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# CHAPTER 14: Black Holes: Matters of Gravity

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1.Each one of these is a consequence of the postulates of special relativity except one.
Which is the exception?
The mass of an object moving with respect to an observer is larger than the mass
measured by a different observer who is at rest with respect to the object.
A clock moving with respect to an observer ticks more slowly than when measured
by an observer who is moving along with the clock.
The length of an object moving with respect to an observer is shorter than it is
when measured by a different observer moving along with the object.
The wavelength emitted from a source moving with respect to an observer will be
different from the wavelength measured by an observer who is moving along with
the source.
Ans: D
Section: 14-1
2.A clock is moving across your line of sight with its face turned toward you. Each of the
statement is incorrect?
The clock will run slow compared to a clock in your hand.
The clock will appear shorter than it would if it were at rest.
The clock will appear thinner, front to back, than it would if it were at rest.
The clock will appear more dense than it would if it were at rest.
Ans: C
Section: 14-1
3.Why does Einstein's theory of special relativity carry the name special?
It deals only with motion at speeds significantly less than the speed of light.
It deals only with objects that are at rest relative to each other.
It deals only with gravity and not with other kinds of forces.
It deals only with objects moving in a straight line at a constant speed.
Ans: D
Section: 14-1
4.How must an object be moving for us to be able to use the theory of special relativity to
describe the object?
It must be moving close to the speed of light; if this is true, then how speed and
direction change is not important.
It must be moving at a constant speed in a straight line; how fast it is moving is not
important.
It must be moving in a constant direction; how speed changes is unimportant.
It must be moving at a constant speed; whether the direction of motion changes is
unimportant.
Ans: B
Section: 14-1
5.In which of the following frames of reference would matter behave exactly as it would
in a stationary frame of reference?
Accelerating downward in an elevator whose cable has broken
Moving upward against gravity in an elevator as it accelerates from rest
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## Moving at a constant velocity

Moving at a constant speed in a circular path, such as in an orbit
Ans: C
Section: 14-1
6.Which of the following is a correct and complete statement of Einstein's first postulate of
special relativity?
Your description of physical reality is the same regardless of the constant velocity
at which you move.
Your description of physical reality is the same regardless of the direction in which
you move, even if the speed changes.
Your description of physical reality is the same regardless of how you move.
Your description of physical reality is the same regardless of the constant speed at
which you move, even if direction changes.
Ans: A
Section: 14-1
7.Suppose you are in a jet airliner traveling at a constant speed of 400 km/h in a constant
direction. All windows are blocked so you cannot see outside, and there are no vibrations
from the engines. What experiment can you do to determine that you are in fact moving?
Suspend a ball by a thread from the ceiling and measure the angle the thread makes
with the vertical.
Noneall experiments will give the same results that you would get when at rest
on the ground.
Measure the speed of a sound wave traveling up the aisle (toward the nose of the
aircraft) and another traveling down toward the tail, and calculate the difference
between the two results.
Drop a small rock and measure the distance it moves backward down the aisle as it
falls.
Ans: B
Section: 14-1
8.Suppose you are in the Space Shuttle in orbit around the Earth at a speed of 7 km/s, and
at some particular time your direction of travel is straight toward the Sun. The speed of
light in a vacuum is 300,000 km/s. What speed will you measure for light from the Sun?
300,007 km/s because your speed is added to that of the light
300,014 km/s because your speed is added to that of the light and relativistic
contraction has shortened the meter stick used in the measurement of the speed of
the light
300,007 km/s because relativistic contraction has shortened the meter stick with
which you measure the distance traveled by the light in order to measure its speed
300,000 km/s
Ans: D
Section: 14-1
9.Two spaceships are traveling past the Earth at 90% of the speed of light, in opposite

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## CHAPTER 14: Black Holes: Matters of Gravity

directions (i.e., they are approaching each other). One turns on a searchlight, which is
seen by scientists aboard the other. What speed do the scientists measure for this light (c
= speed of light in a vacuum)?
A) 1.9 c (equal to c + 0.9 c) B) 1.8 c (equal to 2 0.9 c). C) c D) 0.9 c
Ans: C
Section: 14-1

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10.If you see an object moving past you at 90% of the speed of light, what will its length
appear to be?
It will look longer than if it were at rest.
It will look shorter than if it were at rest.
It will look shorter than at rest while it is coming toward you and longer after it has
passed you.
Its length will appear to be unchanged from when it is at rest since it is a solid
object.
Ans: B
Section: 14-1
11.Suppose you are in a spaceship traveling toward the Earth at 95% of the speed of light.
Compared to when your ship was at rest on Mars, what length do you measure for your
spaceship?
You cannot tell; your life processes have slowed down too much for you to measure
the length.
The same as when it was on Mars
Shorter than when it was on Mars
Longer than when it was on Mars
Ans: B
Section: 14-1
12.Fred and Joanne both measure the length of a particular spaceship to be 100 m when it is
on the Earth. Joanne then gets in the spaceship and, after visiting the Moon, hurtles past
the Earth at a speed close to the speed of light. Fred, still on the Earth, measures the
length of the moving spaceship to be about 90 m. At the same time, Joanne (using her
own meter stick) measures the length of the spaceship to be
about 90 m because of the motion of the spaceship.
100 m because she is at rest on the spaceship.
We cannot tell from the information given.
about 110 m because both she and the spaceship are moving.
Ans: B
Section: 14-1

13.Suppose you see a spaceship with a clock on it hurtling past you at 80% of the speed of
light. As it goes by, the second hand on the ship's clock ticks off five seconds. How much
time elapsed on your clock while this was happening?
A)
More than five seconds if the spaceship is approaching you and less than five
seconds if it is moving away from you

