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Well Testing

Superposition
By : Shahab Gerami

Outline

Superposition Principle
Superposition in time
Superposition Principle in space

Superposition Principle
Linear diffusivity equation

A mathematical technique based on the property that solutions to linear

partial equations can be added to provide yet another solution. This
permits constructions of mathematical solutions to situations with complex
boundary conditions, especially drawdown and buildup tests, and in
settings where flow rates change with time.

Superposition Principle
Linear diffusivity equation

Mathematically the superposition theorem states that any sum of

individual solutions to the diffusivity equation is also a solution to
that equation. This concept can be applied to account for the
following effects on the transient flow solution:
Superposition in time
Effects of rate change
Super position in space
Effects of multiple wells
Effects of the boundary

Superposition in Time

Superposition in Time

150
100
85
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Unit Rate Function

Pu t

pwf
q

mu log t bu

Pu t

10

pwf
q

mu log t bu

Horner Approximation
An approximation that can be used in many cases to avoid using
superposition to model the production history of a variable rate well.
The sequence of Ei functions can be replaced with a single Ei function
that contains a single producing time and a single producing rate.
The producing rate, q last , is the most recent non-zero rate at which the
well was produced.
The single producing time (pseudo-producing time) is found by dividing
the cumulative production from the well by the most recent rate.

t p 24

Np
qlas t

ct rw2
qlast B

pi pwf 70.6
Ei 948

kh
k t p

Two questions?!
1. What is the basis of this equation?
2. Under what conditions is it applicable?

t p 24

Np
qlas t

ct rw2
qlast B

pi pwf 70.6
Ei 948

kh
k
t
p

1. The basis for the approximation is intuitive and not rigorous
Clear choice is the most recent rate which is maintained for
any significant period.
The product of effective production time and production
rate results in correct cumulative production. Thus, it
honors the material balance equation.
2. The approximation is adequate if the most recent flow rate is
maintained long enough.
Guideline: Horners approximation is valid when:

tlas t
tnext to las t

Superposition in Space
Effects of Multiple Wells

Superposition in Space
Method of Images
The superposition theorem can also be extended to predict the pressure of a
well in a bounded reservoir.

Mathematically, the no-flow condition can be

met by placing an image well, identical to
that of the actual well, on the other side of
the fault at exactly distance r. Consequently,
the effect of the boundary on the pressure
behavior of a well would be the same as the
effect from an image well located a distance
2r from the actual well.

Superposition in Space
Method of Images

Superposition in Space
Method of Images

B q
qD 0.0002637 O
khpi

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Superposition in Space
Method of Images

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