Building Engineering
CVA002
FLUID MECHANICS
Theory:
The discharge through a venturimeter is given by:
Q1 CdA1
2( P1 P 2)
A12
2 1
A2
(Eq. 1)
Q1 CdA1
where
2 g ( H 1 H 2)
A12
2 1
A2
Q = flow rate in m /s
(Eq. 2)
Cd = coefficient of discharge
P2 = pressure in throat
or
K CdA1
2g
A12
2 1
A2
Dr Ian Pattison
(Eq. 3)
(Eq. 4)
Nov14
VENTURIMETER
Experiment
You will conduct a series of experiments at different flow rates to evaluate the performance of the
Venturimeter to measure discharge. The whole group should get experience of using the flow measurement
apparatus.
Objectives:
i)
ii)
iii)
To compare measured pressure profile along the meter with the theoretical profile (for the
maximum and minimum flows only).
Apparatus:
You will be using the Venturimeter to measure the flow through the pipe. There are two different pieces of
equipment, but they both work on the same principles. However, the two equipment benches have slightly
different operating procedures.
Procedure:
Bench with ELEVEN manometer tapping points
Manometer manifold
Manifold air bleed
Manifold air inlet &
pump
Manometer tubes
Venturimeter
Flow control valve
10
11
Direction of flow
Position
10
11
Distance (mm)
20.5
33.2
47.4
61.6
74.3
87.0
99.7
112.4
125.1
147.3
Diameter (mm)
25.4
23.3
18.5
15.9
16.5
17.9
19.2
20.6
21.9
23.3
25.4
Figure 2
Cross section through the venturimeter with 11 manometer tapping points.
VENTURIMETER
Open the ON/OFF valve and close the control valve. Switch on the pump.
Gradually open the control valve until water starts to rise up the manometer tubes. Wait for all the air
bubbles to be evacuated from the system. Continue opening the control valve until the water level in one of
the tubes is near to the top of the measuring scale.
EITHER pump air into the top manifold using the cycle pump provided OR release air from the manifold by
loosening the manifold air bleed to depress/raise the surface levels in the tubes. Continue opening the valve
until the maximum range of manometer readings is reached. This corresponds with the maximum flow that
can be measured by the unit.
Take three sets of readings of all the water levels in the manometer tubes, each set being taken by a
different member of the group and write your results in Table 1. Compare the results to see if they agree. If
they dont agree take further sets until agreement is reached.
Calculate the actual flow rate through the venturimeter by measuring the time taken to collect a fixed volume
of water. Follow these steps:
Slightly reduce the flow rate and take another set of measurements. Continue until the flow is almost zero.
Take FIVE sets of reading between the maximum and zero.
You may have to add or remove air from the top of the manometer from time to time to keep the readings
within the range of the measuring scales but do not do this whilst taking a set of measurements
Position
2
Area (mm )
VENTURIMETER
338.6
233.5
84.6
170.2
255.2
338.6
Figure 4
Cross section through the venturimeter with 6 manometer tapping points.
The following procedure is required for starting the venturimeter prior to taking readings:
You are now ready to start taking readings. Take three sets of readings of all the water levels in the
manometer tubes, each set being taken by a different member of the group and write your results in the
Table. Compare the results to see if they agree. If they dont agree take further sets until agreement is
reached.
Calculate the actual flow rate through the venturimeter by measuring the time taken to collect a fixed volume
of water. Follow these steps:
Slightly reduce the flow rate and take another set of measurements. Continue until the flow is almost zero.
Take FIVE sets of reading between the maximum and zero.
VENTURIMETER
Results
Enter all your readings in the appropriate table below. An electronic copy of the Tables can be downloaded
from LEARN.
Table 1
Volume
(Litres)
Avg
time
(m /s)
Manometer readings
1
10
11
Table 2
Volume
(Litres)
VENTURIMETER
Average
Time (s)
Discharge
3
(m /s)
Manometer Readings
1
VENTURIMETER
Analysis
Plot Q (discharge) by H (difference in head between inlet and throat of Venturimeter). What is the
shape of the graph? What does this mean?
Take log10 of both axes. What is the shape of the line graph now? Fit a line of best fit to your data.
What type of relationship is it? What value of n did you expect?
HINT See Equation 3 in theory section of this handout, a plot of log10 Q vs log10 H should be a
straight line of slope n and intercept log K, i.e:
Log10 Q = log10 K + n log10 H
Log Q
Gradient = n
0
Log H
Intercept = Log K
Using Equation 4 in the theory section of this handout, calculate the average value of Cd
Calculate the value of Cd for each of the 5 discharges that you used using the value of n = 1/2 and
plot against Q.
The actual pressure at each piezometer tapping is not simply equal to gh, as the pressure above the
piezometers is not atmospheric. Comparative pressure is thus used, i.e., from Bernoulli,
Where the suffix n denotes the piezometer positions from 1 to 11, or 1 to 6 depending on the apparatus you
used
Reducing to dimensionless terms by dividing by the velocity head in the throat,
Plot the observed values of H along the length of the venturimeter tube for the maximum and
minimum discharges. (Both lines should on same axes)
VENTURIMETER
( )
( )
or
for comparison.
Important Note:
Tabulate all your calculations before plotting each graph and present a full specimen calculation of each
element of the analysis.
An accurate analysis requires accurate data (itself subject to observational error) and accurate plots.
Discussion
1. Comment on your original data, do you think it was accurate, how might you improve it if you were to
repeat the experiment?
2. What is your calculated value of n and how does it compare with what you expected?
3. What is your average Cd value and how does it compare with published values. Provide references
for your sources of information.
4. How does Cd vary with discharge? Is this what you would expect? If not, what should you have
expected? Provide references for your information.
5. Compare the dimensionless pressure heads plotted on the same graph and explain what they mean.
Explain any deviation between the theoretical and the two observed values.
Evaluation

Report Presentation
The report must be structured. Be sure to include:
Methods
The report must be typed using Arial 10 or Times Roman 12 fonts. Lines should be single spaced with a
single line space between paragraphs. Pages should have 2.5 cm margins all round. Graphical items should
be generated using a spreadsheet and electronically pasted into the report.
All pages should be numbered except the title page. All tables, figures and graphs must be properly labelled
and referred to in the text.
All units must follow the MKS system.
Calculations may be done by hand, computer or programmable calculator. If programs are used a sample
hand calculation must be presented. This allows the reader to check for errors.
Numbers should be displayed to three significant figures.
Any information obtained from other sources must be referenced in the text at the point where it is used and
given in full at the end in a reference section.
Marks will be deducted for poor spelling and poor grammar. Use the spell checker!
The original hand written data must be included as appendices.
8
VENTURIMETER
Assessment
Group Report

Method = 10%
Outline method used, justify decisions made and assumptions included.
Analysis = 30%
Tables clearly presented for each analysis, specimen calculations provided, graphs drawn
accurately
Discussion/Evaluation = 30%
All parts of the experiment and analysis discussed, results of analysis summarised, expected values
presented
Further reading:
Douglas, Gasiorek and Swaffield: Fluid Mechanics. Ch.6.10.
Douglas and Matthews: Solving Problems in Fluid Mechanics, Vol 1, Ch. 6.1.
British Standard 5167 4:2003