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## Less than five seconds

More than five seconds
Five secondsthe same as on the ship's clock
Ans: C
Section: 14-1
14.Suppose you are aboard a spaceship that is passing the Earth at 80% of the speed of light.
You see a clock on the Earth tick off five seconds. How much time elapses on your own
clock while this is happening?
Five secondsthe same as on the ship's clock
More than five seconds
More than five seconds if you are approaching the Earth less than five seconds if
you are moving away from the Earth
Less than five seconds
Ans: B
Section: 14-1
15.A child on a playground swing is swinging back and forth (one complete oscillation) once
every four seconds, as seen by her father standing next to the swing. At the same time, a
spaceship is hurtling by at a speed close to the speed of light. According to special
relativity (and ignoring the Doppler effect for this question), her mother on the spaceship
finds that the time for one full swing is
less than four seconds when the spaceship is approaching the swing and longer than
four seconds when it is moving away.
less than four seconds.
equal to four seconds.
longer than four seconds.
Ans: D
Section: 14-1
16.If you stay on the Earth while a friend races off in a rocket at a speed close to the speed of
light, then according to special relativity you will see a clock on the rocket appear to tick
more slowly than the one on your wall. If your friend looks back at your clock, then
according to the same theory the friend will see your clock appear to tick
at the same speed as the clock on the rocket.
faster than the clock on the rocket.
faster or slower than the clock on the rocket, depending on the direction of travel of
the rocket compared to the Earth.
more slowly than the clock on the rocket.
Ans: D
Section: 14-1

17.You are on Mars standing on the gangplank of your spaceship when you see an identical
spaceship go past Mars at 90% of the speed of light. When you look closely at this
spaceship, how do you find that it compares to your own spaceship?
A)
The moving spaceship appears to be shorter than yours, and time on it appears to

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## move more slowly than on your ship.

The moving spaceship appears to be shorter than yours, and time on it appears to
move more quickly than on your ship.
The moving spaceship appears to be longer than yours, and time on it appears to
move more quickly than on your ship.
The moving spaceship appears to be longer than yours, and time on it appears to
move more slowly than on your ship.
Ans: A
Section: 14-1
18.In a TV tube, the picture is created by a beam of electrons that travel down the tube at a
very high speed. What is the mass of one of these electrons, compared to an electron at
rest?
The mass of an electron is measured to be the same regardless of how fast it is
moving.
The moving electron appears to have a smaller mass.
The electron appears to have a greater mass if you are in front of the tube (electrons
approaching you) and a smaller mass if you are standing behind the tube (electrons
moving away from you).
The moving electron appears to have a greater mass.
Ans: D
Section: 14-1
19.Which statement best describes the fabric of space and time as outlined by the classical
physics of Newton?
Space is expanding uniformly, while time passes more slowly as the universe ages.
Space becomes curved and time slows down near a source of gravity, as
measured by a distant observer.
The shape of space and the rate of passage of time depend on the relative velocities
of observer and observed.
Space is perfectly uniform, filling everywhere like a fixed network, while time
passes at a uniform rate for all observers.
Ans: D
Section: 14-2
20.At which of the following locations will Newton's laws of motion be inadequate in
describing precisely the motions of objects?
In the Space Shuttle, moving around the Earth at a speed of about 8 km/sec
At the center of the Earth
Inside an artillery shell as it accelerates inside the gun barrel
Inside the orbit of Mercury
Ans: D
Section: 14-2
21.In what way is the general theory more general (i.e., deals with more situations) than
the special theory of relativity?

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## It includes gravitation and accelerated motion.

It includes the change in the rate of passage of time when objects are in motion.
It includes motion at and above the speed of light.
It includes only constant, unaccelerated motion.
Ans: A
Section: 14-2

22.Suppose a satellite were placed in orbit around (and very close to) a neutron star. Which
theory would you need to use to describe how it moves?
A)
The special theory of relativity
C) Kepler's laws
B)
The general theory of relativity
D) Newton's law of gravitation
Ans: B
Section: 14-2
23.How does a gravitational field affect the passage of time?
Gravity has no effect on the passage of time.
Clocks in a gravitational field run slower than clocks farther from the center of the
field when viewed by an observer who is also farther from the center of the field.
C)
Gravity makes time stop.
D)
Clocks in a gravitational field run faster than clocks farther from the center of the
field when viewed by an observer who is also farther from the center of the field.
Ans: B
Section: 14-2
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24.In which of the following locations would a clock run at its fastest rate?
In empty space
On the Earth's surface
In Jupiter atmosphere
In the weightless environment on the Space Shuttle in orbit around the Earth
Ans: A
Section: 14-2

25.Suppose you were far from a planet that had a very strong gravitational field and you
were watching a clock on the surface of the planet. During the time in which your own
clock ticks out a time of 1 hour, how much time does the clock on the planet tick out?
A)
Less than 1 hour (but more than zero) C) More than 1 hour
B)
No time at all
D) Exactly 1 hour, the same as yours
Ans: A
Section: 14-2
26.According to Einstein's general theory of relativity, a clock that ticks at a regular rate far
from a source of gravity will appear to
A)
tick at the same rate in a gravitational field if it is an atomic clock but at a slower
rate if it is a mechanical clock.
B)
tick at the same rate, wherever it is placed in a gravitational field.
C)
tick slower the closer it comes to the source of gravity.

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## tick faster the closer it comes to the source of gravity.

Ans: C
Section: 14-2
27.According to Einstein's theory of general relativity, if you watch a clock from a distant
location as it is moved closer to a source of gravity, you will see the clock
maintain the same rate since time is unaffected by gravity.
only change its rate if it is moving rapidly but maintain its standard rate if
stationary in a gravity field.
slow down.
run faster.
Ans: C
Section: 14-2
28.In an observation of a group of stars adjacent to the limb of the Sun during a total solar
eclipse, which way will the nearest star to the solar limb appear to move because of the
curvature of space near the Sun?
Toward the solar limb
Away from the solar limb and toward the center of the Sun
In a direction parallel to the limb of the Sun
Light is unaffected by the curvature of space, and so the star's position within the
group will remain unchanged.
Ans: B
Section: 14-3
29.Suppose you were far from a planet that had a very strong gravitational field, and a light
wave reaches you from a source of hydrogen (H-alpha) light on the surface of the planet.
When you observe an H-alpha light source in your own spaceship, the wavelength is
656.3 nm. What wavelength do you see when you look at the light source on the planet?
Shorter than 656.3 nm
Longer than 656.3 nm
Infinite wavelength since the source is in a gravitational field
656.3 nm, the same as from your light source
Ans: B
Section: 14-3
30.What happens to the wavelength of light as it travels outward through the gravitational
field of a planet or star so that the field becomes less strong?
The wavelength stays the same, but the intensity of the light decreases.
The wavelength decreases.
The wavelength stays the same, but the energy of each photon decreases.
The wavelength increases.
Ans: D
Section: 14-3
31.According to Newton's law of gravity, why does the Earth orbit the Sun?

