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THE COLD WAR ERA

CUBAN MISSILE CRISIS:-CUBA-a small country in the coast of US-1959,Fidel Castro captured power and set up a
socialist govt. There-it made freindly relation with USSR.and got military&eco.assistance from USSR-This created
panic in US-they decided to overthrow Fidel Castro-CIA(CENTRAL INTELLEGANCE AGENCY) made 15 attempts
for this-in 1961,USSR feared that US would invade Cuba-so in 1962,Krushchev placed nuclear missiles in Cuba-it
enabled it to make a close range attack US-then US President John Kennedy ordered the US warships to block 25
Russian ships-this blockade is came to be known as Cuban Missile Crisis-it is the high degree of Cold War
Cold War-Meaning:-It actually began with the end of Second World War-in 1945 the Allied Powers(US,USSR,UK and
Frane) defeated Axis Powers(Germany,Italy&Japan)-finally after the US-Bomb blast in Japan the second world war
came to an end-soon after the war US & USSR became enemies-they became two super powers-they had the power to
influence any event which happened in any part of the world-besides,the failure of Axis powers,the eco.and military
decline of Frane and other factors helped US&USSR to become the super powers-thus the world war devided the world
into 2 power blocs-US&USSR-the rivalry,competition and conflicts between them were known as Cold War-but it did
not develop into a hot war or complete war-during this period many wars took place,not direct war between the two
power blocs,but between the allied countries-so cold war was a diplomatic war, not armed conflict-it was
ideological,economical and political war-used the strategy of emotional propaganda against the enemy
Cold War was basically an ideological war-war between two ideologies-capitalism&communism-the western bloc
under the leadership of US followed capitalism and Eastern bloc under the leadership of USSR followed communismthis ideological difference created hatred and hostility.
Cod War has some military features- Both blocs realised that a direct war between them lead to total destruction-so the
decided to keep away from direct nuclear war-this is called nuclaer deterrence.
The Emergence of Two Power Blocs:- Both US &USSR tried to exend their infuence in diff.parts of the world-the
newly created and small countires joined either of the power blocs-the super powers offered them protection,weapons
and eco.help-soon the world was divided into two power blocs-western european nations joined the US bloc and the
eastern european nations joined the Soviet bloc-they came to be known as western alliance&eastern alliance.
Therfore,Arnold Toynbee described the modern world politics as Bipolar Politics.
Military Alliances:-the cold war led to the formation of military allainces-both blocs formed separate alliances.
Military Alliances under US Control-NATO,SEATO AND CENTO.
NATO:-NORTH ATLANTIC TREATY ORGANISATION-formed for the protection of Western Europe-esatblished in
1945-12 countries-it declared that armed attack on any one of them would be treated as an attack on all of them-all
members were obliged to help each other.
SEATO:- SOUTH EAST ASIAN TREATY ORGANISATION-formed for containing the influence of USSR and
communism in south east asia and in the neighbouring pacific regions-formed in Manila with HQ at Bangok in 1954
CENTO:-CENTRAL TREATY ORGANISATION-it is an anti-soviet alliance in west asia-HQ at ANKARA in Turkey.
Military Alliance under USSR:-WARSAW PACT-to counter the western alliances,USSR formed this in 1955 with HQ
in MOSCOW.
Why Did Super Powers Make Alliances with Small Countries?:-the small countries are useful to the super powers in
many ways.
1.small nations have necessary resources like oil and minerals-alliances with them helped the super powers to access
these resources.
2.useful for gaining territory from where they could launch their weapons and troops
3.they could gain access to locations from where they could spy on each other
4. the smaaler states could provide eco.support to the super powers to meet their military expenses
5.ideological reasons-both super powers could propagate their ideas,capitalism or socialism among these countries.
Arenas of Cold War:- it means areas where crisis and war occurred or threatened to occur between the alliance
system-the arenas of cold war were many South East Asian countries,Western Asia,Eastern region and Africa.
-The areas of Korea,Berlin and Congo also affected the impact of Cold war -thousands of people lost their lives in the
war which took place in arenas of Korea,Vietnam and Afghanistan.
-sometimes the countries outside the power blocs such as India played a significant role in reducing cold war conflictsNehru's role in ending the Korean War-solving Congo crisis by UN in 1960-Korean War(US with S.Korea&USSR with
N.Korea)
-the main reason for avoiding direct war is the restraint exercised by them in international affairs-reaizing the calamity
of nuclear war they were very careful to keep restraint and to deal international affairs in a more resonsible manner.
