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Department of Cell Biology and Histology
Department of Cell Biology and Histology
Department of Cell Biology and Histology
Kierszenbaum, Abraham L. Junqueira LC, Carneiro J. Ross MH, Pawlina W. Gartner LP, Hiatt JL.

Kierszenbaum, Abraham L.

Junqueira LC, Carneiro J.
Junqueira LC, Carneiro J.
Kierszenbaum, Abraham L. Junqueira LC, Carneiro J. Ross MH, Pawlina W. Gartner LP, Hiatt JL.
Kierszenbaum, Abraham L. Junqueira LC, Carneiro J. Ross MH, Pawlina W. Gartner LP, Hiatt JL.
Kierszenbaum, Abraham L. Junqueira LC, Carneiro J. Ross MH, Pawlina W. Gartner LP, Hiatt JL.
Kierszenbaum, Abraham L. Junqueira LC, Carneiro J. Ross MH, Pawlina W. Gartner LP, Hiatt JL.
Ross MH, Pawlina W.
Ross MH, Pawlina W.
Gartner LP, Hiatt JL.
Gartner LP, Hiatt JL.
• " Histology " - Greek tissue " Histos ", and "- logos " =

"Histology" - Greek tissue "Histos", and "-logos" = the study of.

Nowadays, the concept includes - understanding of the structure

and function - can better be described as "Microscopic

Anatomy".

(Concise Encyclopedia from Merriam-Webster dictionary) Branch of biology concerned with the composition and structure of plant and animal tissues in relation to their specialized functions. Its aim is to determine how tissues are organized at all structural levels, from cells and intercellular substances to organs.

involves the use of microscopes as basic tools.

• Cells • Tissues • Organs • Organ Systems • Organism

Cells

Tissues

Organs

Organ Systems Organism

• Cells • Tissues • Organs • Organ Systems • Organism

Tissues - groups of cells of similar function and origin that

form functional units

Organs - are composed of various tissues.

Organ systems composed of several organs (such as the

gastrointestinal system, respiratory system

).

• Histology should lighten other disciplines. • Anatomy -- What is the cellular composition of
• Histology should lighten other disciplines. • Anatomy -- What is the cellular composition of

Histology should lighten other disciplines.

Anatomy -- What is the cellular composition of those structures that you're cutting through?

Physiology -- How are diverse body functions accomplished by cells, when all cells share a common set of functions?

Biochemistry -- Where are all those reactions taking

place?

In the long run, it is time-efficient to begin with an

overview of the concepts and appearances associated

with cells and with each of the four basic tissues.

• Knowledge on cellular structure, ultrastructure and function. • Knowledge on the organization of the
• Knowledge on cellular structure, ultrastructure and function. • Knowledge on the organization of the

Knowledge on cellular structure, ultrastructure and function.

on cellular structure, ultrastructure and function. • Knowledge on the organization of the four basic tissue

Knowledge on the organization of the four basic tissue types.

Knowledge on the organization of basic tissues into organs.

Goal - "reading" tissue specimens on microscope slides

• Because all knowledge is worthwhile, and/or because learning about tissue composition of the human

Because all knowledge is worthwhile, and/or because learning about tissue

composition of the human body is sheer joy.

Because first comes the structure and than the function.

Because some of your patients might expect clear, accurate explanations of how and why their cells are misbehaving.

Because someday you might become a pathologist, and histology

interpretation is an essential skill.

Because someday you might need to communicate with a pathologist.

Because you want to score well on the U. S. Medical Licensing Exam. - many USMLE questions

• The body is composed of four basic tissues : • Epithelium - tissue organized
• The body is composed of four basic tissues : • Epithelium - tissue organized

The body is composed of four basic tissues :

Epithelium - tissue organized as attached sheets of cells which line or cover and form tubular structures within organs

Connective Tissue - tissue providing structural and metabolic support

Muscle Tissue - electrically excitable tissue which

contracts in response to specific stimuli and moves tissues

to which it is attached.

Nervous Tissue - electrically excitable tissue which

receives stimuli, processes them, and transmits signals to target tissues to integrate the functions of the whole body

12

12 • Location • covers all body surface/lines cavitary organs • forms exo- and endocrine glands.

Location

covers all body surface/lines cavitary organs

forms exo- and endocrine glands.