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The Sun exerts a gravitational force on the Earth across empty space.
The Earth and the Sun are continually exchanging photons of light in a way that
holds the Earth in orbit.
Matter contains quarks, and the Earth and the Sun attract each other with the color
force between their quarks.
Space around the Sun is curved.
Ans: A
Section: 14-3
32.According to general relativity, why does the Earth orbit the Sun?
Matter contains quarks, and the Earth and the Sun attract each other with the color
force between their quarks.
Space around the Sun is curved, and the Earth follows a geodesic in this curved
space.
The Sun exerts a gravitational force on the Earth across empty space.
The Earth and the Sun are continually exchanging photons of light in a way that
holds the Earth in orbit.
Ans: B
Section: 14-3
33.Which of the following is not a test of general relativity, but rather a test of special
relativity?
The length of a moving object decreases when observed by a stationary observer.
The wavelength of light increases as it leaves a region of gravitational field.
Light travels in a curved path in a gravitational field.
The perihelion position of Mercury's orbit precesses more quickly than is predicted
by Newtonian theory.
Ans: A
Section: 14-3
34.Suppose it were possible to lower a yellow sodium lamp down toward the event horizon
of a black hole. What would you see while watching from a safe distance?
The brightness or color would each remain unchanged.
The light from the lamp would change to orange and then red.
The light would remain yellow, but there would be fewer and fewer photons being
emitted from it.
The light from the lamp would change to green and then blue.
Ans: B
Section: 14-3

## 35.Each of the following is an observation confirming the predictions of general relativity,

except one. Which one is the exception?
A)
Light is deflected in the curved space near the Sun.
B)
The perihelion of the orbit of Mercury shifts more than the amount predicted by
Newtonian physics.
C)
Primordial black holes have been detected.

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D)

## The spectra of stars exhibit the gravitational redshift.

Ans: C
Section: 14-3

36.Light leaving the surface of a neutron star is strongly redshifted. What name is given to
this effect?
A)
Cosmological redshift
C) Zeeman effect
B)
Gravitational redshift
D) Doppler shift
Ans: B
Section: 14-3
37.Which of the following is the lower limit for a main-sequence star that will eventually
form a black hole?
A)
50 solar masses
C) 3 solar masses
B)
25 solar masses
D) 1.4 solar masses
Ans: B
Section: 14-4
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## 38.A black hole can be thought of as

a star with a temperature of 0 K, emitting no light.
the point at the center of every star, providing the star's energy by gravitational
collapse.
densely packed matter inside a small but finite volume.
a region with such a large mass density that even electromagnetic radiation cannot
escape.
Ans: D
Section: 14-4
39.Suppose that a neutron star of 2.8 solar masses is part of a binary star system in which the
other star is a normal giant star. What would happen if half a solar mass of material were
transferred onto the neutron star from its companion?
The neutron star would explode as a supernova.
The neutron degeneracy pressure inside the neutron star would increase to balance
the increased gravitational force within the neutron star.
The increased gravitational force would transform the neutrons into quarks, and the
neutron star would reestablish equilibrium as a quark star of smaller diameter.
The neutron star would collapse and become a black hole.
Ans: D
Section: 14-4

40.What is the likely final fate of a star whose mass is 15 solar masses when it is on the main
sequence?
A)
It will collapse and become a black hole.
B)
It will condense to the point where it is composed completely of neutrons, the
degeneracy of which will prevent further shrinkage.
C)
The degeneracy of the electrons within the star will prevent collapse below the

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## diameter of a white dwarf.

It will immediately split into two and become a binary star system.
Ans: B
Section: 14-4
41.What is the likely final fate of a star whose mass is 30 solar masses when it is on the main
sequence?
It will collapse and become a black hole.
It will condense to the point where it is composed completely of neutrons, the
degeneracy of which will prevent further shrinkage.
The degeneracy of the electrons within the star will prevent collapse below the
diameter of a white dwarf.
It will immediately split into two and become a binary star system.
Ans: A
Section: 14-4
42.In a binary star system, an unseen component is found to have a mass of about 8 solar
masses. It would be visible if this were a normal star, so it must be a collapsed object.
Theoretical considerations tell us that it must be
A) a black hole. B) a neutron star. C) a white dwarf. D) a brown dwarf.
Ans: A
Section: 14-4

43.In a binary star system, one component is found to have a mass of about 3 solar masses,
and the other a mass of about 7 solar masses. The 3-solar-mass star is visible from the
Earth, but the 7-solar-mass star is not. Theoretical considerations tell us that the 7-solarmass star must be
A)
a neutron star.
C) a white dwarf.
B)
a cool planetary object.
D) a black hole.
Ans: D
Section: 14-4
44.In reference to black holes, a singularity is
a place just outside the event horizon of a rotating black hole where it is impossible
to remain at rest.
B)
an entry point in the event horizon of a black hole through which material is
allowed to pass unhindered.
C)
a place where a nonzero mass occupies zero volume.
D)
a place where the escape velocity exactly equals the speed of light.
Ans: C
Section: 14-4
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45.What is a singularity?
A)
A particle-antiparticle pair
B)
A tunnel into another universe
C)
Any point at the Schwarzschild radius of a black hole

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## A point of infinite density

Ans: D
Section: 14-4
46.What is a superstring?
A new kind of force postulated to keep a companion binary star from falling into a
black hole
The line of material along which the jets shoot out from neutron stars and black
holes
A new theory of physics that is intended to describe what happens inside the event
horizon of a black hole
The force that holds quarks together in a quark star
Ans: C
Section: 14-4

## 47.What separates a black hole from the rest of the universe?

A)
Its crystalline crust
C) Its singularity
B)
The surface of the ergoregion
D) Its event horizon
Ans: D
Section: 14-5
48.What is the event horizon of a black hole?
The surface at which any object passing through it will leave with greater energy
than it entered
B)
The surface at which all events happen
C)
The infinitesimally small volume at the center of the black hole that contains all of
the black hole's mass
D)
The surface from inside of which nothing can escape
Ans: D
Section: 14-5
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49.At what location in the space around a black hole does the escape velocity become equal
to the speed of light?
At the point where clocks are observed to slow down by a factor of 2
Only at the central singularity
At the event horizon
At the point where escaping X rays are produced
Ans: C
Section: 14-5

