Sie sind auf Seite 1von 56

Vol. 75, No.

1, June 2014
KDN PP5476/10/2012 (030203) ISSN 0126-513X

Majlis Bagi Sesi 2014/2015 (IEM Council Session 2014/2015)


Yang Dipertua / President:
Dato Ir. Lim Chow Hock
Timbalan Yang Dipertua / Deputy President:
Ir. Tan Yean Chin
Naib Yang Dipertua / Vice Presidents:
Ir. P.E. Chong, Ir. Prof. Dr Wan Mahmood bin Wan Ab. Majid,
Y.Bhg. Dato Ir. Dr Andy Seo Kian Haw, Ir., Prof. Dr. Lee Teang Shui, Ir. David Lai Kong Phooi,
Ir. Lee Weng Onn, Ir. Gopal Narian Kutty
Setiausaha Kehormat / Honorary Secretary:
Ir. Gunasagaran a/l Kristnan
Bendahari Kehormat / Honorary Treasurer:
Ir. Prof. Dr Jeffery Chiang Choong Luin
Bekas yang dipertua terakhir / immediate Past President:
Ir. Choo Kok Beng
bekas yang dipertua / Past Presidents:
Y.Bhg. Dato Ir. Pang Leong Hoon, Y.Bhg. Academician Dato Ir. (Dr) Hj. Ahmad Zaidee bin
Laidin, Y.Bhg. Dato Ir. Dr Gue See Sew, Y.Bhg. Datuk Ir. Prof. Dr Ow Chee Sheng,
Y.Bhg. Academician Dato Ir. Prof. Dr Chuah Hean Teik
Wakil Am / Civil Representative:
Ir. Prof. Dr Mohd Zamin bin Jumaat
Wakil mekanikal / Mechanical Representative:
Ir. Dr Kannan M. Munisamy
Wakil Elektik / Electrical Representative:
Ir. Ali Askar bin Sher Mohamad
Wakil Struktur / Structural Representative:
Ir. Hooi Wing Chuen
Wakil Kimia / Chemical Representative:
Ir. Prof. Dr Abdul Aziz bin Abdul Raman
wakil lain-lain displin / Representative to Other Disciplines:
Ir. S. Kumar a/l Subramaniam
wakil multimedia / Multimedia Representative:
Engr. Abdul Fattah bin Mohd. Yatim, M.I.E.M.
ahli majlis / Council Members:
Ir. Dr Tan Kuang Leong, Ir. June Lau Yuk Ma, Ir. Assoc. Prof. Dr Norlida bt. Buniyamin, Ir.
Ishak bin Abdul Rahman, Y.Bhg. Dato Ir. Abdul Rashid bin Maidin, Ir. Lee Cheng Pay, Y.Bhg.
Dato Ir. Samsuddin bin Ismail, Ir. Lee Boon Chong, Ir. Tu Yong Eng, Ir. Lai Sze Ching, Ir. Lee
Weng Onn, Ir. Yap Soon Hoe, Ir. Li Thang Fai, Ir. Juares Rizal bin Abd. Hamid, Ir. Norazman
bin Mohamad Nor, Ir. Ellias bin Saidin, Ir. Assoc. Prof. Dr Jimmy Mok Vee Hoong, Ir. Dr.
Tan Chee Fai, Ir. Kok Hee Poh, Ir. Tiong Ngo Pu, Ir. Yau Chau Fong, Ir. Teh Piaw Ngi, Ir.
Tay Yuh Her, Ir. Chong Chin Meow, Ir. Chin Kuan Hwa, Ir. Assoc. Prof. Dr Vigna Kumaran
Ramachandaramurthy

pengerusi cawangan / branch chairman:


1. Pulau Pinang Ir. Paul Phor Chi Wei
2. Selatan Ir. David Lee Loke Hai
3. Perak Ir. Dr Perumal Nallagownden
4. Kedah-Perlis Ir. Chua Teik Seng
5. Negeri Sembilan Ir. Hj. Baharuddin bin Ahmad Nasir
6. Kelantan Ir. Hj. Syed Abdul Rahman bin Syed Abdullah
7. Terengganu Ir. Mohd. Azmi bin Ali
8. Melaka Ir. Vellan a/l Vengo @ Perumal
9. Sarawak Ir. Haidell Heli
10. Sabah Ir. Tan Koh Yon
11. Miri Ir. Goh Soon Boon
12. Pahang Ir. Tuan Haji Ahmad Kamal bin Kunji
AHLI JAWATANKUASA INFORMASI DAN PENERBITAN /
STANDING COMMITTEE ON INFORMATION AND PUBLICATIONS 2014/2015:
Pengerusi/Chairman: Ir. Prof. Dr Lee Teang Shui
Naib Pengerusi/Vice Chairman: Ir. Dr Tan Chee Fai
Setiausaha/Secretary: Ir. Lau Tai Onn
Ketua Pengarang/Chief Editor: Ir. Prof. Dr Lee Teang Shui
Pengarang Buletin/Bulletin Editor: Ir. Mohd. Khir Muhammad
Pengarang Prinsipal Jurnal/Principal Journal Editor:
Ir. Prof. Dr Dominic Foo Chwan Yee
Pengerusi Perpustakaan/Library Chairman: Ir. C.M.M. Aboobucker
Ahli-Ahli/Committee Members: Ir. Ong Guan Hock, Ir. Yee Thien Seng, Ir. Tu Yong Eng,
Ir. Chin Mee Poon, Y.Bhg. Datuk Ir. Prof. Dr Ow Chee Sheng, Engr. Aida Yazrin Mohd. Khairi,
Engr. Abdul Fattah bin Mohamed Yatim, Ir. Dr Kannan a/l M. Munisamy, Ir. Siow Yun Tong,
Engr. Kok Jing Shun
LEMBAGA PENGARANg JURNAL/JOURNAL editorial board 2014/2015:
Penyunting Utama/Chief Editor: Ir. Prof. Dr Dominic Foo Chwan Yee
Penyunting Subjek/Subject Editor: Ir. Prof. Dr Hew Wooi Ping (Civil Engineering), Ir. Assoc.
Prof. Dr Low Kaw Sai (Civil Engineering), Ir. Dr Ramlee bin Karim (Chemical Engineering),
Ir. Dr Saiful Amri bin Mazlan (Mechanical Engineering), Assoc. Prof. Dr Zubaidah binti
Ismail (Civil Engineering), Engr. Assoc. Prof. Dr Intan Zaurah binti Mat Darus Grad. IEM
(Mechanical Engineering), Ir. Lim Kim Ten (Electrical Engineering), Ir. Jagathisen s/o Siva
Perumal (Mechanical Engineering), Engr. Dr Aminudin bin Abu (Mechanical Engineering)
IEM Secretariat: Pamela Jitab, Mirdeeliani binti Amir

CONTENTS
1



Exploring the Barriers and Driven Factors in Implementing


Building Information Modelling (BIM) in the Malaysian
Construction Industry: A Preliminary Study
by Zahriza Zakaria, Nasly Mohamed Ali, Ahmad Tarmizi Haron,
Amanda Marshall Ponting and Zuhairi Abd Hamid

11 Bifurcation Behaviour of the Buck Converter



by Ir. Dr Ng Kok Chiang, Dr Nadia Tan Mei Lin and

Dr Michelle Tan Tien Tien
24 Novel Bimetallic Tin-Manganese Oxides/Carbon Nanotube

Nanocomposite and Their Charge Storage Properties

by Ir. Dr Ng Kok Chiang, Ms. Siew Shee Lim and Dr Chuang Peng
40 Numerical Simulation of the Decay of Grid-generated