Origin - in all 3 embryonic layers

endoderm: digestive, respiratory epithelium, thyroid

mesoderm: endothelium, mesothelium

ectoderm: epidermis, adenohypophysis

• Composed of • Cells : compact mass of specialized cells • Extracellular matrix :
• Composed of • Cells : compact mass of specialized cells • Extracellular matrix :

Composed of

Cells: compact mass of

specialized cells

Extracellular matrix :

mass of specialized cells • Extracellular matrix : • small amount • highly organized - basement
mass of specialized cells • Extracellular matrix : • small amount • highly organized - basement

small amount

highly organized -

basement membrane

HE, ob. 40x

of specialized cells • Extracellular matrix : • small amount • highly organized - basement membrane

14

14 • Various cell shapes and functions • Avascular • Innervation • Renewal • Metaplasia

Various cell shapes and functions Avascular

Innervation

Renewal Metaplasia

15 • Cell shapes : flattened, cuboidal, columnar !!The nuclear form often corresponds to the

15

Cell shapes: flattened, cuboidal, columnar

!!The nuclear form often corresponds to the cell

shape

HE, ob. 40x
HE, ob. 40x
HE, ob. 40x
HE and Blue methylene, ob. 40x 17 H E , o b . 4 0
HE and Blue methylene, ob. 40x 17 H E , o b . 4 0

HE and Blue methylene, ob. 40x

17

HE and Blue methylene, ob. 40x 17 H E , o b . 4 0 x

HE, ob. 40x

18

18 • Protection ( epidermis), • Absorption (intestinal epithelium, kidney tubule epithelium) • Transport •

Protection ( epidermis), Absorption (intestinal epithelium, kidney tubule epithelium)

Transport

of material at the surface (ciliated epithelia)

across the cell - gas exchange (aveolar epithelium + endothelium)

Secretion (uni/multicellular glands)

Excretion (kidney tubule epithelium)

Gliding between surfaces (mesothelium)

Contraction : myoepithelial cell

Cell polarity : apical/baso-lateral pole 19 • Organelles distribution • Membrane protein distribution –
Cell polarity : apical/baso-lateral pole 19 • Organelles distribution • Membrane protein distribution –

Cell polarity: apical/baso-lateral pole

19

Organelles distribution Membrane protein distribution membrane domains

http://csls-text.c.u-tokyo.ac.jp/active/11_05.html
http://csls-text.c.u-tokyo.ac.jp/active/11_05.html

Tissue polarity

Membrane protein distribution – membrane domains http://csls-text.c.u-tokyo.ac.jp/active/11_05.html Tissue polarity
Membrane protein distribution – membrane domains http://csls-text.c.u-tokyo.ac.jp/active/11_05.html Tissue polarity

21

21 • Apical domain • Proteins • Enzymes • Transporters • Channels • Lipids • Cholesterol

Apical domain

Proteins

Enzymes

Transporters

Channels

Lipids

Cholesterol

Sphingomyelin

Baso-lateral domain

Proteins

Na+/K+ ATP-ase

Transporters (am.ac.,

sugars)

Channels

Receptors

Adhesion proteins

Lipids

Phosphatidylcholine Phosphatidylinositole

22

22
22

23

23
23
23

24

24 • amorphous, PAS + layer beneath epithelial cells by light microscopy • thicker structure –

amorphous, PAS + layer beneath epithelial cells by light microscopy thicker structure formed by

basal lamina

reticular lamina

25

25 HE, ob. 40x http://beyondthedish.wordpress.com/category/lung-treatments/
HE, ob. 40x
HE, ob. 40x

http://beyondthedish.wordpress.com/category/lung-treatments/

26

26 • visible only by electron microscopy • a sheet of extracellular material • between epithelial

visible only by electron microscopy

a sheet of extracellular material

between epithelial cells and connective tissue

20100 nm thick lamina densa electron-dense layer - fibrillar network

laminae lucida - electron-lucent layers on one or both sides

27

27 • Molecular composition - molecules secreted by the epithelial cells • type IV collagen –

Molecular composition - molecules secreted by the epithelial cells

type IV collagen in lamina densa

glycoproteins laminin and entactin (nidogen) - attaching lamina densa to the basal cell

membrane proteoglycans with heparan-sulfate - perlecan

• Molecules secreted by connective tissue cells • fibronectin • type VII collagen – forming