## 50.The escape velocity at the event horizon around a black hole is

A)
infinite.
C) much less than the speed of light.
B)
equal to the speed of light.
D) just under the speed of light.
Ans: B
Section: 14-5

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51.If you were to pass inward through the event horizon of a black hole,
there would be nothing you could do to prevent yourself from falling directly into
the singularity at the center.
you could escape again provided that the black hole is spinning.
you could, with a powerful rocket, move outward within the black hole, thereby
avoiding the singularity until your fuel ran out, but you could never escape back
out through the event horizon.
you could avoid the singularity by going into orbit around it, but you could never
move outward again from any particular orbit.
Ans: A
Section: 14-5
52.Where would you look for an event horizon?
In the photosphere of a star (e.g., the Sun)
In the magnetosphere of a neutron star
At the edge of the visible universe
Near a black hole
Ans: D
Section: 14-5
53.Where is the event horizon of a black hole located?
At the position of maximum X-ray emission
At the singularity
At the outer surface of the ergoregion
At the Schwarzschild radius away from its center
Ans: D
Section: 14-5
54.What is it that is actually located at the event horizon of a black hole?
An infinitely dense concentration of mass
A magnetic field of immense strength
Nothing specific
A sphere of photons
Ans: C
Section: 14-5

## 55.What is the Schwarzschild radius of a black hole?

The distance from its singularity to the point where any object entering will gain
energy before leaving again
B)
The distance from its singularity to the point where nothing can escape from the
black hole
C)
The distance from its singularity to the point where the X rays are seen to originate
D)
Ans: B
Section: 14-5
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## 56.The Schwarzschild radius refers to

half the diameter of the singularity in a black hole.
the distance to which gas is ejected in a planetary nebula.
half the diameter of a neutron star.
the distance from the center of a black hole to the point at which the escape
velocity becomes equal to the speed of light.
Ans: D
Section: 14-5
57.According to the equation in Toolbox 14-1 in Comins and Kaufmann, Discovering the
Universe, 7th Ed., what is the Schwarzschild radius of a 2-solar-mass black hole?
A) 60 km B) 6000 km C) 6 m D) 6 km
Ans: D
Section: 14-5 and Toolbox 14-1

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58.According to the equation in Toolbox 14-1 in Comins and Kaufmann, Discovering the
Universe, 7th Ed., what happens to the Schwarzschild radius of a black hole if you double
the amount of mass in the black hole?
The Schwarzschild radius decreases by a factor of 4.
Ans: A
Section: 14-5 and Toolbox 14-1
59.How does the diameter of a black hole (size of the event horizon) depend on the mass
inside the black hole?
The diameter does not depend on the mass.
The greater the mass, the greater the diameteruntil the mass becomes relatively
large and then the diameter decreases with increasing mass.
The greater the mass, the greater the diameter.
The greater the mass, the smaller the diameter.
Ans: C
Section: 14-5 and Toolbox 14-1
60.How many properties of the matter inside a black hole can be measured from outside the
black hole?
A) 6 B) 4 C) 3 D) Only 1
Ans: C
Section: 14-5

61.Which properties of the matter inside a black hole can be measured from outside the
black hole?
A)
The mass and the angular momentum
B)
Only the mass
C)
The mass, the angular momentum, the electric charge, and the average atomic

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weight
The mass, the angular momentum, and the electric charge
Ans: D
Section: 14-5
62.The only physical properties that are necessary to describe a black hole and its interaction
with the rest of the universe completely are
its total mass, the total angular momentum or spin, and its temperature.
its total mass, the chemical or atomic structure of the matter within it, and its
overall size.
the size of the event horizon, the strength of its magnetic field, and the size of its
solid core.
its total mass, total electric charge, and total angular momentum or spin.
Ans: D
Section: 14-5
63.Which of the following can you never know about a black hole?
The type of material inside it
Its angular momentum (spin)
The total amount of matter (the mass) inside it
Its net electric charge
Ans: A
Section: 14-5
64.Take two identical, nonrotating, 5-solar-mass black holes and place them side by side.
Add 1 solar mass of pineapples to the left-hand one and 1 solar mass of uranium to the
right-hand one (without changing the electrical charge or the rotation of either black
hole). Afterward, how will these two black holes differ?
The right-hand one will have a stronger gravitational field because of the denser
material inside it.
They will not differ at all.
The left-hand one will smell better.
The right-hand one will be radioactive, emitting alpha particles, electrons, and
gamma rays into space.
Ans: B
Section: 14-5

65.Place two identical 3-solar-mass black holes side by side. Add 1 solar mass of neutrons to
the left-hand one and 1 solar mass of protons to the right-hand one. Afterward, how will
these two black holes differ?
A)
They will not differ at all since protons and neutrons are transformed into a
common type of uncharged matter.
B)
The left-hand one will have a stronger gravitational field than the right-hand one
because a neutron is heavier than a proton.
C)
The left-hand one will emit electrons and neutrinos as the neutrons decay into
protons inside this black hole.

Page 14

## CHAPTER 14: Black Holes: Matters of Gravity

D)

The left-hand one will be electrically neutral and the right-hand one will have an
enormous electric charge.
Ans: D
Section: 14-5
66.Suppose that a large piece (e.g., 5 solar masses) of purple, magnetized iron is rotating five
times per day. If this object were able to collapse gravitationally to form a black hole,
which one of the following properties of the matter inside the black hole could an outside
observer actually measure?
A) Its rotation B) Its magnetic field C) Its color D) Its composition
Ans: A
Section: 14-5

A)
B)
C)
D)

67.What happens to the magnetic field of a star that collapses to become a black hole?
The magnetic field becomes infinitely intensified.
The magnetic field is radiated away; black holes never have magnetic fields.
The magnetic field becomes compressed and intensified by a factor equal to the
ratio of the star's original diameter to the diameter of the event horizon.
The magnetic field becomes weaker by the ratio of the diameter of the black hole
event horizon to the star's original diameter.
Ans: B
Section: 14-5