Turbulence in a Shock Tube

by Mohammad Ali Jinnah
49 Guideline for Authors
51 Referees Form

THE INSTITUTION OF ENGINEERS, MALAYSIA


Bangunan Ingenieur, Lots 60 & 62, Jalan 52/4,
P.O.Box 223 (Jalan Sultan),
46720 Petaling Jaya, Selangor Darul Ehsan.
Tel: 03-7968 4001/4002
Fax: 03-7957 7678
E-mail: sec@iem.org.my Homepage: http://www.myiem.org.my

Printed by: RED CARD MARKETING (M) SDN. BHD. (622849-V)


No. 20, Jalan TPK 1/2, Seksyen 1, Taman Perindustrian Kinrara,
47100 Puchong, Selangor Darul Ehsan.
Tel: 603-8075 6773 (Hunting Line) Fax: 603-8075 1937, 8075 1987
Website: www.redcard.com.my

Mailer: PERFECT MAIL SERVICES (648839-P)


14 Jalan TSB 2, Taman Perindustrian Sungai Buloh,
Sungai Buloh, Selangor Darul Ehsan.
Tel: 603-6156 5288
PRint Quantity: 5,500 Copies

Exploring the Barriers and Driving Factors in Implementing


Building Information Modelling (BIM) in the Malaysian
Construction Industry: A Preliminary Study
(Date received: 02.05.13/Date accepted: 20.12.2013)

Z., Zahrizan1; Nasly, Mohamed Ali1; Ahmad, Tarmizi Haron1; Amanda Marshall-Ponting2; and Zuhairi, Abd. Hamid3
1

Faculty of Civil Engineering and Earth Resources, Universiti Malaysia Pahang, Gambang, Kuantan
2
School of Build Environment, University of Salford Manchester, Salford, United Kingdom
3
Construction Research Institute of Malaysia (CREAM),
Construction Industry Development Board (CIDB), Cheras, Kuala Lumpur
E-mail: 1zahrizan@ump.edu.my; 1nasly@ump.edu.my; 1ahmadtarmizi@ump.edu.my;
2
A.J.Marshall-Ponting@salford.ac.uk; 3zuhairi@cidb.gov.my

ABSTRACT
In Malaysia, Building Information Modelling (BIM) has recently gained attraction from construction players and
some of them have applied it to several projects. By utilising the BIM process, the construction players have the
opportunity to plan, coordinate and design in an integrated approach. This is one of the many benefits that they could
gain and resulting in increased productivity. Despite these benefits, the implementation of BIM in the Malaysian
construction industry is still lagging behind Singapore, for instance. Thus, it warrants a study such as the present to
determine what are the actual barriers that hamper its implementation and what are the driving factors that could
enhance its pace of implementation in the Malaysian construction industry. In this study, a questionnaire survey
based on Convenience Sampling Method was carried out to gather the possible barriers and driving factors for
BIM implementation among the Malaysian construction players. Additionally, Relative Importance Indices (RII)
were used to analyse the data obtained and to identify those barriers and driving factors for the implementation of
BIM in this country. Consequently, results of this study revealed that the main barriers for implementing the BIM
are: 1) Lack of knowledge about BIM, 2) Reluctance and/or no insistence shown by the Malaysian construction
industry players (Clients, Contractors and Consultants alike) on the use or implementation of BIM. The driving
factors, on the other hand, that could lead to the speeding up of the implementation of BIM are: 1) Support and
enforcing the implementation of BIM by the Government, 2) promote BIM training program and 3) Initiatives of
senior management of the related industry players. In conclusion, for successful wide spread application of BIM
in Malaysia, a good push from the government alone is far from enough. All other construction industry players
mentioned must assume their roles well in promoting the use of BIM in their construction projects.
Keywords: Building Information Modelling, BIM, Malaysian Construction Industry, Barriers, Driving Factors

1.0 Introduction
In Malaysia, the construction industry has been identified
as an area that plays an important part in contributing to the
Malaysian economy and contributes to approximately 3 to
5 percent of the Gross Domestic Product (GDP) annually
[1]. Although the Malaysian construction industry plays a
significant role contributing to the growth of Malaysias
economy, in the era of globalisation the Malaysian

Journal The Institution of Engineers, Malaysia (Vol. 75, No. 1, June 2014)

construction industry needs to evolve. The Malaysian


construction industry must upgrade the current construction
approach, whether in terms of practice, management or
technology in order to be globally competitive because
since the 1960s, construction industry has not transformed
much in terms of technology or construction approach and
still depends on traditional approaches and relies heavily
on foreign labour [1 and 2].

Z., Zahrizan; Nasly, Mohamed Ali; Ahmad, Tarmizi Haron;


Amanda Marshall-Ponting; and Zuhairi, Abd Hamid

In order to improve the traditional approach in


the construction industry, Information Technology/
Information System (IT/IS) can be utilised to increase the
productivities and transforms the Malaysian construction
industry. Researchers [3, 4 and 5] have discussed the
benefits of IT/IS applications. The benefits that could
be gained by implementing IT/IS are enhancing the
communication between parties, assisting in the decision
making process, sharing updated information and
accessing the information with ease [3, 4 and 5]. Realising
these benefits, the government of Malaysia has been
promoting and pushing the industry to adopt and utilise IT/
IS in order to achieve the developed country status by the
year 2020 [6]. Despite the numerous benefits that could be
gained by the construction industry, Stewart & Mohamed
[7] found that the construction industry in Malaysia still
lags behind other industries in terms of implementing IT/
IS. This happens because the return in IT investments
does not seem to be attractive. There are numerous factors
to this and the objective of this paper is to explore the
barriers and the driving factors that could contribute to
implementing the new information technology especially
Building Information Modelling (BIM) in the Malaysian
construction industry.

2.0 Building Information Modelling


(BIM): An Overview
BIM can be viewed as a combination of advanced process
and technology that offers a platform for collaboration
between different parties in the construction project by
exploiting the uses of Information Technology (IT). In
the Malaysian construction industry, many construction
players regard BIM as a new technology because it is
not widely used. Traditionally, a 2D design that has been
approved for construction will be checked manually. This
method will consume time especially for complex designs.
This traditional method involves manually checking for
discrepancies in designs depending on the complexity
of the designs. BIM can be referred as the process of
creating and using 3D parametric computer-aided-design
(CAD) technologies for design that allows the exchanges
of information within a construction project team in a
digital format [8, 9, 10 and 11]. This model can be passed
digitally between consultants in the construction projects
and the more important thing is that the model that is
created using BIM has a pool of information and is enabled
with clash detection software to ensure coordination
[12]. This approach is not only faster, but can reduce the
chance of human error to a minimum. This model can be
passed to the contractor for estimating and planning the

construction projects. In general, BIM can be viewed as


a single respiratory system that supplies and receives any
information in digital form related to construction projects.