-howerever,the rivalry between power blocs continued-mutal suspician and distrust led them to arm themselves and to
constanly prepare for war.
-thus the cold war always maintained an atmosphere of war-both sides realized that war might occur inspite of their
restraint-the the worl was under the shadow of a war-At the same time,the super powers decided to maintain a stable
balance of weapons through arms control-within a decade they signed 3 agreements-LTBT,NPT and Anti-Ballistic
Missile Treaty.
LTBT-1963
NPT-1968
Anti-Bllistic Treaty-1972.

-The negotiations made by the super powers in limiting arms is known as SALT(Strategic Arms Limitation Talks).
START-Strategic Arms Reduction Treaties-between US & USSR.
Challenges to Bipolarity-Non Alignment
NAM was founded by newly independent countries of Asia,Africa and Latin America( 3rd world countries)-they offerd a
3rd option-not to join either alliance-they realized that the cold war was a threat to their independence and world peaceso they decied to keep away from power blocs-decided to form an independent movement -NAM.
NAM:-NAM emerged from friendship of 5 leaders.
1.JOSIP BROZ TITO-YUGOSLAVIA.
2.NEHRU-INDIA.
3.ABDEL NAZAR-EGYPT
4.SUKARNO-INDONESIA.
5.KWAME NKRUMAH-GHANA
-The first summit of NAM-Belgrade in 1961.
Imp.factors that led to the formation of NAM.
1.Cooperation among these five countries-YUGOSLAVIA,INDIA,EGYPT,INDONESIA and GHANA.
2.Growing cold war tensions and its widening arenas.
3.Dramatic entry of newly independent African countries.
First Summit-25 members.
14th Summit-Egypt in 2009-118 members.
-about two-third members of UN are Non-Aligned countries-all African nations are members.
Meaning of NAM:-1.Non-Alignment is not a policy of isolation:-Isolation means remaining aloof from all world
affairs-rather it advocates active participation in world affairs for attaining peace and stability.
2. Non-Alignment is not a policy of neutrality:-Neutrality means a policy of staying out of war-states practicing
neutrality will not give any help to end war-it is an inactive and negative concept which is relevant in times of war.But
Non-Alignment is an active and creative concept which relevant both at the time of war and peace-India and several
other non-aligned countries worked to prevent wars between other countries and tried to end wars that had broken out.
New International Orders:-one of the imp.goals-based on the concept of eco.equality upheld by NAM-most of nonaligned nations were LDCs-they required eco.develop.to eliminate poverty and to maintain independence-the nonaligned nations which produced raw materials,depended on their colonial masters for finisshed products-their industries
were also depending on foreigncapital-they realized that a country could not be truly free without sustained
development-this realization led to the formation of NIEO.
The NIEO was established using the UN Conference for Trade and Development(UNCTAD) which was established for
promoting the industrialization of 3rd world countries.In1972,UNCTAD submitted its report under the titile Towards a
New Trade Policy for Development.The report put forward some proposals for reforming the global trading system.
1.LDCs should be given control over their natural resources.
2.LDCs shoud be permitted to have free entry in the markets of the western countries.It will help them to sell their
products,which is very beneficial for the poor countries.
3.Reduce the cost of technology from western countries.
4.LDCs shoud be given greter role in international eco.institutions.
Gradually NIEO gave more imp.to eco.issues than pol.issues.As a result NIEO became an eco.pressure group.But by the
end of 1980s the initiative of NAM to establish NIEO faced a setback due to the stiff opposition from the developed
countries.
INDIA&COLD WAR
India's response to cold war has two aspects-1.India took care in keeping away from two alliances-2.It raised its voice
against the newly independent countries joining of these alliances.
-India's policy was neither negative nor positive-Nonalignment was not a policy of running away from the issues,rather
-India was in favour of actively intervening in world affairs to soften the cold war rivalries.
-India tried to rduce the differences between the power blocs and ther by prevent a full-scale war.Indian diplomats often
tried to mediate the cold war rivals to settle disputes and avoid war.eg:-Timely intervention of India played a major role
in ending up the Korean War of 1950s.India also inspired other nations in softening the cold war rivalry.Nehru put great
faith in a genuine commomnwealth of free and cooperating nations that would play a creative role in softening the
cold war.