## 68.Black holes will not possess a magnetic field because

magnetic field is radiated away in the form of gravitational waves during the
collapse.
B)
black holes cannot have electric charge, and this is needed to create a magnetic
field.
C)
magnetic fields are created by spinning charges, and black holes cannot spin.
D)
an object with a magnetic field cannot collapse into a black hole.
Ans: A
Section: 14-5
A)

A)
B)
C)
D)

A)
B)

69.In general, how many fundamentally different types of black holes are there expected to
be?
Only oneAll properties but mass are destroyed when a black hole is created.
Twothose that have electric charge and those that have no electric charge
Threeatomic-mass black holes, stellar-mass black holes, and supermassive black
holes
Twothose that rotate and those that do not rotate
Ans: D
Section: 14-5
70.What is a Schwarzschild black hole?
A supermassive black hole
Any uncharged black hole

Page 15

C)
D)

A)
B)

## A black hole that fills its Schwarzschild radius with matter

Any nonrotating black hole
Ans: D
Section: 14-5
71.What name is given to a nonrotating black hole?
A wormhole
C)
A Hawking singularity
D)
Ans: C
Section: 14-5

## 72.What name is given to a rotating black hole?

A)
A Schwarzschild black hole
C)
B)
A Hawking singularity
D)
Ans: D
Section: 14-5
A)
B)

A)
B)
C)
D)

A)
B)
C)
D)

## 73.What is a Kerr black hole?

Any nonrotating black hole
Any rotating black hole
Ans: B
Section: 14-5

C)
D)

## A Schwarzschild black hole

A Kerr black hole

A wormhole
A Kerr black hole

## Any uncharged black hole

A hypothetical zero-mass black hole

74.How does a Kerr black hole differ from a Schwarzschild black hole?
Kerr black holes have infinite mass; Schwarzschild black holes do not.
Kerr black holes have net electric charge; Schwarzschild black holes do not.
Kerr black holes have accretion disks; Schwarzschild black holes do not.
Kerr black holes rotate; Schwarzschild black holes do not.
Ans: D
Section: 14-5
75.The difference between a Schwarzschild black hole (SBH) and a Kerr black hole (KBH)
is
overall mass; an SBH contains about 20 solar masses, whereas the mass of a KBH
is greater than 20 solar masses.
that the KBH is electrically charged, whereas the SBH is not.
that an SBH is spinning, whereas a KBH is not.
that a KBH is spinning, whereas an SBH is not.
Ans: D
Section: 14-5

## 76.What is the ergoregion of a Kerr black hole?

A region outside the event horizon where objects cannot remain at rest without
falling into the black hole
B)
A region inside the event horizon where virtual particles are created from the
vacuum of space
A)

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## CHAPTER 14: Black Holes: Matters of Gravity

C)
D)

The inner part of the accretion disk where X rays are generated
The region between the event horizon and the singularity from which nothing can
escape
Ans: A
Section: 14-5

## 77.In reference to black holes, the word ergosphere refers to

the entire region inside the event horizon.
a region just outside the event horizon of a rotating black hole where it is
impossible for anything to remain at rest.
C)
the entire universe outside the black hole.
D)
the region occupied by the accretion disk where matter from a companion star
collects around a black hole.
Ans: B
Section: 14-5
A)
B)

78.One day, while straying dangerously close to a black hole, you notice that you must keep
your spaceship moving. No matter how hard you try to remain at rest, you are inevitably
drawn into the black hole unless you keep moving. What does this tell you about the
black hole (other than that you should not be near it!)?
A)
It is evaporating.
C) It is electrically charged.
B)
It is supermassive.
D) It is rotating.
Ans: D
Section: 14-5
79.Suppose the Sun became a 1-solar-mass Schwartzschild black hole. What would be its
A) 2 108 AU B) 7 103 AU C) 5 AU D) 3000 AU
Ans: A
Section: Toolbox 14-1

A)
B)
C)
D)

80.The supermassive black hole candidate in the center of the galaxy NGC 4261 is estimated
to have a mass of 1.2 109 M.. What is the Schwarzschild radius of such a black hole?
1.6 109 meters, a little larger than the Sun
24 AU, a little larger than Jupiter's orbit
0.95 pc, more than half the distance to the nearest star
1600 pc, about one-tenth of the way across our Galaxy
Ans: B
Section: Toolbox 14-1

81.A space freighter accidentally drops a steel beam while passing a black hole, and the
beam starts falling toward the black hole with the long direction of the beam pointing
toward the black hole. What happens to the beam as it approaches the event horizon?
A)
It expands in all dimensions to the size of the black hole event horizon when it
reaches this distance from the singularity.
B)
It is stretched in length and compressed in width.

Page 17

C)
D)

A)
B)
C)
D)

A)
B)
C)
D)

A)
B)
C)
D)

## It is compressed in both length and width.

It is compressed in length and stretched in width.
Ans: B
Section: 14-6
82.What would happen to the gravitational force on the Earth if the Sun were to be replaced
by a 1-solar-mass black hole?
It would become extremely high, sufficient to pull the Earth into it.
It would double in strength.
It would remain as it is now.
It would be much less because the gravitational field of a black hole only exists
very close to it.
Ans: C
Section: 14-6
83.If the Sun were replaced by a 1-solar-mass black hole, then the Earth would
enter an elliptical orbit passing close to the black hole, with its farthest distance
from the black hole equal to 1 AU.
spiral quickly into the black hole.
head off into interstellar space along a straight-line tangent to its original orbit
around the Sun.
continue to orbit the black hole in precisely its present orbit.
Ans: D
Section: 14-6
84.As you are investigating a black hole from a safe distance, a rivet pops out of the tailfin
on your spaceship and falls toward the black hole. Will you ever see the rivet enter the
event horizon?
Yes, but it will be so blueshifted that you would need X-ray eyes to see it.
No, it will be compressed to zero size and disappear from sight before it reaches the
event horizon.
Yes, you will see it fall faster and faster until it disappears as it falls through the
event horizon.
No, it will appear to stop and hover forever before entering the event horizon.
Ans: D
Section: 14-6

85.A laborer repairing the clocktower on a space station orbiting a black hole accidentally
drops the clock in such a way that it accelerates toward the black hole. What does this
person see while watching the clock?
A)
The hands of the clock keep normal time since time is absolute and the same
everywhere.
B)
The hands of the clock move slower and slower until they and the clock itself stop
at the event horizon.
C)
As the clock nears the event horizon, the hands begin to move randomly as time
becomes jumbled near the black hole.