3.0 The Challenges in implementing


Building Information Modelling
(BIM)
There are many benefits that BIM can offer to the
Malaysian construction industry, especially in enhancing
the communication between different parties in
construction projects. BIM is able to streamline and
aids clear communication between client, consultant and
contractor in construction projects by providing a single
respiratory system for exchanging digital information in
one or more agreed format. Khanzode & Fisher [13] and
Azhar et al. [14] believe that, this approach can reduce
errors associated with inconsistent and uncoordinated
project documents because BIM is capable of carrying
information which are related to the building either
its physical or functional characteristics. Furthermore,
Kymmell [12] and Taylor & Bernstein [11] believed
that visualisation is one of the benefits gained when
implementing BIM. The visualisation could help parties
that are involved in the construction projects to gain better
understanding of what they construct by creating detailed
3D view. Kymmell [12] added that one of the critical tasks
in Mechanical, Electrical and Plumbing (MEP) design
is clash detection and without having good visualisation
tools, this task will consume time. Traditionally, in 2D
drawing, clash detection process is done by overlaying
2D plan drawings to visualize the location of the system
components in 3D space. However, by the exploitations of
3D parametric modelling between architect and structural
engineer, this task can be done within a short time and
is more accurate compared to traditional method. Other
benefits that are gained by the utilisation of BIM are in
terms of cost estimating and planning and scheduling
when the information on BIM incorporated time and cost.
In terms of cost estimating, BIM can facilitate quantity
surveyor quantifying the cost and the material of the
projects in shorter time which can be reduced up to 80%
compared to traditional methods [14].
Despite the numerous benefits from the utilisation of
BIM, review of literature also has identified the factors
impeded the pace in implementing BIM in construction
industry. Griffith et al. [15], OBrien [16] and Whyte &
Bouchlaghem [17] believe that, the failure to implement
new information technology (IT) in construction industry
happens because of technical issues rather than social
issues such as lack of technical expertise, the complexity

Journal The Institution of Engineers, Malaysia (Vol. 75, No. 1, June 2014)

Exploring the Barriers and Driving Factors in Implementing Building Information


Modelling (BIM) in the Malaysian construction industry: A Preliminary Study

of the system and lack of support system. However,


Ruikar et al. [18] and Rojas & Locsin [19] have a different
view where they believe that people also play a part as the
major barrier to implementing new IT in the construction
industry. Martinko et al. [20] added that, the failure in
changing people behaviour to handle new tools is the
most prominent factor of why people are reluctant to
adopt new technology. A survey done by Khemlani [21]
revealed that the primary obstacles in implementing BIM
is the resistance from employees who are reluctant to learn
something new and challenges because of their beliefs and
complacency with current status.
Meanwhile, Stephenson, P. & Blaza, S. [22] and Love
et al. [23] added, besides the factors of technology and
people, the failure in implementing new technology is
because of organisational problems. Some organisations
are reluctant to change their business process because
they are afraid that by changing their business process,
it involves cost and jeopardises their established process
because they cannot accept the uncertainty. Some people
in that organisation feel that the technology will take over
their roles and feel anxiety towards changes especially
when new technology is involved and this happens
because not many managers understand how to manage
technological change. Many organisations believe that
implementing BIM will affect their established business
processes because implementing new technology will
reshape their business processes and during this process,
productivity will suffer because the transition process from
fragmented to collaborative in nature will put the project
outcomes and clients expectations at risk [24].
To reduce the resistance from people to change,
support from top management is very crucial [25] because
during the migration to a new technology, the role of
top management is very important to formulate the
strategies and direction of the organisation in adopting
new technology. This action shows the commitment of
the organisation in adopting new technology and it will
motivate their workers to implement new technology.
Motivation of the organisation is one of the approaches
to reduce the resistance from people. Motivation by the
organisation could be one of the factors to build up selfconfidence to motivate individuals to use IT applications
[16]. According to Stewart & Mohamed [7] lack of
knowledge and skill in using the new technology could
lead to a hindrance of implementing new technology
besides contributing to low self-confidence, therefore, a
proper training provided by the organisation could reduce
the resistance from people in the implementation. Training
is one of the factors that could increase the pace in adopting
new IT, but according to Eastman et al. [9], it is hard to

Journal The Institution of Engineers, Malaysia (Vol. 75, No. 1, June 2014)

guarantee that each person participating in the organisation


has the required technology and skill, therefore, the
organisation could establish a technical support group
to cater these problems and to solve any problems that
arise. This technical support group could disseminate their
knowledge among the staff within an organisation and
this activity could spread the spirit of knowledge sharing
among them. Support from the authority also plays a
significant role to promote the implementation of new IT.
The authority could come out with an interactive package
to any construction players who are willing to implement
new IT [26; 21 and 27].
On top of cost, compatibility and complexity of the
technology are also the factors that influence the adoption
of new technology. Cost is a more subjective issue because
it requires external factors such as regulations imposed by
the government or clients. To increase the pace of adoption
of new IT, higher compatibility and more user-friendly
technology are the characteristics that the technology
must have [28] because, it is easy for people to accept and
use new technology if they are familiar with it. Besides,
the time required for training can be reduced.

4.0 Methodology
In this study, an exploratory survey was used to discover
and identify the relative importance of the barriers and
the driven factors in implementing Building Information
Modelling (BIM) in the Malaysian construction industry
from the perception of clients, consultants and contractors.
The survey questionnaire consists of three sections. The
first section was to identify the respondents profile.
The second section of the questionnaire focused on the
barriers factors in implementing BIM and the last section
of the questionnaire was designed to identify the relative
importance of the driving factors in implementing BIM.
In order to identify the relative importance of the
barriers in implementing BIM, there was a total of 15
variables used while to identify the relative importance
of the driving factors in implementing BIM, there was a
total of 19 variables used and these variables were grouped
into two categories: External Push and Internal Push. All
these variables were selected from the literature. The
respondents were asked to select their choices through
open-ended questions by ticking a column of the relative
importance of each of the question. A five-point Likert
scale ranging from 1 which represented the least important
to 5 which represented the most important was being used
to capture the importance of the barriers and the driving
factors in implementing Building Information Modelling
(BIM) in the Malaysian construction industry.

Z., Zahrizan; Nasly, Mohamed Ali; Ahmad, Tarmizi Haron;


Amanda Marshall-Ponting; and Zuhairi, Abd Hamid

Convenience sampling method was used although


this approach has its potential for bias. However, after
considering that this is a preliminary study, convenience
sampling was considered appropriate [29]. The samples
addresses were obtained from the company which
registered with Construction Industry and Development
Board (CIDB), a board of architects and engineers. The
questionnaire was distributed via email to the 150 potential
respondents at all levels in their organisations. Out of
the 150 potential respondents, 50 sets of questionnaire
were sent to clients, 50 sets to contractors and 50 set to
consultants.
As shown in Table 1, out of the 150 questionnaires that
were sent, 48 firms responded, thus, giving a response rate
of 32%. The response rate was considered average and
acceptable because according to Frohlich [30], the normal
average response rates for an organisational survey are
about 30 to 40 percent since the middle of 1990. Therefore,
considering that this is a preliminary study, the response
rate gathered from the clients, contractors and consultants
which was 32% was considered appropriate.
The low response from the respondents happened due
to their unawareness or they did not know of the existence
or the term, BIM, especially for clients (response rate of
8%) and contractors (response rate of 14%).
Table 1: Respondents Profile and Response Rate
Respondents

Clients
Consultants
Contractors
TOTAL

Questionnaire
distributed

Responses
returned

50
50
50
150

4
37
7
48

Percentage
of
responses
8%
74%
14%
32%

4.1 Method of Data Analysis


The RII was calculated using the following formula:
RII =

Pi Ui
N(n)

(1)

Where:
RII = Relative Importance Indices
Pi = Respondents rating
Ui = Number of respondents placing an identical
weighting/rating
N = Sample size
n = The highest attainable score (in this study n is 5)
The value for RII ranges from 0 to 1 and the factors which
scored the highest value of RII are the most important
factors.
4

