physical properties are used to
determine the partition coefficients for each environmental compartment. However, this is a default model which can be made
more accurate by experimentally measuring these partition coefficients. The Kow, Koc and Kd of these compounds were
measured and computed to determine environmental fate. The experimental model was later compared to the default model. It
can be concluded that by inputting the experimental values, the model changes remarkably and has given absolute values to the
ambient conditions.


Reliability Evaluation of Groundwater Contamination Source Characterization under Uncertain Flow field
Mahsa Amirabdollahian and Bithin Datta
James Cook University, Australia
AbstractGroundwater contamination is one of the serious environmental problems. Effective remediation strategies require
accurate characteristics of contamination sources. Contamination source identification approaches need accurate flow and
contaminant transport simulation models. In order to obtain reliable solutions, the simulation models need to be provided with
reliable hydrogeologic information. In real life scenarios usually sparse and limited hydrogeologic information is available. In
this study two hydraulic conductivity sampling networks are ranked based on their effectiveness in identifying reliable
contamination source characteristics. Using multiple realizations of hydraulic conductivity fields, and the location and size of the
contaminant plume at different monitoring stages, an index of reliability is estimated for each hydraulic conductivity sampling
network. It is demonstrated that the source characteristics identified by utilizing the sampling network with higher index of
reliability results in more accurate characterization of contamination sources. Therefore the developed methodology provides a
tool to select an appropriate hydrogeologic sampling network for more efficient characterizing of contamination sources.


Evaluation of the Environmental Impact of CO2 Flare Gas Emission for Three Hydrocarbon Gases By using
Hadyan Fahad Alajmi
Kuwait Oil Company, Kuwait
Abstract Serious global environmental problems are created by carbon dioxide emission such as global warming. The effect of
CO2 emission on the environment can be evaluated by using Exergy. The degree of deviation of a system from the environmental
state can be measured by Exergy. It is a method of quantifying environmental effects from the processes of consuming energy. By
choosing the environmental state as its dead state, it can be applied to account the deviation between a system and the
environment, which is a measure of the pollution to the environment. A system is polluting when its composition, pressure &
temperature are different from those of the environment. The difference can be measured by the Exergy discharge of CO2.
In this paper, the Exergy analyses were used as a quantitative method to compare the carbon dioxide emission on three
hydrocarbon fuels, which were methane, ethylene and propane. The affect of flame temperature and excess air on the emission
Exergy of CO2 were studied.
Results showed that the environmental impact of carbon dioxide (higher emission Exergy) increases with increasing the ratio of
(C/H). Also results showed that the emission Exergy increases with increasing flame temperature and decreases with increasing
excess air.


Properties of Oil Sorbent Material Produced From Kenaf Fiber



Ridwan Shamsudin, Hanisom Abdullah and Som Cit Sinang
Sultan Idris Education University, Malaysia
AbstractOil spills have tremendous effects on environment, ecology, economy, and the society as a whole. There are several
techniques being used for oil spill cleanup i.e in-situ burning of oil, mechanical tools (booms and skimmers), chemical
dispersants, and steam flushing and also by using natural fibers as sorbents. In this research, oil sorbent material was produced
from kenaf (Hibiscus cannabinus L.) fiber. Sorbent materials were made from various fiber particle sizes and tested for their oil
absorbent properties. The results showed that sorbent produced from a 1.70 cm2-sized kenaf fibers achieved the highest
absorption value of 8.2327 g/g and saturation value of 0.0385 N/Mins respectively. In this study, the 1.70 cm2-sized sorbent also
demonstrated the strongest

fiber bonding compared to those of 0.04 cm2-sized and 0.80 cm2-sized sorbents. This was

confirmed by microstructure analysis conducted using a Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM). The oil sorbent materials
produced in this study were found to have superior absorption value compared to other fiber-based oil sorbents such as Sisal
(Agave sisalana), Coir (Cocos nucifera) and loofa sponge (Luffa cylindrica).


Increase of Metal Accumulation in Plants Grown on Biochar Biochar Ecotoxicity for Germinating Seeds
Petr Soudek, rka Petrov and Tom Vank
Institute of Experimental Botany AS CR, Czech Republic
Abstract The effect of toxic metals on seed germination was studied in 3 cultivars of sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L.). Toxicity of
cadmium, copper, and lead at five different concentrations (0.055 mM) was tested by standard ecotoxicity test. Three different
biochars as supplement was used for the test. Root length was measured after 72 h of incubation. Elongation inhibition and EC50
value were calculated. The results showed that beech tree biochar was the most efficient to reduce the toxicity of tested heavy
metal. It contained the highest PAHs content, lowest content of measured heavy metals and the lowest pH value from tested


Membrane Bioreactor and Reverse Osmosis System Efficiency in Improving the Quality of Industrial
Wastewater (Case Study: Shokohieh Industrial Zone, Qom)
Hamid Reza Orumieh, Raheleh Mazaheri and Saeid mardan
Islamic Azad University, Yazd, Iran
Abstract Given increasing trend of population growth and water demands for agriculture and industry sectors, low available
water as well as increased effluent wastewater and hence incurring exorbitant costs to establish new treatment facilities in order to
reuse wastewater through increasing capacity of treatment facilities and effluent quality seems to be unavoidable. The present
paper attempts to explore efficiency of integrated technology membrane bioreactor and reverse osmosis (MBR-RO) to enhance
wastewater quality in effluent from Shokohieh industrial zone, Qom to reuse wastewater for industrial purposes aimed at
improving the quality of the effluent organic load. Data were analyzed using SPSS software and to obtain difference in effluent
quality, T-test was applied. The results showed that MBR systems has potential to remove 93.2% COD, 94.4% BO, 13.8% TDS,
98% TSS, 98% RO, heavy metals and 98.8% TDS among others. As a whole, the integrated MBR-RO system allows increased
refining capacity by 30% to loading organic material. At the same time, comparing quality of effluent water using reuse option
standards suggested that this water is fraught with suitable qualities to be used in irrigating landscapes, various industries except
food processing and services.