-Some people argued that NAM was against the interests of India-But it served the intersts of India in two ways.
1.NAM helped India to take international decisions and stances that served its interesys rather than the interest of the
super powers.
2.India often able to balance one super power against the other.Whenever India felt ignored by one super power,it could
tilt towards the other.
Criticisms
1.India's non-aligned policy is unprincipled-they argued that inthe name of national interests India often reduced to take
firm stand on cucial international issues.

2.India was also cricized for its controdictory stands-having criticized othe rcountries for joining alliances,India signed
a 20-year Treaty of Friendship with USSR.The outside observers regarded it as India joining USSR bloc.
RELEVANCE OF NAM
The critics pointed out that NAM was formed in the context of cold war.With the end of cold war NAM has lost its
relevance.But pol.observers argued that its releveance is increasing.Acco.to them,NAM has some core values for ever.
1.The basis of NAM is the belief that the decolonsed nations share a historical affiliation and they can become a
powerful force if they come together.It means that the small and poor countries need not become the followers of super
powers and they can follow independent foreign policy.
2.NAM is determined to create an alternative world order to redress the existing inequalities and to democratise the
international system.The core ideas of NAM remain relevant even after the cold war era.
3.Many pol.observers pointed out that the relevance of NAM has actually increased during the post-cold war
era.Though NAM has lost its pol.relevane but its eco.imp. IncreasedEven though the cold war era is ended,the world is
not free from tensions and conflicts.Dangerous issues like racism,global terrorism,environmental problems and arms
race threats to humanity.So NAM is still relevant.
ARMS CONTROL TREATIES
1.1963-LTBT-LIMITED TEST BAN TREATY-ON AUG.5 US,UK AND USSR Signed in Moscow-this treaty
banned nuclear weapons tests in the atmosphere,outer space and under water.
2.1968- NPT-NUCLEAR NON PROLIFERATION TREATY-Signed by UK,US&USSR on July 1-this treaty permits
only nuclear weapon states to have nuclear weapons-it prihibits other states from acquiring them-the ultimate aim is to
prevent expansion of nuclear weapons-Nuclear weapon state is one which has manufactured and exploded a nuclear
weapon prior to January 1967.-thus there are 5 nuclear weapon states-US,USSR,UK,FRANCE and CHINA.
3.1972-SALT I-STRATEGIC ARMS LIMITATION TALKS-began in 1969-USSR leader Brezhnev&US leader Nixon
sgned in Moscow on 26th May 1972-2 treaties-1.on limitation of anti ballistic missiles(ABM Treaty)-2. The interim
agreement on the limitation of strategic offensive weapons.
4.1979-SALT II-began in 1974-US president Jimmy Carter nad ussr leader Brezhnev signed it in Vienna-It imposed
control on strategic missiles and other delivery systems such as aeroplanes.
5.1991-START-STRATEGIC ARMS REDUCTION TREATY-signed by USSR president Gorbachev and US president
George Bush(senior)-Both countries agreed on the reduction and limitation of strategic offensive arms.
6.1993-START II-USSR president Boris Yelstin & US president George Bush-it decided to reduce the number of
strategic offensive arms to one-fifth of its present strength.
COLD WAR TIMELINE
1947-52 - Marshal Plan.US aid for the reconstruction of Western Europe.
1948-49 - Berlin Blockade by the Soviet Union.
1950-53 - Korean War . Korea is divided.
1954
- Vietnamese defeated the French in Dien Bien Phu.Signing of Geneva treaty.
1954-75 - Intervention of America in Vietnam.
1955
- Signing of Bagdad Pact.
1956
- Soviet inervention in Hungary.
1961
- American attack on Cuba,Construction of Berlin Wall.
1962
- Cuban Missile Crisis.
1965
- US intervention in the Dominician Republic.
1968
- Soviet intervention in Czechoslovakia.
1972
- US President Richard Nixon visits China.
1978-89 - Vietnamese intervention in Cambodia.
1979-89 - Soviet intervention in Afghanistan.
1985
- Gorbachev becomes the President of USSR.The reform process begins.
1989
- Fall of Berlin Wall.Mass protests against governments in Eastern Europe.
1990
- Unification of Germany.
1991
- Disintegration of USSR.The end of cold war era.