5.0 Findings and Discussion


5.1 Barriers in Implementing Building
Information Modelling (BIM)
Table 2 illustrates the relative importance indices and the
rank for factors that hinder the implementation of BIM in
the Malaysian construction industry by all respondents.
From Table 2, the top five most important factors that
hinder the implementation of BIM are (1) Lack of
knowledge about BIM (RII = 0.950), (2) Clients do not
request/enforce BIM (RII = 0.950), (3) Reluctance from
clients, contractors or consultants to implement BIM (RII
= 0.875), (4) BIM is not required by other team members
(RII = 0.838) and (5) Lack of data of Return on Investment
of BIM (RII = 0.833).
Lack of knowledge about BIM could contribute
to the resistance in implementing BIM because in the
construction industry it involves various parties. Without
significant knowledge about BIM, each party is reluctant
to use BIM because they believe that new technology such
as BIM technology is difficult to learn and could increase
the operating cost. The lack of knowledge about BIM in
terms of benefit to the operation and maintenance phase
in the projects life cycle has a significant role on why
clients, consultants, contractors and others parties that
are involved in construction projects are reluctant to use
BIM in their construction projects. In addition, lack of
measurable data to measure the benefits and return from
the investments in information technologies also plays a
major role to their reluctance.
On the other hand, the three least important factors
that could hinder the implementation of BIM are (1) BIM
is too expensive (RII = 0.592), (2) Lack of training of
BIM software (RII = 0.608) and (3) BIM lacks features
or flexibility to create a building model/drawing (RII
= 0.650). For the weakest factors, the respondents
believe that the cost to purchase the BIM technology is
not so expensive compared to the benefits that can be
gained by utilising the BIM technology. On top of that,
the respondents do not believe that BIM technology is
lacking the flexibility to create a building model/drawing
compared to the traditional 3 dimensional modelling
(3D) such as AutoCAD. They found out that creating a
3D model is easier using BIM technology compared to
the traditional 3D [8]. The respondents also believed that
in the Malaysian construction industry, organisations are
willing to send their staff to undergo related training in
order to enhance their knowledge and skills, therefore,
lacking in BIM training is not a factor that could hinder
the implementation of BIM in the Malaysian construction
industry.

Journal The Institution of Engineers, Malaysia (Vol. 75, No. 1, June 2014)

Exploring the Barriers and Driving Factors in Implementing Building Information


Modelling (BIM) in the Malaysian construction industry: A Preliminary Study

Table 2: Rank for Factors of Barriers


1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15

Factors why BIM is not being implemented in Malaysia


Lack of knowledge about BIM
Existing CAD system fulfils our need to design and draft
BIM is too expensive
Lack of training on BIM software
BIM does not reduce the time used on drafting compared
with the current drawing approach
BIM lacks features or flexibility to create a building model/
drawing
Clients do not request/enforce BIM
BIM is not required by other team members
Application of BIM will affect the current process practice
Application of BIM will affect the current productivity
Legal or contract issue
Lack of working procedures and standards
Reluctance from Client, Contractors or Consultant to
implement BIM
Lack of data of Return on Investment of BIM
Software related (i.e.: ease of use)

RII
0.950
0.804
0.592
0.608
0.650

Overall Rank
1
8
15
14
12

SD
0.437595
0.668106
0.988408
0.898186
0.668437

0.650

13

0.437595

0.950
0.838
0.779
0.779
0.817
0.675
0.875

2
4
9
10
6
11
3

0.437595
0.733869
0.831292
0.831292
0.918679
0.866025
0.761438

0.833
0.808

5
7

0.753244
0.988408

5.2 Driving Factors in Implementing Building


Information Modelling (BIM)

10) Clients demand the application of BIM in their


project (RII = 0.792)

Table 3 shows a summary of the relative importance


indices and the rank of the variables that could increase the
pace of implementing BIM identified by the respondents.
Table 3 also shows the relative importance indices of the
categories that could increase the pace of implementing
BIM. From Table 3, it can be found that the top ten
most important factors that could increase the pace of
implementing BIM are:

From the different categories of the factors that could


increase the pace of implementation of BIM in the
Malaysian construction industry, the respondents generally
agreed that External Push (RII = 0.805) has a more
significant role to speed up the pace of implementation of
BIM compared to the Internal Push (RII = 0.755).
The most important factors that could be the
driving factors in implementing BIM in the Malaysian
construction industry are 1) Support and enforcement
in the implementation of BIM by the Government
and 2) BIM training program where both scored RII =
0.950. This indicates that in the Malaysian construction
industry, government push is a must to implementing new
approaches. Having a strong support from the government
is vital and without the enforcement from the government
in the implementation of BIM in the Malaysian
construction industry, it will be slow or stagnant. Other
countries like the United Kingdom (UK), Australia, Hong
Kong and Singapore have implemented the use of BIM in
their construction industry through their governments. In
the UK for instance, the government is mandating BIM;
Australia is supporting BIM, Singapore enforces the use of
BIM as part of their policy and terms of contract and Hong
Kong is assisting BIM [26, 21 and 27].

1) Support and enforcement in the implementation of


BIM by the government (RII = 0.950)
2) BIM training program (RII = 0.950)
3) Leadership of senior management (RII = 0.925)
4) Provide a grant scheme for training BIM
(RII = 0.905)
5) Promotion and awareness road show about BIM
(RII = 0.892)
6) Collaboration with universities (Research
collaboration and curriculum design for students)
(RII = 0.879)
7) Incentive given by client such as tax reduction
(RII = 0.842)
8) Outsourcing BIM specialist (RII = 0.842)
9) Technical support (RII = 0.800)

Journal The Institution of Engineers, Malaysia (Vol. 75, No. 1, June 2014)

Z., Zahrizan; Nasly, Mohamed Ali; Ahmad, Tarmizi Haron;


Amanda Marshall-Ponting; and Zuhairi, Abd Hamid

Table 3: Rank of Driving Factors


Factors that could increase the pace of
implementing BIM in Malaysia
External Push
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10

Overall Rank

Rank in
Group

SD

0.805

Clients willing to pay extra for BIM implementation


Promotion and awareness road show about BIM
Incentive given by client such as a tax reduction
Provide a grant scheme for BIM training
Support and enforcement in the implementation of
BIM by the government
Clients provide pilot project for BIM
Collaboration with universities (Research
collaboration and curriculum design for students)
Clients demand the application of BIM in their
project
BIM required by other project team members
Internal Push

0.488
0.892
0.842
0.904
0.950

19
5
7
4
1

9
3
5
2
1

0.711793
0.824062
0.92157
0.850271
0.437595

0.763
0.879

12
6

7
4

0.981884
0.916505

0.792

10

0.797825

0.733
0.775

13

0.952786

Development of BIM department within an


organisation to monitor the application of BIM
Require/hire BIM specialist
Requirement for staff to be BIM competent
Outsourcing BIM specialist
An organisational structure that supports BIM
Standardise work procedure for BIM
Technical support
BIM training program
Continuous investment in BIM
Leadership of senior management

0.700

16

0.989305

0.721
0.608
0.842
0.792
0.733
0.800
0.950
0.683
0.925

15
18
8
11
14
9
2
17
3

7
10
3
5
6
4
1
9
2

0.983688
0.742576
0.92157
0.797825
0.952786
0.71459
0.437595
0.646869
0.703336

Other roles that the government should do according


to the respondents are providing a grant scheme for BIM
training (the fourth most important factor with RII = 0.905),
conducting promotion and awareness road show about
BIM (the fifth most important factor with RII = 0.892) and
giving tax reduction (the seventh most important factor
with RII = 0.842). The respondents believe that by having a
grant scheme for training and by giving tax reduction, they
can increase the pace of implementing BIM. Previously,
the Construction Industry Development Board (CIDB) has
implemented this approach for contractors who implement
Industrial Building System (IBS) in their construction
projects [1] and this approach can also be used for those
who are implementing BIM in their construction projects.
This approach could attract the attention of construction
players.
The government through its representative bodies
such as CIDB could conduct awareness roadshow about
BIM and promote the benefits of BIM. This promotion
could spark the curiosity about BIM among construction