Page 18

## CHAPTER 14: Black Holes: Matters of Gravity

D)

A)
B)
C)
D)

A)
B)
C)
D)

The hands of the clock move faster and faster until the clock plunges through the
event horizon.
Ans: B
Section: 14-6
86.What appears to happen to a clock as it approaches and reaches the event horizon around
a black hole when viewed by a remote observer?
Time appears to pass at a much faster rate, this rate becoming infinitely fast at the
event horizon.
It appears to slow down and stop.
It speeds up because of the intensified gravitational field.
It ticks uniformly since nothing changes the progress of time.
Ans: B
Section: 14-6
87.If you were watching a friend (or better still, an enemy!) who has fallen as far as the
event horizon of a black hole, what would you measure as his heartbeat (apart from the
effects caused by his adrenaline level)?
It would appear to have slowed down somewhat, but not much, because of the
change of the speed of light in the gravity field.
It would appear to be zero; his heart would appear to have stopped.
It would appear to have speeded up to an incredible rate.
It would appear to be normal since gravity has no effect on time intervals.
Ans: B
Section: 14-6

## 88.In terms of black holes, what is a wormhole?

A tunnel of undistorted space through an event horizon allowing objects to enter
and leave a black hole without being torn apart
B)
A direct connection from any black hole to another part of spacetime
C)
A hole in a solid object, such as a planet, created by the passage of a small black
hole through the object
D)
A direct connection from a rotating black hole to another part of spacetime
Ans: D
Section: 14-6
A)

## 89.Which of the following statements correctly describes cosmic censorship?

Black holes cannot have magnetic fields.
All properties of the matter inside a black hole are hidden by the event horizon,
except for the total mass of the matter.
C)
The amount of mass in a black hole can never be measured.
D)
Nothing can leave a local region of space that contains a singularity.
Ans: D
Section: 14-6
A)
B)

90.You guide your spacecraft into an orbit a few AU from a black hole. You know its mass

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## CHAPTER 14: Black Holes: Matters of Gravity

A)
B)
C)
D)

A)
B)
C)
D)

A)
B)
C)
D)

A)
B)
C)
D)

is 4 or 5 solar masses, but you want to measure it more precisely. How would you do
this?
Actually, the mass of a black hole cannot be determined precisely because it is
impossible to see beyond the event horizon. So your estimate of 4 or 5 solar
masses is as good a value as you can hope for.
You can measure the period and the semimajor axis of your orbit and then use
Newton's form of Kepler's third law.
You cannot use Newton's form of the third law. Because of general relativity, you
must use a relativistic form of Kepler's third law.
You must move in toward the black hole and mark the distance as you cross the
event horizon. From this distance, the mass can be calculated.
Ans: B
Section: 14-6
91.A light wave is emitted from the accretion disk surrounding a black hole and moves
toward the hole and away from an observer. This observer will see
the beam of light moving faster than c as it accelerates toward the hole.
the beam of light slow down and stop as it reaches the event horizon.
that the wavelength of the light is gravitationally blueshifted and Doppler
redshifted, and the two effects just cancel as the light reaches the event horizon.
that the wavelength of the light is gravitationally blueshifted as it falls toward the
event horizon.
Ans: D
Section: 14-6
92.Which effects have been useful (and successful) in the search for and identification of
black holes in the universe?
The influence of their intense gravitational field on atoms that are emitting light
from the event horizons of the black holes
Their gravitational influence on nearby matter, particularly companion stars
The effect of their angular momentum, or spin, on nearby matter
Their magnetic fields and the influence on these fields on nearby matter
Ans: B
Section: 14-7
93.What mechanism in the vicinity of a star gives us a hint of the presence of a black hole as
a companion to the star?
The light from the companion star shows extreme redshift because of the
gravitational field of the black hole.
The star periodically disappears from the viewpoint of the Earth during its eclipses
by the black hole as these two objects orbit each other.
The space near the star darkens, indicating that the black hole prevents the light
from distant objects from reaching the Earth.
Gas from the star, falling in toward a black hole, is compressed to very high
densities and temperatures so that it emits an intense and rapidly fluctuating flux of
X rays.

Page 20

## CHAPTER 14: Black Holes: Matters of Gravity

Ans: D
Section: 14-7

A)
B)
C)
D)

A)
B)
C)
D)

A)
B)
C)
D)

94.Which of the following techniques has been successful in identifying good candidates for
a black hole in our Galaxy?
The detection of extremely redshifted starlight from a region in the nearby spiral
arm of the Galaxy
The detection of X rays from a binary star undergoing mass exchange, where
masses of component stars can be determined
The detection of an extremely dark point in the sky from which no light at all is
seen
The gravitational lensing of light from a distant object by the black hole to produce
two identical images
Ans: B
Section: 14-7
95.What method is used by astronomers to infer the existence in space of a dark object with
a mass of about 5 solar masses, such as a black hole?
The infrared imaging of a region whose effective temperature is lower than the
cosmic microwave background, rendering it dark
The measurement of the gravitational redshift of spectral lines in the spectrum of
the object
The measurement of the effect of its gravitational force on a companion object in a
binary system
The estimation of the luminosity of the object and the application of the massluminosity relationship
Ans: C
Section: 14-7
96.I always thought nothing could escape from a black hole, yet astronomers are locating
black hole candidates by the X rays they emit. How can X rays be coming from a black
hole?
The X rays come from a highly compressed region in an accretion disk outside the
event horizon of the black hole.
X rays are not light or matter and can therefore escape from inside the black hole.
If the black hole is rotating, it modifies spacetime around it so much that particles
and X rays are created in the vacuum just outside the event horizon.
The X rays are produced by vibrations of the black hole itself and therefore do not
come from inside the black hole.
Ans: A
Section: 14-7

97.X rays that come from the vicinity of a black hole actually originate
A)
from just outside the event horizon, on the accretion disk.
B)
from its exact center, or singularity.
C)
from relatively far away from the black hole, where matter is quite cool.

