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8th WSEAS International Conference on POWER SYSTEMS (PS 2008), Santander, Cantabria, Spain, September 23-25, 2008

Protection of Energetic Transformers on the side of 400 kV from

Overvoltage through Arresters Metal Oxide MO
and their modeling
Department: Electro-Energetic Systems
University of Pristina
Address: Bregu i diellit n.n. 10000 Prishtin

Abstract: - Overvoltage arresters play an important role in protecting the equipment of electro energetic
systems, and transformers from overvoltage. Thus, for these overvoltage arresters, devices for protecting
and coordinating in electro energetic systems are of a significant importance.
In this paper, an analysis is performed with regard to the protection characteristics of overvoltage arresters
of metal - oxide MO, and finding distance, location and their placement (with method of simulation), safety
margin for achieving respective standard for protection as well as energetic transformers of nominal voltage
400 kV in Station Kosova B.

Key-words: modelation, arrester, location their placement, safety margin, protection transformers,
lightning, simulation with PsCad.
The optimal selection of MO, determination of
their distance placement, and in this case, the
margin for protection of the energetic transformer
play an important role in coordination of
insulation respectively in protecting the
transformers and other components from
atmospheric overvoltage, commutation and
industrial pollution overvoltage.
Such a protection device for transformers
increases the durability in the work of
transformers and makes their work more
successful in transformation and carriage of the
electric energy.
In order to have a functional above-mentioned
protection device, besides the experimental
verification of its characteristics, it is of a special
interest to determine protection distance, before
and after the transformers [6].
In this paper, an analysis is done with regard to the
protection characteristics of MO arresters and
finding distance and their placement (with

1 Introduction
Overvoltage arresters play an important role in
protecting the equipment of electro energetic
systems, and transformers from overvoltages. So,
for this the overvoltage arresters are very
important devices for protecting and coordinating
in electro energetic systems.
Many explorers and professionals of this field
have dealt with and continuously study and
perform experiments for determination of
protection characteristics of MO arresters with a
purpose to increase their effectiveness for
protecting the electro-energetic systems from
Nowadays, electro-energetic systems as well as
transformers are protected from internal and
external overvoltage through MO arresters,
because the latter have better protection
characteristics than classic arresters [2].

ISSN: 1790-5117


ISBN: 978-960-474-006-2

8th WSEAS International Conference on POWER SYSTEMS (PS 2008), Santander, Cantabria, Spain, September 23-25, 2008

simulation method), to achieve respective standard

in better protection of energetic transformer of
nominal voltage
400 kV level.

3.1 The Determination of nominal voltage

and operation of MO arrester
Initially, the following parameters are taken into
consideration: maximal voltage of system
U S = U m = 420 kV , and standard lightning
impulse withstand voltage of equipment.

2 Application

U BIL = 1425[kV ] , earth default factor k = 1.4 ,

To apply the placement of arresters for

transformer protection some important parameters
must be considered so as to achieve protection
from overvoltage at high level.
In particular, direct lightning strokes in electroenergetic components are associated with
steepness and multiple reflections of waves from
overvoltage. In propagation of these waves that
represent a permanent risk in damage of insulation
as well as winding of the transformer, line
branches of high voltage with their capacities and
inductiveness have an impact as well.
This is exactly why overvoltage arresters in kV
with high class accuracy and adequate withstand
voltage are chosen, in order to investigate and
analyse the lightning current and its steepness in
protection of energetic transformers at the 400 kV
Besides better electrical characteristics of MO
arresters, they must have the lowest possible
weight and an optimal design for mounting

whereas maximal
overvoltage t = 10 s .





are done for discharge current

I n = 10 [kA] with current impulse form (8/20).

The determination of the operating voltage level is

implemented as the following expressions:

U c ,min = 1.05 o U S / 3 =
1.05 o 420 / 3kV = 255[kV ]
U r1,min = 1.25 o U C , min = 1.25 o 255 [ kV ]
= 319 [kV ]

U r 2,min = 1.4 o (U S / 3) / k tov,10s =

1.4 o (420 / 3) / 1.075[ kV ] = 316[kV ]
Whereas the voltage is determined by the
following expression:

U c = U r / 1.25 = 336kV / 1.25 = 268 [kV ]

The voltage U = 336 [ kV ] is the nominal voltage
accord to which the arrester may be used on the
system. Approximate value of atmospheric
protection voltage for discharge current
I n = 10 [kA] is approximate to a value of

3 Determination of electrical value

of MO arresters

U 10 kA = 825 [kV ] [1].