RII

players. By having a series of awareness programme to


disseminate the knowledge of BIM, it can convey the
benefits that can be gained by implementing BIM to the
construction players. The private sector could take part
in this promotion roadshow because involvements from
private sector also play a significant role in speeding up
the process of adoption and implementation of BIM in the
Malaysian construction industry.
Besides the push from the government and BIM training
program, leadership of senior management (the third
most important factor with RII = 0.925) has a significant
impact to accelerate the pace of BIM implementation in
the Malaysian construction industry. Gilligan & Kunz
[25] found that the resistance to change from the senior
management is one of the factors why some organisations
are reluctant to utilise information technologies. Among
their excuses are, to implement new technology they need
to change their current organisational structure and process
and it could jeopardise their productivities. This happens
because the senior management do not really understand

Journal The Institution of Engineers, Malaysia (Vol. 75, No. 1, June 2014)

Exploring the Barriers and Driving Factors in Implementing Building Information


Modelling (BIM) in the Malaysian construction industry: A Preliminary Study

how to manage technological change. Having a strong


support from senior management could ease the process of
migration at any organisation, because this action shows
the commitment of the organisation in adopting new
technology and it will motivate their workers to implement
it. OBrien [16] revealed that, some people have low selfconfidence especially related with implementing new
technology because the lack of knowledge, therefore
motivation by the senior management could be one of the
factors to build up self-confidence to motivate individuals
to use new technology applications.
The respondents also believe that local universities
could play a major role in promoting BIM by providing
curriculum or course related to BIM, for example.
This is why collaboration with universities (Research
collaboration and curriculum designed for students) is
one of the important factors that could increase the pace
of implementing BIM with RII score of 0.879. Having
a curriculum or course related to BIM could give the
students an idea of what BIM is in the early stage and
can produce students who are ready with 3D parametric
model. As we know, BIM technology in Malaysia is really
new, therefore there are many opportunities for university
researchers to conduct research related to BIM and they
could collaborate with the industry to identifying the
needs and the area for exploration. Collaboration with
local universities in research and development can be
done through research grants which are provided by the
government such as Exploratory Research Grant (ERGS)
or Science Fund.
Fox & Hietanen [31] added, one of the factors
the organisations fail to realise about the benefit of
implementing new technology is the lack of training
provided by the organisation for their staff, and the level
and type of training should be based on the needs of
the organisation or individuals within an organisation.
Training is one of the factors that could increase the pace
in adopting new Information Technology (IT). In addition,
Eastman et al. [9] found out, it is hard to guarantee that each
person participating in the organisation has the required
technology and skill; therefore, the organisation could
establish a technical support group to cater these problems
and to solve any problems arise. This technical support
group could disseminate their knowledge among the staff
within an organisation and this activity could spread the
spirit of knowledge sharing among them. Therefore, the
respondents believe that by outsourcing BIM specialist
(RII = 0.842) and having technical support team (RII =
0.800), it can complement the training program provided
by the organisations.

Journal The Institution of Engineers, Malaysia (Vol. 75, No. 1, June 2014)

6.0 Conclusion
Many evidence show that Building Information Modelling
(BIM) can enhance the construction performance but the rate
of implementation of BIM in the Malaysian construction
industry has been at a slow pace. A number of factors
that contributes to this situation are identified such as (1)
Lack of knowledge about BIM, (2) Clients do not request/
enforce BIM and (3) Reluctance from clients, contractors
or consultants to implement BIM. These issues need to be
addressed accordingly if the government wants to see the
Malaysian construction industry able to compete globally.
Besides that, supports from the government also play a
significant role to increase the pace of BIM implementation
in the Malaysian construction industry. However, by just
having a strong support from the government alone is not
practical; therefore, the Malaysian construction players
such as clients, consultants and contractors must play
their own role by shifting the paradigm from using the
traditional approach into a more innovative approach. To
do this, the Malaysian construction industry needs the BIM
implementation strategy and guide to ensure both parties:
the government and the industry players work together to
ensure the success in implementing BIM in Malaysia. It
can be concluded that the construction industry in Malaysia
needs to evolve by upgrading the current construction
approach, whether in terms of practice, management or
technology in order to meet the global standard.

REFERENCES
[1] CIDB, Construction Industry Review 1980-2009 (Q1).
Construction Industry Development Board Malaysia.
Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, 2009.
[2] Zaini, B.O., Malaysian construction industry: challenges
and demands. Key note address delivered on July 11
2000 in 3rd Annual Convention of Malaysian Structural
Steel Association, Kuala Lumpur, 2000 in Abdul Razak
Bin Ibrahim, Matthew H. Roy, Zafar Ahmed and Ghaffar
Imtiaz. (2010). An investigation of the status of the
Malaysian construction industry, Benchmarking: An
International Journal Vol. 17 No. 2, pp. 294-308, 2010.
[3] Alshawi S., Irani Z. and Baldwin L., Benchmarking
information technology investment and benefits
extraction, Benchmarking: An International Journal,
Vol. 10, No. 4, 414-423, 2003.
[4] Baldwin, A., Betts, M., Blundell, D., Hansen, K. L. and
Thorpe, T., Measuring the benefits of IT innovation, in M
Betts (ed.), Strategic management of IT in construction,
Blackwell Science, Oxford, pp. 288-310, 1999.

Z., Zahrizan; Nasly, Mohamed Ali; Ahmad, Tarmizi Haron;


Amanda Marshall-Ponting; and Zuhairi, Abd Hamid

[5] Froese, T., Rankin, J. and Yu, K., Project management


applications, models and computer assisted construction
planning in total project systems, Journal of Construction
Information Technology, Vol. 5 No. 1, pp. 39-62, 1997.
[6] Mastura Jaafar, T. Ramayah and Abdul-Rashid AbdulAziz and Basri Saad, Technology readiness among
managers of Malaysian construction rms. Engineerin,
Construction and Architectural Management, Vol. 14 No.
2,pp. 180-191, 2007.
[7] Steward, R.A. and Mohamed, S., Integrated Information
Resources: Impediments and Coping Strategies in
Construction, Australian Centre for Construction
Innovation, University of New South Wales, 2003.
[8] Revit, White Paper: The Five Fallacies of BIM, REVIT
INC., 2008.
[9] Eastman, C., Teicholz, P., Sacks, R., and Liston, K., 2nd
Edition BIM Handbook: A Guide to Building Information
Modelling for Owner, Managers, Designers, Engineers,
and Contractors, John Wiley and Sons, Inc. New Jersey,
2011.
[10] McGraw-Hill Construction, Building Information
Modeling Trends Smart Market Report, McGraw-Hill,
New York, 2008
[11] Taylor, J.E., & Bernstein, P.G., Paradigm trajectories
of building information modelling practice in project
networks. ASCE Journal of Management in Engineering,
Vol. 25, No. 2, pp. 69-76, 2008.
[12] Kymmell, W., Building information modeling: Planning
and managing construction projects with 4D CAD and
simulations, McGraw-Hill, New York, 2008.
[13] Khanzode, A., and Fisher, M. (2000). Potential savings
from standardized electronic information exchange: A case
study for the steel structure of a medical office building.
CIFE Technical Report, No 121. Palo Alto, CA: Stanford
University.
[14] Azhar, S., Hein, M., and Sketo, B., Building Information
Modeling (BIM): Benefits, Risks and Challenges,
Proceedings of the 44th ASC Annual Conference, Auburn,
Alabama, April 2-5, 2008.
[15] Griffith, T. L., Zammuto, R. F. and Aiman-Smith, L.,
Why New Technologies Fail: Overcoming the Invisibility
of Implementation, Industrial Management, Vol. 41, No.
3, pp. 29-34, 1999.
[16] OBrien, W. J., Implementation Issues In Project Web
Sites: A Practitioners Viewpoint, Journal of Management
in Engineering, Vol. 16, No. 3, pp. 34-39, 2000.
[17] Whyte, J., Bouchlaghem, D. and Thorpe, T., IT
implementation in the construction organization,
Engineering Construction and Architectural Management,
Vol. 9 (5-6), pp. 371-377, 2002.
8