Molecules secreted by connective tissue cells

fibronectin type VII collagen forming anchoring fibrils to connective tissue reticular fibers

29

29
• structural support • selective barrier • regulate cell proliferation and differentiation by binding and

structural support

selective barrier

regulate cell proliferation and differentiation by binding and concentrating growth factors;

influence cell metabolism and survival;

organize the proteins in the adjacent plasma

membrane (affecting signal transduction);

pathways for cell migration

• basal laminae to two neighboring epithelia can fuse or appear to fuse in the

basal laminae to two neighboring epithelia can fuse or appear to fuse in the absence of

connective tissue form various barriers or filters

epithelia can fuse or appear to fuse in the absence of connective tissue • form various
BASAL MEMBRANE
BASAL MEMBRANE

Cell Membrane (Basal surface of cell)

BASAL MEMBRANE Cell Membrane (Basal surface of cell) Lamina Lucida Lamina Densa Lamina Reticularis
Lamina Lucida Lamina Densa
Lamina Lucida
Lamina Densa
Lamina Reticularis
Lamina Reticularis

35

35 • Apical pole • Cilia, stereocilia, microvilli • Baso-lateral pole • Lateral interdigitations • Basal

Apical pole

Cilia, stereocilia, microvilli

Baso-lateral pole

Lateral interdigitations

Basal labyrinth

Basal lamina

36

36 HE, ob. 40x Brush border

HE, ob. 40x

Brush border

Pseudostratified columnar with cilia
Pseudostratified columnar
with cilia

37

anatomyatlases.org

Pseudostratified columnar with stereocilia
Pseudostratified columnar
with stereocilia
MICROVILLI CILIA
MICROVILLI
CILIA

39

39
39

40

40
40
40
40
HE, ob. 100x Stria vascularis HE, ob. 100x

HE, ob. 100x

Stria vascularis

42

42 • free nerve endings - unmyelinated axons • depends on location of the epithelium and

free nerve endings - unmyelinated axons depends on location of the epithelium and its exposure to stimuli

42 • free nerve endings - unmyelinated axons • depends on location of the epithelium and

43

43 • Epithelia continuously renew their cell population • Different rates: fastest – small intestine, slowest-

Epithelia continuously renew their cell population

Different rates: fastest small intestine, slowest- skin

HE, ob. 100x
HE, ob. 100x
HE, ob. 100x
HE, ob. 100x
HE, ob. 40x HE, ob. 100x
HE, ob. 40x
HE, ob. 100x

47

Self-renewal Assimetric division Multipotency
Self-renewal
Assimetric division
Multipotency

Hayward P et al. Development 2008;135:411-424

48

Sheading cells Differentiated cells Goblet Entero- Enterocyte endocrine Differentiation and migration 24-48h
Sheading cells
Differentiated cells
Goblet
Entero- Enterocyte
endocrine
Differentiation
and migration
24-48h
Progenitor cells
Crypt
Stem cells
Paneth cells

Vilus

Mitotic activity 24-36h Lamina propria
Mitotic activity
24-36h
Lamina propria
INPUTS FEEDING BACK ON STEM-CELL FUNCTION IN THE NICHE  constraints of the architectural space
INPUTS FEEDING BACK ON STEM-CELL FUNCTION IN THE NICHE  constraints of the architectural space

INPUTS FEEDING BACK ON STEM-CELL FUNCTION IN THE NICHE

constraints of the architectural space

physical engagement of the cell

membrane with neighboring cells or

surfaces

signaling interactions at the interface of

stem cells and niche or descendent cells

paracrine and endocrine signals from

local or distant sources

neural inputs and metabolic products of

tissue activity

 neural inputs and metabolic products of tissue activity Scadden DT. The stem-cell niche as an
Scadden DT. The stem-cell niche as an entity of action. Nature. 2006; 441(7097):1075-9.
Scadden DT. The stem-cell niche as an entity of action. Nature. 2006; 441(7097):1075-9.
     Jones LD, Wagers AJ. No place like home: anatomy and
     Jones LD, Wagers AJ. No place like home: anatomy and
     Jones LD, Wagers AJ. No place like home: anatomy and