Motivation Factors in Energy Saving Behaviour between Occupants in Green and Conventional BuildingsMalaysia Case Study
Nurul Sakina Mokhtar Azizi and Suzanne Wilkinson
University of Auckland, Malaysia


Abstract Previous studies showed that green buildings may influence occupants attitude and behavior. However, there was
limited understanding on how green building influences occupants attitude and behavior.

The objective of this paper

investigates are green building occupants motivation to save energy different to conventional building occupants. The
innovativeness of this study is that it compares the motivation factors between green and conventional buildings, as previous
studies have not compared between both building types. The findings in this paper showed that both certified and non-certified
green buildings motivated half of the occupants to practice energy saving behaviour.


Energy Efficiency in Textile Sector of Pakistan: Analysis of Energy Consumption of Air-Conditioning Unit
Aftab Khan Masood, Sher Muhammad, Shazia Iftikhar, Hammad Altaf, Wasi Ullah, and Faisal Shabbir
National Productivity Organization, Ministry of Industries & Production, Pakistan
Abstract Pakistan today is facing a serious energy crisis due to the alarming depletion of energy resources and increasing
demand of the industry, which has badly affected our industrial sector in general. No doubt, this situation has emerged globally,
but this is also a fact that these energy crises in our industrial sector are due to orthodox processes, conventional
infrastructures/buildings, inefficient HVAC systems, inadequate use of electrical and mechanical equipment, non compliance to
standard inspection techniques which has resulted higher energy losses. This study reveal to the management of the factors, (i.e.
housekeeping, control of operations and infrastructure), affecting the performance of AC plants of the spinning subsector of
textile industry. Energy audits were conducted to collect data. The data was analyzed and it was concluded that along with the
technological interventions we need to introduce green infrastructure in AC plants of spinning mills.

The best paper will be chosen after each session and the certificate will be awarded by
the chair. Good Luck!

Friday Evening, September 5th

7: 00pm to 8:30 pm--Dinner


Caf@Lanson (Lobby)

Tips: The Dinner will start at 7:00pm. Please kindly attend on time with bringing the Dinner Coupon.


Conference Venue

Lanson Place Hotel







Bali, Indonesia, 5-6 Jan 2015.

The submission deadline: Oct. 15, 2014

Conference Name


Conference Email

2015 7th International Conference on Computer and Automation Engineering


(ICCAE 2015)

2015 3rd International Conference on Communication and Electronics



(ICCEI 2015)
2015 3rd International Conference on Information and Education Technology


(ICIET 2015)

Singapore, 2-3, Feb 2015.

The submission deadline: Nov. 15, 2014

Conference Name


Conference Email

2015 2nd International Conference on Intelligent Agriculture



2015 4th International Conference on Intelligent Information



2015 3rd International Conference on Intelligent Mechatronics and



2015 International Conference on Information Technology



2015 International Conference on Knowledge Engineering



Melaka, Malaysia, 6-7 Mar 2015.

The submission deadline: Dec. 15, 2014

Conference Name


Conference Email

2015 6th International Conference on Mechanical, Industrial, and


Manufacturing Technologies

2015 4th International Conference on Information and Industrial Electronics



2015 4th International Conference on Medical Information and Bioengineering



Call for papers



ICCAE 2015

Submission Methods:

All papers, will be recommended to publish into one of the journal below:


(Deadline: Oct. 15, 2014)



5-6 Jan 2015,

Bali, Indonesia




Journal of Automation and Control Engineering (JOACE)

(ISSN: 2301-3702)

System; (.pdf)

EI (INSPEC, IET), Ulrich's Periodicals Directory, Google Scholar, EBSCO,


Engineering & Technology Digital Library and Electronic Journals Digital

(.pdf and .doc)



Submission Methods:

All papers, will be recommended to publish into one of the journals below:


(Deadline: Nov. 15, 2014)



2-3, Feb 2015.





Journal of Advances in Computer Networks

(JACN, ISSN: 1793-8244; DOI: 10.7763/JACN)

System; (.pdf)

Engineering &Technology Digital Library, EBSCO, Ulrich's Periodicals


Directory, International Computer Science Digital Library (ICSDL),

(.pdf and .doc)

ProQuest, and Google Scholar.Journal of Communications

(JCM, ISSN:1796-2021;DOI: 10.12720/jcm)

EI Compendex; SCOPUS; ULRICH's Periodicals Directory; Google Scholar;


Submission Methods:

All papers, will be published in the Applied Mechanics and Materials Journal


(Deadline: Dec. 15, 2014)

(ISSN:: 1662-7482) as a special issue.


6-7 March

Electronic Submission System;



and .doc)

*Applied Mechanics Materials (ISSN: 1662-7482)

Indexed by Elsevier: SCOPUS and Ei Compendex (CPX)

(.pdf Cambridge Scientific Abstracts (CSA), Chemical

Abstracts (CA), Google and Google Scholar, ISI


(ISTP, CPCI, Web of Science), Institution of Electrical


Engineers (IEE), etc.