[18] Ruikar, K., Anumba, C.J. and Carrillo, P.M., End-user


perspectives on use of project extranets in construction
organisations,
Engineering,
Construction
and
Architectural Management, Vol. 12 No. 3, pp. 222-35,
2005.
[19] Rojas, E.M. and Locsin, S., Integrated practice: the road
ahead, Proceedings of the 2007 ASCE Construction
Research Congress, pp. 771-8, 2007.
[20] Martinko, M. J., Henry, J. W. and Zmud, R. W., An
attributional explanation of individual resistance to the
introduction of information technologies in the workplace,
Behaviour & Information Technology, Vol. 15, No. 5, pp.
313-330, 1996.
[21] Khemlani, L. (2005), CORENET e-plan check:
Singapores automated code checking system, AECbytes,
available at: http://www.aecbytes.com/
buildingthefuture/2005/CORENETePlanCheck.html
[22] Stephenson, P. and Blaza, S., Implementing technological
change in construction organisations, Proceedings of the
IT in Construction in Africa conference, Mpumalunga,
South Africa, 2001.
[23] Love, P. E. D., Irahi, Z., Li, H., Cheng, E. W. L. and
Tse, R. Y. C., An empirical analysis of the barriers
to implementing e-commerce in small-medium sized
construction contractors in the state of Victoria, Australia,
Construction Innovation, Vol. 1, No. 1, pp. 31-41, 2001.
[24] Taylor, J.E., & Levitt, R., Innovation alignment and
project network dynamics: An integrative model for
change, Project Management Journal, Vol. 38, No3, pp.
22-35, 2007.
[25] Giligan, B., & Kunz, J., VDC Use in 2007: Significant
value, dramatic growth, and apparent business opportunity,
CIFE Technical Rep. No TR171. Palo Alto, CA: Stanford
University, 2007.
[26] Succar, B., Building information modelling framework:
A research and delivery foundation for industry
stakeholders, Automation in Construction, Vol. 18, No.
3, pp. 357-375, 2010.
[27] Teo Ai Lin, Evelyn and Cheng Tai Fatt, Building Smart
A Strategy for Implementing BIM Solution in Singapore;
Synthesis Journal Singapore, 2006 available at: http://
www.itsc.org.sg/pdf/5_BIM.pdf.
[28] Lederer, A. L., Maupin, D. J., Sena, M. P. and Zhuang, Y.,
The technology acceptance model and the World Wide
Web, Decision Support Systems, Vol. 29, No. 3, pp. 269282, 2000.
[29] Frey, L.R., Botan, C.H., Friedman, P.G., and Kreps,
G.L., Investigating Communication: An introduction to
Research Methods, Prentice Hall, 1991.

Journal The Institution of Engineers, Malaysia (Vol. 75, No. 1, June 2014)

Exploring the Barriers and Driving Factors in Implementing Building Information


Modelling (BIM) in the Malaysian construction industry: A Preliminary Study

[30] Frohlich, T. M., Techniques for improving response rates


in Operations Management Survey Research, Journal of
Operations Management, Vol. 20, pp. 53-62, 2002.

[31] Fox, S., & Hietanen, J., Inter-organizational use of


building information models: Potential for automation,
informational and transformational effects, Construction
Management and Economics, Vol. 25, pp. 289-296, 2007.

profiles
Zahrizan Zakaria started his career as an Engineer for a contractor company for 5 years after obtaining his
BEng (Hons) in Civil Engineering from Universiti Teknologi Malaysia (UTM) in 1999. He gained his Master Degree
in Civil from Universiti Malaysia Pahang in 2007 and appointed as a lecturer at Faculty of Civil Engineering and Earth
Resources, Universiti Malaysia Pahang (UMP) since then. Currently he was continuing his study at UMP at PhD level
in the field of IT in construction focusing on Building Information Modelling. His research interest is within the area
of Strategic Management of IT in Construction; Culture and organisational issues related to construction companies;
Managing change and IT implementation; Social aspects of urban regeneration and sustainability.

Nasly Mohamed Ali was appointed as a Professor at the Faculty of Civil Engineering and Earth Resources,
Universiti Malaysia Pahang (UMP) since 2003. Before she joins UMP, she was a professor at Faculty of Civil
Engineering, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia (UTM). She obtained her Diploma in Civil Engineering from UTM in
1977. After graduated she appointed as Assistant Lecturer UTM. In 1980, she gained her first class BSc (Hons) Civil
Engineering from University of Strathclyde. She was being offered to continue her study in PhD majoring in structural
at University of Strathclyde and obtain her PhD in 1986. Because of her passion in information system, she enrols as a
Master Degree student majoring in Information Technology Management at UTM and obtained her master degree in
2002. Her research interest and expertise are within the area of application of information systems for the construction
application; managing change and IT implementation; Finite Elements; Structural dynamic (wind engineering and
earthquake engineering) and prefabricated building construction.

Ahmad Tarmizi Haron currently attached at the Faculty of Civil Engineering and Earth Resources, Universiti
Malaysia Pahang (UMP) as a senior lecturer. He obtained her first degree in BEng (Hons) in Civil Engineering
majoring in Construction Management from Universiti Teknologi Malaysia in 2003. After that he is pursuing his
Master in Construction Management at Universiti Teknologi Malaysia and gained his Master Degree in 2005. After
graduated from Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, he serves as lecturer at Universiti Malaysia Pahang from 2005 until
2007 before continue his study in PhD at University of Salford. He obtained his PhD in Building Information Modelling
from University of Salford in 2013. His research interest and expertise are within the area of IT in construction,
construction management, Culture and organisational issues related to construction companies; Managing change
and IT implementation. He actives in involving with local construction working committee such as appointed by
CIDB Malaysia as External Independent Reviewer for CIDB BIM Access Portal and as Research and Technical
Committee for Building Information Modelling for Industrialised Building System which is appointed by CREAM
CIDB Malaysia.

Journal The Institution of Engineers, Malaysia (Vol. 75, No. 1, June 2014)

Z., Zahrizan; Nasly, Mohamed Ali; Ahmad, Tarmizi Haron;


Amanda Marshall-Ponting; and Zuhairi, Abd Hamid

Amanda Marshall Ponting currently attached at the School of Built Environment, University of Salford
as a senior lecturer. She obtained her first degree in BSc (Hons) in Applied Psychology from Liverpool John Moores
University in 1999. She then gained her Master in Resources Informatics from University of Manchester in 2000 and
her PhD in nD modelling from University of Salford in 2006. Her actives in many international working committees
such developing Intel-City Roadmap Project and developing research links between the USA and the EU and funded
by the NSF (National Science Foundation, USA). Her research interest and expertise are within the area of application
of information systems in the Built Environment (GIS, VR, the internet, planning participation systems, multidimensional modelling); Culture and organisational issues related to construction companies; Managing change and
IT implementation; Social aspects of urban regeneration and sustainability.