For analysis purposes, the overvoltage of the

transformers from 400kV side is taken as a
sample, where the arrester is modelated for its
protection from lightning and other overvoltages,
which are given as follows.

4 Modelation of MO arrester and

their simulation with PsCad
Based on the IEEE recommendations and
standards, the MO arrester model is taken, which
is determined through nonlinear resistance

A0 , and A1 , as well as other values, respectively

L0 , L1 induction and R1 resistance [3].

ISSN: 1790-5117


ISBN: 978-960-474-006-2

8th WSEAS International Conference on POWER SYSTEMS (PS 2008), Santander, Cantabria, Spain, September 23-25, 2008

H = 0.2 o1.41 = 0.282 [ H ]
L1 = 15 o H =15 o 1.41 = 21.15 [ H ]
R1 = 65 = 65 o 1.41 = 91.65[]
C = 100 pF = 100
= 70.921[ pF ]
L0 = 0.2 o

The distance d of arrester is taken from adequate

choice of arrester and it is equal to d = 2.82 m ,

Fig1. Model of MO arrester according

to IEEE standards.

whereas number of parallel columns n is

taken n = 2 .
Figure 2 shows the scheme of modelation and
installation of arrester as well as testing with
discharge current of I n = 10 [kA] .Testing is done
form 8 / 20 s / s , with its exponential form as
expression below:

I TEST = I (e at e bt ) ,


I 8 / 20 = 4 I 1 (e 0.866 E 5t e 1.7332 E 5t )

a = 86600 , and b = 173200 ,

are determined

based on the impulse wave t 2 / t1 and ratio I 1 / I .

Fig .2 Scheme of testing the arrester for

protection, simulated with PsCad.
Figure 1 shows the model of arrester MO
modelated under IEEE recommendation, with the
respective data given for L0 , L1 and resistance R1 .

Fig.3 Exponential form of current impulse

caused from lightning.
Figure 2 shows simulation scheme considering the
model of MO arrester, discharge current, as well
as other parameters that characterise the

ISSN: 1790-5117


ISBN: 978-960-474-006-2

8th WSEAS International Conference on POWER SYSTEMS (PS 2008), Santander, Cantabria, Spain, September 23-25, 2008

transmission overhead line, bus bar, and

In this case, protection of transformers is
simulated when arresters are placed in nearness
and longer distances.
In both cases, the respective results of voltage
amplitude are given, as well as efficient protection
zone of the transformer [3].



= 56.5 m

o =
o 300
2o S
2 o 1100

Therefore, for a protection of a wider range, when

a transformer is connected in a single bus bar with
one-sourced supply voltage, protection distance is
calculated as:
L = 56.5 m [1].
Considering the requirements of insulation
coordination, including parameters of arresters,
voltage level and devices that are protected,
arresters usually have one protection zone limited
within a few metres [8].
The simulations are done when the arresters of
overvoltage are placed far and near the
transformers. For these cases there are figures
showing voltage oscillation and protection margin.

4.1 The simulation result with PsCad

As shown, the simulation result is used for
modelation of arrester MO for 400 [kV] level, for
respective discharge current, I n = 10 [kA] .
Also, the simulation tests are used during the
placement of arresters in adequate distances.

4.2 Calculation of protection distance

of MO arrester
First, the protection distance L is calculated. The
protection distance increases as the the residual
voltageUp decreases, and decreases when
steepness of discharge wave S is so big [4].

4.3 The protection margin from discharge

wave and adequate tests - analysis
The protection margin of arrester is determined

Mp =

o 100%

Using that data for adequate

overvoltage, the margin would be:

Mp =
Fig. 4 Scheme of placement of arrester for
transformer protection.


1425 825
o 100% =
o 100%

= 72.7%


In this case the numerical values are taken:

UBIL = 1425kV, UP 825kV, S =1100kV / s,

= 300m / s

ISSN: 1790-5117


Thus, the protection margin depends on specific

features overvoltage and arrester parameters.
For this purpose, obtained values are tested and
compared to withstand overvoltage values for
discharge current and insulation coordination
parameters of the devices.
Based on these data, the respective overvoltage
arresters are selected [7].
The following data shows the protection margin,
based on these results.

The calculation of protection distance is done

through equation:

L = 1.15
2o S



ISBN: 978-960-474-006-2

8th WSEAS International Conference on POWER SYSTEMS (PS 2008), Santander, Cantabria, Spain, September 23-25, 2008

When the arrester is placed near the transformer at

a calculated distance, protection transformer
margin is:

Mp =

1425 783.7
o 100% =
o 100%

= 81.8%
near the transformer, and

Mp =

1425 846.1
o 100% =
o 100%

= 68.4%

Fig.7 Residual voltage for discharge current 10kA

with impulsive form 8 / 20 s / s ,in transformer

far from the transformer.