Page 21

D)

A)
B)
C)
D)

A)
B)
C)
D)

## from well inside the event horizon.

Ans: A
Section: 14-7
98.If a black hole is truly black and the escape velocity associated with this black hole is
greater than the speed of light such that no light can escape it, where do the X rays from
the black hole candidates so far identified originate?
The black hole is only black to visible radiation, but X rays travel faster than the
speed of light and so can escape.
They originate from the normal star accompanying the black hole, its ordinary light
being blueshifted into the X-ray spectral region by the intense gravity of the black
hole.
They originate from stars behind the black hole, the light from which is focused
and concentrated such that it becomes X-ray radiation by gravitational focusing.
They originate from the matter surrounding the black hole that is highly condensed
and hence very hot because of the intense gravitational field.
Ans: D
Section: 14-7
99.The intense X rays emitted by a suspected black hole are generated by what physical
mechanism?
Blueshifting of light emitted by hot gas into the X-ray region of the
electromagnetic spectrum by the extreme speed of the gas moving into the black
hole
Induced emission in atoms by the intense gravitational field as material moves
toward the black hole
Compressional heating as material moves into the hole
The deceleration of matter as it abruptly stops at the event horizon of the black hole
Ans: C
Section: 14-7

100.How has the diameter of the black hole candidate Cygnus X-1 been estimated?
A)
From its angular size in the sky and its known distance
B)
From the time scale of flickering of the X rays emitted by it
C)
From its orbital period around a companion star
D)
From the length of time it blocks off the light from its companion star when it
passes in front of (eclipses) its companion, as seen from the Earth
Ans: B
Section: Guided Discovery: Identifying Stellar-Remnant Black Holes, Ch.14
101.The X-ray source Cygnus X-1 is a black hole candidate located in a binary star system.
The X-ray source is believed to occupy a volume smaller than the Earth. This size is
deduced from
A)
rapid flickering in its X-ray brightness.
B)
its apparent magnitude and distance.
C)
its luminosity and spectral class.

Page 22

D)

## the shortness of its orbital period.

Ans: A
Section: Guided Discovery: Identifying Stellar-Remnant Black Holes, Ch.14

## 102.One object that is believed to be a black hole in our Galaxy is

A)
the central star in the Crab Nebula.
B)
the central star in the planetary nebula, the Ring Nebula in Lyra.
C)
the Vela pulsar.
D)
Cygnus X-1, a powerful X-ray source.
Ans: D
Section: Guided Discovery: Identifying Stellar-Remnant Black Holes, Ch.14
103.How was the black hole candidate Cygnus X-1 first discovered?
interferometric array in New Mexico
B)
By high-resolution visible-light observations with the Hubble Space Telescope
C)
By X-ray measurements with the Uhuru satellite
D)
By infrared observations with the IRAS infrared satellite
Ans: C
Section: Guided Discovery: Identifying Stellar-Remnant Black Holes, Ch.14
A)

104.How has the mass of the black hole candidate Cygnus X-1 been estimated?
From the periodic wobble it produces in the spectral lines of a normal companion
star around which it orbits
B)
From the gravitational redshift, where the more massive the object, the greater the
redshift of its spectral lines
C)
From the observed size and estimated density of the object
D)
From the periodic wobble in its own characteristic black-hole spectrum
Ans: A
Section: Guided Discovery: Identifying Stellar-Remnant Black Holes, Ch.14
A)

## 105.Why is Cygnus X-1 thought to be a black hole?

A)
It emits X rays that flicker on time scales of one-hundredth of a second, a unique
characteristic of a black hole.
B)
No light has ever been observed to come from it.
C)
It is smaller than the Earth, but its mass is too large to be a neutron star or white
dwarf.
D)
It has pulled matter from its companion star into an accretion disk around itself.
Ans: C
Section: Guided Discovery: Identifying Stellar-Remnant Black Holes, Ch.14
106.What is believed to be the mass of the black hole candidate Cygnus X-1?
A) 120 solar masses B) 30 solar masses C) 7 solar masses D) 1 solar mass
Ans: C
Section: Guided Discovery: Identifying Stellar-Remnant Black Holes, Ch.14

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## CHAPTER 14: Black Holes: Matters of Gravity

107.What is believed to be the mass of the black hole candidate at the center of the galaxy
M87?
A)
3 million solar masses
C) 300,000 solar masses
B)
3 billion solar masses
D) 300 solar masses
Ans: B
Section: 14-8
108.How was the mass of the candidate black hole at the center of the galaxy M87 estimated?
A)
From the amount of mass that is disappearing into it every year
B)
From the periodic shift in the wavelengths of spectral lines from a companion
object around which the black hole is orbiting
C)
From observations of the very high orbital speed of objects close to this center
D)
From the intensity of X rays from it and the frequency of flickering of the X-ray
intensity
Ans: C
Section: 14-8
A)
B)

## 109.Where would you look for a supermassive black hole?

In the center of a galaxy
C) Orbiting a normal star in our Galaxy
At the center of the universe
D) At the center of a supernova remnant
Ans: A
Section: 14-8

110.In a Hubble Space Telescope search for evidence of supermassive black holes in about 30
nearby galaxies, evidence was found that
A)
only one galaxy, our own Milky Way Galaxy, contains such a black hole.
B)
no galaxies in our vicinity contain such a black hole at their centers.
C)
almost all galaxies contain such black holes.
D)
only spiral galaxies contain supermassive black holes.
Ans: C
Section: 14-8
A)
B)
C)
D)

## 111.What is a primordial black hole?

A black hole created during the formation of the universe
Any black hole not in orbit around a normal star
A black hole created during the formation of the solar system
A black hole at the center of a galaxy
Ans: A
Section: 14-8

112.What name is given to any black hole that might have been created in the Big Bang at the
beginning of the universe?
A)
A supermassive black hole
C) A Kerr black hole
B)
A Schwarzschild black hole
D) A primordial black hole
Ans: D
Section: 14-8

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## CHAPTER 14: Black Holes: Matters of Gravity