Zuhairi Abd. Hamid is the Executive Director of the Construction Research Institute of Malaysia (CREAM), a
research institute established under the Construction Industry Development Board (CIDB) which he joined in January,
2006. He has over 27 years of experience in the construction industry and started his professional career as a civil and
structural engineer with the Public Works Department of Malaysia in 1984. He has worked under various capacities
such as a road, bridge, building and district engineer, assistant director of planning, and a forensic and structural
design engineer. Later, in 1998 he joined CIDB as a senior manager at the Technology Development Division and was
then appointed to his current post at CREAM. He holds a B.Eng. (Hons.) Civil from Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, a
Masters Degree in Structural Dynamic Engineering from the Kanazawa University, Japan and a PhD in IT Construction
majoring in Healthcare Facilities Management from the University of Salford, United Kingdom. He is a Professional
Engineer (P.Eng.) in the Board of Engineers Malaysia, a Fellow of the Institution of Engineers, Malaysia (FIEM) and
also sits as a Board Member in the United Nation support International Research Council, CIB Conseil International
du Btiment (International Council for Research and Innovation in Building and Construction). He also serves as
construction industry advisor to UTM, UTHM, UNITEN, UPNM and UiTM.

10

Journal The Institution of Engineers, Malaysia (Vol. 75, No. 1, June 2014)

Bifurcation Behaviour of the Buck Converter


(Date received: 11.05.13/Date accepted: 20.12.2013)

Ir. Dr Ng Kok Chiang*1, Dr Nadia Tan Mei Lin2, Dr Michelle Tan Tien Tien3
1

Leong Hing Sdn. Bhd., No. 1, Jalan P4/7, Seksyen 4, Bandar Teknologi Kajang, 43500 Kajang, Semenyih, Selangor, Malaysia
2
Universiti Tenaga Nasional, Jalan IKRAM-UNITEN, 43000 Kajang, Selangor, Malaysia
3
The University of Nottingham Malaysia Campus, Jalan Broga, 43500 Semenyih, Selangor, Malaysia
*Corresponding author: kokchiang.ng@leonghing.com

ABSTRACT
The bifurcation and chaos phenomena appeared in power system have become a focus subject at present. It
has become apparent about a decade ago that power converters exhibit various types of non-linear behaviour
which includes all kinds of bifurcations and chaos. Even basic DC/DC converters exhibit bifurcation and chaos
phenomena as well as parallel-connected DC/DC converters and PFC system. The main source of such non-linearity
is the switching mechanism of the converters. Non-linear components of the converter circuit and control scheme
such as the use of naturally-sampled, constant-frequency PWM further contribute to the non-linear behaviour of
converters such as a DC-to-DC buck converter. Thus, all feedback controlled power converters exhibit certain
non-linear phenomena over a specific breadth of parameter values. Despite being commonly encountered by power
electronics engineers, these non-linear phenomena are by and large not thoroughly understood by engineers. This
paper examines the bifurcation behaviour of the buck converter in an ideal case when the input voltage is varied.
The computer simulation scheme, PSPICE is employed to model the behaviour of the ideal buck converter. For
certain values of the input voltage, Vin instability occurs. The analysis and conclusion presented in this paper will
provide an overview of the bifurcation behaviour of the DC-to-DC buck converter, aspiring to draw attention of the
power electronics and the circuits and systems communities to a field that is not often researched and examined.
Keywords: Bifurcation, Chaos, Non-linear Behaviour, Buck Converter

1.0 Introduction
The mechanisms of bifurcation and chaos are so complex
that there is not a unified criterion to identify them.
Bifurcation is also known as the emergence of a further
pattern of behaviour or string of states for a system. It
can be thought of as a qualitative change in an attractors
structure when a control parameter is smoothly changed.
The qualitative change is followed by a change of the
stability in the attractor too [1]. A simple example
would be that of a fixed attractor that might cave in to a
periodic oscillation, and a periodic attractor that might
become unstable and be replaced with a chaotic attractor
when stress on the system is increased. Successive
bifurcations are normally attained when the value of some
characteristic parameter is increased. An analogy would
be that of a person walking down the road. The longer the

Journal The Institution of Engineers, Malaysia (Vol. 75, No. 1, June 2014)

distance he travels, the more side streets or other routes


appear. In other words, bifurcation establishes history.
Knowledge of the paths taken or not taken would be
required to identify the state of the system at any point in
time. The existence of bifurcations is unavoidable in the
realm of nonlinear dynamical systems, which is beyond
the territory of circuitry. Rich bifurcation phenomena can
be found in power systems. An example would be the
oscillations and bifurcations due to the movement of the
dynamics of an electric power network towards its stability
boundary when the user demand for power arrives at its
peaks. Voltage collapse would probably be unavoidable.
Bifurcations exist in mechanical systems too [1-5]. Hopf
bifurcation may be present when a road vehicle under
steering control loses its stability. In the worst case, the
development of chaos and hyperchaos might take place.

11

Ir. Dr Ng Kok Chiang, Dr Nadia Tan Mei Lin and Dr. Michelle Tan Tien Tien

Period-doubling bifurcations which would ultimately lead


to chaos may be experienced by a hopping robot even if
it is just a simple two-degree-of-freedom, flexible, robot
arm. Bifurcations may also occur when an aircraft stalls
due to over a critical angle-of-attack, or reduction of speed
to be below a critical speed happens while in flight [1, 2,
5]. Vibration or wave frequencies that approximate to the
natural frequency of the machine can cause bifurcations
in the dynamics of aero-engine compressors, vehicles and
ships. This could also lead to disasters if the oscillations
and chaotic motions created by the bifurcations are not
controlled. Bifurcations are also observed in various fields
such as chemistry, (for example, in chemical reaction
and fluid dynamics), weather dynamics and biological
population dynamics [1, 3, 5].
Thus, from the discussion above, it can be said that
bifurcations are ever-present in most physical systems
even when subject to controls. In many nonlinear systems,
including some closed-loop systems which have feedback
controls, do exhibit all types of bifurcation. It is surprising
that local instability and complex dynamical behaviour
exist in such controlled systems but in actual fact, this
can happen due to the poles movement of the closedloop transfer function over the stability border when the
feedback means of the system is not robust enough [1].
The signal divergence caused due to the movement of
poles when the control progress continues may eventually
lead to some local self-excited oscillations, bifurcations
and even chaos instead of a global unboundedness.
The popular automatic gain control loops and all other
types of controlled and uncontrolled pendula would be
among others examples of controlled systems where
complex behaviour can be observed [1, 3-5]. The three
typical types of bifurcation which are known as the codimension-one bifurcations are the stationary, Hopf and
period doubling bifurcations. Such bifurcations are termed
co-dimension-one bifurcation due to the fact that there
may exist a number of control parameters for which fine
tuning is necessary to obtain the bifurcations intended.
A stationary bifurcation involves the crossing of a single
eigenvalue over the border of stability. Hopf bifurcations
on the other hand involve the crossing of a conjugate pair
over the border of stability. A limit cycle bifurcates in the
time-continuous case. The imaginary part of the crossing
pair gives the angular frequency of the bifurcations. In
the discrete case however, a quasiperiodic bifurcation
orbit is normally obtained [1]. The bifurcation which is
possible in the discrete dynamical systems and absent in
the continuous systems is known as the period doubling
bifurcation. In this bifurcation, the border of stability is
crossed by a real eigenvalue at period-1, while a period-2

12

orbit bifurcates at a period-doubling bifurcation point


[6-10]. The simulations carried out in this study seek to
identify the bifurcation points where the crossing of the
border of stability occurs and the type of bifurcations that
occur in the buck converter.