     Jones LD, Wagers AJ. No place like home: anatomy and function
     Jones LD, Wagers AJ. No place like home: anatomy and function
     Jones LD, Wagers AJ. No place like home: anatomy and function
     Jones LD, Wagers AJ. No place like home: anatomy and function
     Jones LD, Wagers AJ. No place like home: anatomy and function
     Jones LD, Wagers AJ. No place like home: anatomy and function
     Jones LD, Wagers AJ. No place like home: anatomy and function
     Jones LD, Wagers AJ. No place like home: anatomy and function
     Jones LD, Wagers AJ. No place like home: anatomy and function
     Jones LD, Wagers AJ. No place like home: anatomy and function
     Jones LD, Wagers AJ. No place like home: anatomy and function
     Jones LD, Wagers AJ. No place like home: anatomy and function
     Jones LD, Wagers AJ. No place like home: anatomy and function
     Jones LD, Wagers AJ. No place like home: anatomy and function

Jones LD, Wagers AJ. No place like home: anatomy and function of the stem cell niche. Nat Rev Mol Cell Biol. 2008; 9(1):11-21.

51

Metaplasia

transformation into another type of

mature epithelium,

in pathological circumstances

51 Metaplasia • transformation into another type of mature epithelium, in pathological circumstances

Metaplasia

Tissue

Normal

Metaplasia

Stimulus

Bronchi

Pseudostratifi ed epithelium

Squamous

 

epithelium

Cigarette smoke

Urinary

Transitional

Squamous

Chronic vitamin A deficiency

bladder

epithelium

epithelium

 

Squamous

   

Esophagu

s

stratified

nonkeratinize d epithelium

Columnar

epithelium

Gastro-

esophageal

reflux

53

53
53
53
53
53

54

54 HE, ob. 40x Histology for Pathologists Authors: Mills S. E. Sternberg S. Published year: 2004
54 HE, ob. 40x Histology for Pathologists Authors: Mills S. E. Sternberg S. Published year: 2004
HE, ob. 40x
HE, ob. 40x

Histology for Pathologists Authors: Mills S. E. Sternberg S. Published year: 2004

54 HE, ob. 40x Histology for Pathologists Authors: Mills S. E. Sternberg S. Published year: 2004

55

55 • Covering epithelia – covering external surface of the body or lining cavities of internal

Covering epithelia covering external surface of the body or lining cavities of internal organs

Glandular epithelia - forming secretory part of exo and endocrine glands

Sensorial epithelia

• Separates two different environments • Active barrier • complete sealing (epidermis) • limited

Separates two different environments

Active barrier complete sealing (epidermis) limited permeability (mucosa-lining epithelia)

Classification based on number of cell layers. Simple Apical surface Apical surface Stratified Squamous Cuboidal
Classification based on number of cell layers. Simple Apical surface Apical surface Stratified Squamous Cuboidal

Classification based on number

of cell layers. Simple
of cell layers.
Simple

Apical surface

Apical surface

Stratified

Squamous Cuboidal
Squamous
Cuboidal

Basal surface

Basal surface

Columnar Classification based on cell shape.

• Simple/stratified squamous • Simple/stratified cuboidal • Simple/stratified columnar • Pseudostratified •

Simple/stratified

squamous

Simple/stratified

cuboidal

Simple/stratified

columnar

Pseudostratified

Transitional/urothelium

• Distribution : • endothelium, • mesothelium • Bowmann’s capsule Silver staining, ob. 40x

Distribution:

endothelium,

mesothelium

Bowmann’s capsule

• Distribution : • endothelium, • mesothelium • Bowmann’s capsule Silver staining, ob. 40x
Bowmann’s capsule
Bowmann’s capsule

Functions:

flitration

diffusion osmosis

secretion - serosa

http://imc02.hccs.edu/BiologyLabs/AP1/03Tissues/003EpithelialIndex.html

07:14

62

A, Scanning electron micrograph of well-preserved endothelium.

Copyright © American Heart Association

http://www.comprehensivephysiology.com/WileyCDA/CompPhysArticle/refId-cp02020

Roubos N et al. Circulation 1995;92:31-36

http://www.comprehensivephysiology.com/WileyCDA/CompPhysArticle/refId-cp02020 Roubos N et al. Circulation 1995;92:31-36

09:58

64

09:58 6 4 Endothelial cells have both metabolic and synthetic functions. ©2004 by Oxford University Press

Endothelial cells have both metabolic and synthetic functions.