The following charter shows respective results
simulated with PsCad:

and bus bar, when the arrester is placed in bus bar,

far from the transformer.
The criteria for arrester application in protecting a
given transformer are determined based on the
obtained results.

4.4 Selection of discharge class, protection

characteristic and housing of MO
For lightning impulse withstand
voltage U BIL = 1425[kV ] , the discharge current
form I n = 10 kA , and impulsive
form 8 / 20 s / s , the discharge class =3 is taken,

Fig.5 Test of arrester for discharge current 10

kA, and residual voltage.

diameter of such an MO arrester must be 60 mm,

factor of resistance configuration is
u10 kA / U r = 823 / 336 = 2.45 , length column of
arrester active part must be hMO = 2820 mm ,
voltage= 1.3 o U pl = 1.3 o 823kV = 1070kV ,
distance= 25mm/[kV] o 420[kV] = 10500mm,
allowed static = 400 N, then dynamic allowed =
1000 N [1].
The above data are general characteristics for
adequate selection of MO arrester in transformer
protection at 400 kV level.

Fig.6 Residual voltage for the discharge current 10

kA, with impulsive form 8 / 20 s / s , in
transformer and bus bar, when the arrester is
placed near the transformer.

ISSN: 1790-5117


ISBN: 978-960-474-006-2

8th WSEAS International Conference on POWER SYSTEMS (PS 2008), Santander, Cantabria, Spain, September 23-25, 2008

Thus, based on the result and catalogue, class 3 of

arrester PEXLIM Q is chosen, and specification
opportunity of energetic absorption of arrester is
done. Therefore, there are 5 discharge classes,
from 1 to 5, which are defined upon required
increase for energetic absorption.
Thus the main difference between two classes,
10 kA and 20 kA, is the discharge class, which
could for instance determine 10 kA taken one out
of first three classes, whereas for arrester 20 kA
taken classes are 4 and 5 [5].
It is important to emphasize that discharge class 3
is mainly used at level of 400 kV voltages.

The respective results of the simulation show that

the amplitude of the voltage is lower if the
location of the arrester is nearer to the device, and
margin safety is higher when arresters are located
near the transformers.
Thus, based on the analyses and respective
simulation, we can conclude that adequate location
of the arrester and their selection according to
efficient parameters have an important role in
protecting the devices and the equipments of
transformers that are considered as device of
higher cost.

5 Conclusion

[1] Volker Hinrichsen, Metal Oxide Surge
Arresters, Fundamentals, Berlin, 2001.
Jusuf Krasniqi, Gani Latifi, Teknika e
tensioneve t larta, Prishtin, 1996
[3] Manitoba HVDC Reasearch Centre Inc.
EMTDC/PSCAD, Simulation manual, 2004.
[4] Walter Schmidt, Felix Greuter, New
approaches to surge protection,
[5] ABB, High voltage surge arrester. Safe, secure
and economic supply of electricity with ABB
Surge arresters.
[6] L.Stenstrm, Metal Oxide Surge Aresters in
AC Systems,part VI: Selection of Metal Oxide
Arresters from Standards, Electra, December,
1990, No 133, 146 165.
[7] A.R. Hileman, Insulation Coordination, ABB
Power Systems Inc, 1991.
[8] ABB, Application guidelines for station
protection, publ. SESWG/A 2310E, Edition 2,

Protection characteristics of arrester are often

determined by the protection level from lightning
impulse. This means that it is in compliance with
its own voltage remained for discharge current
impulse. In accordance with the coordination of
insulation the so called safety factor K S must be
also determined. This factor should be less than
1.15 of the value of standard lightning impulse
withstand voltage of equipment U BIL that must be
protected with a no-regenerating insulation, and
higher lightning overvoltage which are supposed
to occur on terminals. In this case, it will be
noticed that due to travelling wave and the drop of
inductive voltage, the voltage on terminal of
equipment will be protected better than the direct
voltage in voltage terminal.
Arresters are effective only after an interval of
time, which depends on the level of wave
propagation and distance of the location, that is,
propagation time between arrester and equipment
that should be protected. Furthermore, the
steepness of the overvoltage also has a decisive
effect. Therefore, the level of protection and
location of the arrester must be coordinated in
such a way that coordination withstand voltage of
the protected device is not exceeded.

ISSN: 1790-5117


ISBN: 978-960-474-006-2