113.Gas can be pulled off a binary companion by a black hole. The black hole's event
horizon is too small to allow all of the gas to enter perpendicularly, so it orbits in a ring
around the black hole or a neutron star. What is this ring called?
A) A gas ring B) A Kerr disk C) An accretion disk D) An ergoregion
Ans: C
Section: 14-9
114.Gas jets have often formed perpendicular to the plane of the accretion disk around a black
hole or a neutron star. What is it that propels the gas away from the hole or star?
A)
Magnetic forces from the object's strong magnetic field
B)
Conservation of momentum since the outgoing particles are pair produced as
virtual particles near the object
C)
The enormous pressure of the compressed infalling gas of the accretion disk
D)
The strong curvature of spacetime near the object
Ans: C
Section: 14-9
115.What is the observed distribution of the longer-living gamma-ray bursters in the sky?
A)
Concentrated primarily along the plane of the Milky Way, indicating an origin
within our Galaxy
B)
Uniform over the entire sky, indicating an origin at cosmological distances
C)
Clumpy but not coinciding with any known galaxy clusters, indicating an origin in
a new kind of astronomical object
D)
Clumpy, approximately coinciding with large clusters of galaxies such as the Coma
cluster
Ans: B
Section: 14-10
116.What is the observed distribution of the shorter-living gamma-ray bursters in the sky?
A)
Concentrated primarily along the plane of the Milky Way, indicating an origin
within our Galaxy
B)
Uniform over the entire sky, indicating an origin at cosmological distances
C)
Clumpy but not coinciding with any known galaxy clusters, indicating an origin in
a new kind of astronomical object
D)
Clumpy, approximately coinciding with large clusters of galaxies such as the Coma
cluster
Ans: A
Section: 14-10
117.Our efforts to relate gamma-ray bursts with specific sources has had what results so far?
A)
Gamma-ray bursters always occur in the depths of space, far from any galactic or
other obvious source.
B)
Gamma-ray bursters always occur in the centers of galaxies, including those
observed in the Milky Way Galaxy.
C)
Gamma-ray bursters appear to occur in galaxies, but not at the centers of galaxies.

Page 25

## CHAPTER 14: Black Holes: Matters of Gravity

D)

Gamma-ray bursters occur in globular clusters, well away from the main regions in
the host galaxy.
Ans: C
Section: 14-10

## 118.What is the typical duration of a gamma-ray burst?

Several days, indicating a size much smaller than the distance from the Earth to the
nearest star beyond the Sun
B)
Less than a couple of minutes, indicating a source smaller than Mercury's orbit
C)
Up to about 1 hour, indicating a source less than half the size of our solar system
D)
Several hours, indicating a source somewhat larger than our solar system
Ans: B
Section: 14-10
A)

119.What property of the longer-living gamma-ray bursters indicates that they are located at
large (cosmological) distances from the Earth?
A)
Highly redshifted emission lines seen in their visible spectrum from the burster's
nucleus
B)
The small apparent sizes of the objects producing the bursts
C)
Absorption lines in the visible spectra of their remnant glow, due to intergalactic
clouds between them and the Earth
D)
The faintness of these bursts
Ans: C
Section: 14-10
120.Evidence for the conclusion that the longer-living gamma-ray bursters are very distant
comes from
A)
the extreme redshift of emission lines in the visible spectrum detected after a
gamma-ray burst.
B)
the delay in the arrival of the visible pulse behind the gamma-ray pulse, caused by
the passage of the light through optically thick intergalactic material.
C)
the spread in arrival times of different gamma-ray photon energies, indicating a
long passage through intergalactic gas.
D)
the presence of absorption lines from intergalactic gas clouds in the spectrum of
remnant visible light following the gamma-ray burst.
Ans: D
Section: 14-10
121.How much energy does a typical longer-living gamma-ray burster emit in 100 seconds?
A)
As much as the Sun in 100 years
B)
As much as the Sun in a month
C)
As much as the Sun since the demise of the dinosaurs
D)
As much as the Sun over its entire lifetime
Ans: D
Section: 14-10

Page 26

## 122.What is a virtual particle?

A)
A particle whose existence is too short for us to know it ever existed
B)
A particle that never does anything wrong
C)
A particle that, if it comes in contact with ordinary matter, will annihilate to form
pure energy
D)
Any particle, like a photon or a graviton, that is made up of waves
Ans: A
Section: 4-6 and 14-11
123.Sometimes particle-antiparticle pairs are created and then annihilate so quickly that we
cannot know that they ever existed. What are these particles (or antiparticles) called?
A)
Relativistic particles
C) Field particles
B)
Temporary particles
D) Virtual particles
Ans: D
Section: 14-11
124.If nothing can ever leave a black hole, can the mass of a black hole ever decrease?
No
Yes, if antiparticles enter a black hole and annihilate with matter already inside the
black hole
C)
Yes, if the matter inside the black hole is radioactive (e.g., uranium), allowing their
decay productsalpha particles, electrons, and gamma raysto constantly leave
the black hole
D)
Yes, if particle-antiparticle pairs are created outside the event horizon out of
gravitational energy from the black hole and one particle enters the event horizon
while the other escapes
Ans: D
Section: 14-11
A)
B)

125.When particle-antiparticle pairs are created just outside the event horizon of a black hole,
one member can escape while the other enters the black hole. What is the name of this
stream of particles leaving a black hole?
A)
B)
Ans: D
Section: 14-11
Microwaves from the edge of the visible universe
Electromagnetic radiation from electrons spiraling in the magnetosphere of a
neutron star
C)
A stream of particles and antiparticles from just outside the event horizon of a black
hole
D)
X rays from an accretion disk around a black hole
Ans: C
Section: 14-11
A)
B)

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## CHAPTER 14: Black Holes: Matters of Gravity

127.What would the mass of a primordial black hole need to have been in order for it to be
just disappearing now, due to the loss of Hawking radiation?
A) 10 kg B) 10 million kg C) 10,000 kg D) 10 billion kg
Ans: D
Section: 14-11
128.Which one of the following statements about the evaporation of black holes is correct?
A)
The rate at which a black hole evaporates is lower for a higher-mass black hole.
B)
The rate at which a black hole evaporates is higher for a higher-mass black hole.
C)
Black holes do not evaporate.
D)
The rate at which a black hole evaporates is independent of the mass of the black
hole.
Ans: A
Section: 14-11
129.Matter in an accretion disk is in orbit around a black hole, but friction within the disk
causes the matter to gradually spiral into the black hole. What will change in terms of the
observable properties of the black hole as this process continues?
A)
Only the mass will increase.
B)
The mass, the angular momentum, and the rate of evaporation of the black hole will
increase.
C)
Nothing will change.
D)
Both the mass and the angular momentum of the black hole will increase.
Ans: D
Section: 14-11

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