©2004 by Oxford University Press

Galley H F , and Webster N R Br. J. Anaesth. 2004;93:105-113

and synthetic functions. ©2004 by Oxford University Press Galley H F , and Webster N R
• Distribution: • kidney tubules • excretory ducts of exocrine glands (intercalated ducts), • covering
• Distribution: • kidney tubules • excretory ducts of exocrine glands (intercalated ducts), • covering
• Distribution: • kidney tubules • excretory ducts of exocrine glands (intercalated ducts), • covering

Distribution:

kidney tubules

excretory ducts of

exocrine glands

(intercalated ducts),

covering epithelium of the ovary

Tubular epithelium, kidney
Tubular epithelium,
kidney

http://imc02.hccs.edu/BiologyLabs/AP1/03Tissues/00

3EpithelialIndex.html

Functions:

secretion

absorption

• Distribution: • digestive tract, • fallopian tubes, • excretory ducts of salivary glands Intestinal
• Distribution: • digestive tract, • fallopian tubes, • excretory ducts of salivary glands Intestinal
• Distribution: • digestive tract, • fallopian tubes, • excretory ducts of salivary glands Intestinal

Distribution:

• Distribution: • digestive tract, • fallopian tubes, • excretory ducts of salivary glands Intestinal

digestive tract, fallopian tubes,

excretory ducts of

salivary glands

fallopian tubes, • excretory ducts of salivary glands Intestinal epithelium • apical surface specializations:

Intestinal epithelium

apical surface specializations:

cilia,

microvili

• Functions: • absorption • secretion • Eg. mucus, enzymes • transport on the surface

Functions:

• Functions: • absorption • secretion • Eg. mucus, enzymes • transport on the surface -
• Functions: • absorption • secretion • Eg. mucus, enzymes • transport on the surface -

absorption secretion

Eg. mucus, enzymes

transport on the

surface - ciliary

action

• Respiratory epithelium • • http://imc02.hccs.edu/BiologyLabs/AP1/03Tissues/003EpithelialIndex.html •
• Respiratory epithelium • • http://imc02.hccs.edu/BiologyLabs/AP1/03Tissues/003EpithelialIndex.html •
• Respiratory epithelium • • http://imc02.hccs.edu/BiologyLabs/AP1/03Tissues/003EpithelialIndex.html •
• Respiratory epithelium • •
Respiratory epithelium
• Respiratory epithelium • • http://imc02.hccs.edu/BiologyLabs/AP1/03Tissues/003EpithelialIndex.html •

http://imc02.hccs.edu/BiologyLabs/AP1/03Tissues/003EpithelialIndex.html

Distribution:

respiratory epithelium male reproductive system

Functions:

secretion goblet cells

clearance

ciliated cells

absorption - stereocilia

• apical surface specializations: Epididymis epithelium • cilia, • stereocilia Respiratory epithelium HE, ob.
• apical surface specializations: Epididymis epithelium • cilia, • stereocilia Respiratory epithelium HE, ob.
• apical surface specializations: Epididymis epithelium • cilia, • stereocilia Respiratory epithelium HE, ob.

apical surface specializations:

• apical surface specializations: Epididymis epithelium • cilia, • stereocilia Respiratory epithelium HE, ob.

Epididymis epithelium

cilia, stereocilia

apical surface specializations: Epididymis epithelium • cilia, • stereocilia Respiratory epithelium HE, ob. 40x

HE, ob. 100x

HE, ob. 100x • Distribution : • sweat glands excretory duct • Function • protection •
HE, ob. 100x • Distribution : • sweat glands excretory duct • Function • protection •

Distribution:

sweat glands

excretory duct

Function

protection secretion

Sweat gland

• Distribution : • ocular conjunctiva, • large ducts of salivary glands • Functions: •

Distribution:

ocular conjunctiva, large ducts of salivary glands

ocular conjunctiva, • large ducts of salivary glands • Functions: • protection • absorption H E

Functions:

protection

absorption

http://imc02.hccs.edu/BiologyLabs/AP1/03Tiss ues/003EpithelialIndex.html
http://imc02.hccs.edu/BiologyLabs/AP1/03Tiss ues/003EpithelialIndex.html
http://imc02.hccs.edu/BiologyLabs/AP1/03Tiss ues/003EpithelialIndex.html
http://imc02.hccs.edu/BiologyLabs/AP1/03Tiss ues/003EpithelialIndex.html
http://imc02.hccs.edu/BiologyLabs/AP1/03Tiss ues/003EpithelialIndex.html
http://imc02.hccs.edu/BiologyLabs/AP1/03Tiss ues/003EpithelialIndex.html

http://imc02.hccs.edu/BiologyLabs/AP1/03Tiss

ues/003EpithelialIndex.html

• Distribution: • digestive tract mouth to esophagus, • vagina, • anterior cornea • Functions
• Distribution: • digestive tract mouth to esophagus, • vagina, • anterior cornea • Functions

Distribution:

digestive tract mouth to esophagus,

vagina,

anterior cornea

tract mouth to esophagus, • vagina, • anterior cornea • Functions • protection, in areas subjected

Functions protection, in areas subjected to abrasion

HE, ob. 40x

Esophageal epithelium

HE, ob. 40x

• protection, in areas subjected to abrasion • prevents water loss
• protection, in areas
subjected to
abrasion
• prevents water loss

75

75 • keratinocytes • continuous turnover (renewal) of the epithelium by passing through 4 overlapping processes:
75 • keratinocytes • continuous turnover (renewal) of the epithelium by passing through 4 overlapping processes:

keratinocytes continuous turnover (renewal) of the epithelium by passing through 4 overlapping processes:

cell renewal, or mitosis;

differentiation, or keratinization;

cell death

exfoliation

the entire process takes 15-30 days and occurs in waves.

a cell layer produced by a mitotic wave in the basal layer undergoes keratinization in synchrony. each wave pushes the cell layers produced in earlier waves toward the surface.

Filagrină Filagrină Filagrină Filagrină filagrină Filam. Filam. Filam. Filam. Filam. de de de de de

Filagrină

Filagrină

Filagrină

Filagrină

filagrină

Filam.

Filam.

Filam.

Filam.

Filam.

de

de

de

de

de

keratină

keratină

keratină

keratină

keratină

Corpi

Corpi

Corpi

lamelari

lamelari

lamelari

76

Descărcare

Descărcare

Descărcare

corpi

corpi

corpi

lamelari

lamelari

lamelari

• Distribution : • urinary excretory tract (from proximal ureter to proximal urethra) • Functions:
• Distribution : • urinary excretory tract (from proximal ureter to proximal urethra) • Functions:
• Distribution : • urinary excretory tract (from proximal ureter to proximal urethra) • Functions:

Distribution:

urinary excretory tract (from proximal

ureter to proximal urethra)

Functions:

stretches - allows organs to distend

protective - osmotic barrier

HE, ob. 100x

HE, ob. 40x

• Functions: • stretches - allows organs to distend • protective - osmotic barrier HE, ob.
• Cells : • basal cells • racket- shaped cells • umbrella-like cells

Cells:

basal cells

racket- shaped cells

umbrella-like cells

http://imc02.hccs.edu/BiologyLabs/AP1/03Tissu

es/003EpithelialIndex.html

racket- shaped cells • umbrella-like cells http://imc02.hccs.edu/BiologyLabs/AP1/03Tissu es/003EpithelialIndex.html
racket- shaped cells • umbrella-like cells http://imc02.hccs.edu/BiologyLabs/AP1/03Tissu es/003EpithelialIndex.html
racket- shaped cells • umbrella-like cells http://imc02.hccs.edu/BiologyLabs/AP1/03Tissu es/003EpithelialIndex.html
Guangwei Min, Ge Zhou, Matthieu Schapira, Tung-Tien Sun and Xiang- Peng Kong - Structural basis

Guangwei Min, Ge Zhou, Matthieu Schapira, Tung-Tien Sun and Xiang- Peng Kong - Structural basis of urothelial permeability barrier function as revealed by Cryo-EM studies of the 16 nm uroplakin particle - Journal of Cell Science 116 (20), 2003

barrier function as revealed by Cryo-EM studies of the 16 nm uroplakin particle - Journal of
• Definition : one or more epithelial cells highly specialized for secretion • Gland :

Definition: one or more epithelial cells highly specialized for secretion

Gland: group of various epithelial cells that synthesize, store and/or secrete a specific secretion

product. The secretory process has 4 phases:

Assimilation Synthesis

Storage

Secretion

• Criterion - release of secretory product • exocrine glands • in contact with the
• Criterion - release of secretory product • exocrine glands • in contact with the

Criterion - release of secretory product exocrine glands

in contact with the free surface of epithelium by an excretory duct;

eliminates secretory product through an excretory duct

endocrine glands

no connection with the surface; completely surrounded by connective tissue; eliminates secretory product directly into the blood stream

• Classification : • By cell grouping • By chemical structure of secretory product •

Classification:

By cell grouping

By chemical structure of secretory product

By moment of release of secretory product By range of action of secretory product

Cell grouping: • anastomosing cords , intercalated with capillaries • follicles : cavities filled with

Cell grouping:

anastomosing cords, intercalated with capillaries

follicles: cavities filled with acellular material,

lined by epithelial cell.

islets : endocrine cells grouped in islands, surrounded by exocrine or connective cells

isolated cells: Diffuse Neuro-Endocrine

System (DNES)

Chemical structure of secretory product: • Small polypeptides: Diffuse Neuro-Endocrine System (DNES) • Proteins and

Chemical structure of secretory product:

Small polypeptides: Diffuse Neuro-Endocrine System (DNES)

Proteins and large polypeptides: parathyroid

Cholesterol-derived : adrenal cortex

Moment of release of secretory product • immediate release: adrenal cortex • after storage •

Moment of release of secretory product

immediate release: adrenal cortex

after storage

intracellular extracellular: thyroid follicles

By range of action of secretory product • Autocrine glands: on itself • Paracrine glands:

By range of action of secretory product

Autocrine glands: on itself

Paracrine glands: small range action -neighbor cells

Endocrine glands: at distance

• Classification : • By structure • By chemical composition of secretory product • By

Classification:

By structure By chemical composition of secretory product By secretion mechanism

Classification • Number of cells • unicellular gland (goblet cell) • multicellular gland • Structure

Classification

Number of cells

Classification • Number of cells • unicellular gland (goblet cell) • multicellular gland • Structure of

unicellular gland (goblet cell) multicellular gland

Structure of excretory duct

Structure of the secretory

portion - adenomer

HE, ob. 100x PAS, ob. 100x
Excretory duct • simple : unbranched • compound : branched Secretory segment • tubular •

Excretory duct

simple: unbranched

compound: branched

Secretory segment

tubular

coiled tubular

branched tubular

acinar branched acinar

mixt: tubuloacinar

MORPHOLOGY OF EXOCRINE GLANDS
MORPHOLOGY OF EXOCRINE GLANDS

= DUCTS DUCTS

= GLANDSMORPHOLOGY OF EXOCRINE GLANDS = DUCTS

• Simple – tubular : Lieberkuhn glands • Simple – coiled tubular: sweat gland •

Simple tubular : Lieberkuhn glands

Simple coiled tubular: sweat gland

Simple branched tubular: gastric glands

Simple acinar: lacrimal gland

Simple branched acinar: sebaceous gland

• compound acinar: parotid glands • compound tubuloacinar: sublingual, submandibular glands • compound
• compound acinar: parotid glands • compound tubuloacinar: sublingual, submandibular glands • compound

compound acinar: parotid glands

compound tubuloacinar: sublingual, submandibular glands

compound tubuloalveolar: prostate

• mucous glands: secretory product rich in glycoproteins (mucus); highly viscous • serous glands :

mucous glands: secretory product rich in glycoproteins (mucus); highly viscous

serous glands: protein secreting cells

mixed glands

• Merocrine secretion: exocytosis of stored secretory granules • Apocrine secretion: secretion of product along

Merocrine secretion: exocytosis of stored secretory granules

Apocrine secretion: secretion of product along with apical cytoplasm

Holocrine secretion: destruction of entire cell

during secretion

Merocrine Apocrine Holocrine

Merocrine

Merocrine Apocrine Holocrine

Apocrine

Merocrine Apocrine Holocrine

Holocrine

Merocrine Apocrine Holocrine
• Ion-transporting cell • Protein-secreting cell • Mucus-secreting cell • Lipid-secreting cell •

Ion-transporting cell

Protein-secreting cell Mucus-secreting cell

Lipid-secreting cell

Myoepithelial cells

• Secretion : • Reabsorbtion : • uriniferous tubules, • excretory ducts, salivary glands •
• Secretion : • Reabsorbtion : • uriniferous tubules, • excretory ducts, salivary glands •
• Secretion : • Reabsorbtion : • uriniferous tubules, • excretory ducts, salivary glands •

Secretion:

Reabsorbtion:

uriniferous tubules,

excretory ducts, salivary glands digestive tract

endothelial cells ciliary processes, ependymal cells - choroid plexus

glands • digestive tract • endothelial cells – ciliary processes, • ependymal cells - choroid plexus
microvilli
microvilli
microvilli Tight junction interdigitations Basal labirinth
Tight junction
Tight junction
interdigitations
interdigitations
microvilli Tight junction interdigitations Basal labirinth
microvilli Tight junction interdigitations Basal labirinth
Basal labirinth
Basal labirinth
Secretory cycle • Polarity: • basal pole: rich RER • round nucleus, centrally/lower half •
Secretory cycle • Polarity: • basal pole: rich RER • round nucleus, centrally/lower half •
Secretory cycle
Secretory cycle
Secretory cycle • Polarity: • basal pole: rich RER • round nucleus, centrally/lower half • Golgi

Polarity:

basal pole: rich RER

round nucleus,

centrally/lower half

Golgi above the nucleus

apical pole: zymogen

granule

Secretion:

enzymes (pancreas, salivary

glands)

hormones (paratyroid PTH)

Serous acinus
Serous acinus
• Diffuse neuro-endocrine system (DNES) • Isolated/groups scattered in epithelia • Digestive tract •
• Diffuse neuro-endocrine system (DNES) • Isolated/groups scattered in epithelia • Digestive tract •

Diffuse neuro-endocrine system (DNES) Isolated/groups scattered in epithelia

Digestive tract

Respiratory epithelium

Thyroid/parathyroid glands

Urinary and genital system

Special techniques for light microscopy

AgNO3 silver precipitate - ARGENTAFFINE CELLS

K2Cr2O7 oxidation CROMAFFINE CELLS

Immunocytochemistry NSE/secreto-chromogranine

108

108 Digestive tract – entero-endocrine cells: • somatostatin ( D cells) • VIP (D 1 cells
108 Digestive tract – entero-endocrine cells: • somatostatin ( D cells) • VIP (D 1 cells

Digestive tract entero-endocrine cells:

108 Digestive tract – entero-endocrine cells: • somatostatin ( D cells) • VIP (D 1 cells
108 Digestive tract – entero-endocrine cells: • somatostatin ( D cells) • VIP (D 1 cells

somatostatin (D cells) VIP (D1 cells) serotonin (EC cells)

colecistochinin (I cells) GIP (K cells) enteroglucagon (L

cells) motilin (Mo cells) neorotensin (N cells)

secretin (S cells)

109

109
109
• Polarity: • basal pole: nucleus, organelles • apical pole: secretory granules • Location :

Polarity:

basal pole: nucleus,

organelles

apical pole: secretory

granules

Location:

Mucus-secreting cells

Goblet cells

intestinal and respiratory epithelia,

Mucous acini - salivary glands

Gastric epithelium

Hormone-secreting cells

Adenohypophysis -

• Location : • Exocrine cells • Sebaceous gland • Endocrine cells • Leydig cells

Location:

Exocrine cells

Sebaceous gland

Endocrine cells

Leydig cells - testis

Follicular cells - ovary

Adrenal cortex cells

Sebaceous gland • Endocrine cells • Leydig cells - testis • Follicular cells - ovary •

113

113

114

114
114
• Location : • surrounding secretory portion of • Salivary glands • Lacrimal glands •
• Location : • surrounding secretory portion of • Salivary glands • Lacrimal glands •
• Location : • surrounding secretory portion of • Salivary glands • Lacrimal glands •

Location:

surrounding secretory portion of

Salivary glands Lacrimal glands

Sweat glands

Mammary glands

: • surrounding secretory portion of • Salivary glands • Lacrimal glands • Sweat glands •
: • surrounding secretory portion of • Salivary glands • Lacrimal glands • Sweat glands •
• Features: • Cytokeratin filaments – epithelial tissue • Contractile filaments – muscle tissue •

Features:

Cytokeratin filaments epithelial tissue

Contractile filaments muscle

tissue

GAP junctions synchronizing

Desmosomes with epithelial cells

Hemidesmosomes with BM

• GAP junctions – synchronizing • Desmosomes – with epithelial cells • Hemidesmosomes – with BM