2.0 Methodology
The PSPICE Model for this study The PSPICE schematic
of the closed-loop voltage feedback buck converter
used in this study is depicted in Figure 1. The circuit is
very similar to that proposed by Fossas and Olivar [6].
The changes made in this PSPICE circuit however are
the replacement of one of the comparators with a gain
of 8.4 in the Fossas and Olivars paper with an ideal
multiplier, and a difference comparator which forms the
error amplifier circuit of the buck converter. The switched
buck converter circuit in this study uses a PWM integrator
circuit. The PWM circuit consists of the wave generator,
the error amplifier and an infinite gain comparator. The
PWM controls the ideal switch, S1 and is the most complex
part of the switched regulator of the buck converter [6].
All the components used in this PSPICE model are ideal
components. Both the switches S1 and S2 have zero on and
infinite off resistance, and can switch instantaneously.
Both the S1 and S2 switches work in a complementary
manner. When S1 is on, S2 will be off and the input voltage
supplies energy to the load resistance and the inductor. On
the other hand, when S2 is off and S1 is on, the inductor
current decays while flowing through the switch S2 and at
the same time transfers some of the stored energy to the
load resistor. The output voltage is controlled by setting
the frequency of the sawtooth generator to be of constant
switching frequency and by altering the on-interval of the
switch. The switch ratio which can be characterised as the
ratio of the on-time to the switching period is changed
through the PWM switching. As the switches turn off and
turn on in a complementary way, instantaneously allowing
bi-directional current flow, the discontinuous conduction
mode can be assumed to be avoided. Such mechanisms of
the switches also cater for the existence of light load levels
[6, 8-10].
Procedures in Obtaining the Waveforms for Bifurcation
Behaviour The value of Vin as the bifurcation parameter
in the PSPICE model of the buck converter in Figure 1
is varied throughout the series of simulations carried out
to obtain the bifurcation waveforms. The simulations are
carried out with other circuit parameters held constant. The
fixed value parameters which include the reference voltage
Vref, the load resistor R, the inductor L, the capacitor C,
switching frequency f of the ramp generator, and the ramp

Journal The Institution of Engineers, Malaysia (Vol. 75, No. 1, June 2014)

Bifurcation Behaviour of the Buck Converter

Figure 1: PSPICE Schematic of a Closed-loop Voltage Feedback DC-to-DC Buck Converter

upper and lower voltages are as summarised in the Table


1 below.
Table 1: Values of Fixed Circuit Parameters
of the Buck Converter
i)

Reference Voltage, Vref

11.3 V

ii)

Load Resistor, R

22 ohm

iii)

Inductor, L

20 mH

iv)

Capacitor, C

47 F

v)

Switching Frequency, f
(Period = 400 s)

2.5 kHz

vi)

Ramp Upper Voltage, Vu

3.8 V

vii)

Ramp Lower Voltage, VL

8.2 V

The input voltage Vin is varied from 20V to 40V and the
buck converter circuit is simulated at the different values
of Vin. The corresponding voltage and current waveforms
FFT spectrum, and trajectories (phase portrait diagrams)
are shown in the Discussion and Results section for all
cases from when the circuit started out in stable state
and progressed through to period-1, period-2, period-4,
and thereafter to chaos via routes of period-doubling
bifurcation.

Journal The Institution of Engineers, Malaysia (Vol. 75, No. 1, June 2014)

3.0 Discussions and Results


In the present case, the output voltage is fed into an error
integrator. The difference comparator in the integrator
compares the output voltage with a reference voltage which
is chosen to be 11.3V. The difference between the two is
then input into the multiplier which would amplify the
output of the difference comparator by 8.4. A comparator
then compares the error integrator output voltage with
the output of the sawtooth generator. The switches S1 and
S2 are controlled by the output of the comparator. If the
magnitude of the sawtooth wave voltage is greater than
that of the error integrator output voltage, switch S1 is
turned on and switch S2 is turned off. On the other hand,
when the sawtooth wave voltage is less than the integrator
output voltage, switch S1 will be turned off and S2 turned
on [6]. The output of the error integrator which has a gain
of 8.4 would be:
vco (t) = 8.4(v(t) Vref)

Equation 1

The discontinuous conduction mode does not occur, a


piecewise-linear vector field described by two sets of
different differential equations can be used to represent
the buck converter modelled as in equations 2, 3, 4, and
5 [11-15].

13

Ir. Dr Ng Kok Chiang, Dr Nadia Tan Mei Lin and Dr. Michelle Tan Tien Tien

When vco (t) > vramp (t) (i.e. S1 is off and S2 is on):

When vco (t) < vramp (t) (i.e. S1 is on and S2 is off):

Equation 2
Equation 8
Equation 3

When vco (t) < vramp (t) (i.e. S1 is on and S2 is off):


Equation 4

Equation 5

where v is the voltage through the capacitor and I is the


intensity of the current in the inductor.
The sawtooth voltage is given by equation 6 below:
vramp (t) = VL + (VU VL) t/T

Equation 6

where VL and VU are the lower and upper voltages of the


sawtooth wave which are of the value 3.8V and 8.2V
respectively, and T is its period. The operation of the
buck converter can be seen from both points of view:
autonomous system and nonautonomous system. Since the
sawtooth wave has an externally determined periodicity, it
is essentially a nonautonomous system.
The periodicity in this case would then be determined by
the number of triangular ramp wave cycles in a period
of the output waveform. Since the system of differential
equations is linear, the exact solution for each of the
differential equation is obtainable if the initial conditions
are set to be vo = v(to) and io = i(to).
Let

and

and given that:

The solution for the differential equations above would be


equations 7 and 8:
When vco (t) > vramp (t) (i.e. S1 is off and S2 is on):

where I is the identity matrix.


The input voltage Vin is chosen as the bifurcation parameter
for the study of the bifurcation behaviour of the buck
converter. The PSPICE model of the buck converter is
simulated for Vin being varied from 20V to 40V in steps
of 1V with the critical waveforms when changes occur.
Crucial information about the output voltage (which is
also the capacitor voltage), and the inductor current and
Fast Fourier Transform Spectrum are presented as follows
in their respective graphs.
When Vin = 20V, as can be seen from Figures 2 and
3, the output voltage and the inductor current waveforms
in time domain are both periodic in nature, demonstrating
the period-1 stable operation of the buck converter. This
observation is further strengthened by its Fast Fourier
Transform (FFT) Spectrum shown in Figure 4 where
narrowband, discontinuous and isolated frequency
harmonics can be seen. As for the trajectory or the phase
portrait when Vin is equal 20V in Figure 5, a normal
period-1 loop is noticed [16-24].
The system continues to show period-1 behaviour
until Vin reaches 28V. At Vin = 28V, the system starts to
bifurcate into a period-2 domain. It can be clearly observed
from the output voltage waveform, the inductor current
waveform and the FFT spectrum waveforms in Figures
6, 7, and 8 respectively, where little hiccups can be seen
in the voltage output and the inductor current waveforms.
Moreover, the trajectory or the phase portrait when Vin is
equal to 28V shown in Figure 9 shows a two-branch loop
of a period-2 attractor [21, 23].
The period-2 bifurcation only lasted for a narrow range
of Vin value up to 32V. Beyond and including the threshold
of Vin = 32V, a period-4 bifurcation occurs. From the output
voltage waveform and the inductor current waveform that
are depicted in Figures 10 and 11, show the hiccups when
Vin = 28V to be worse here. However, the waveforms still
follow a general form of repetition [22]. The trajectory
has now bifurcated into a period-4 portrait where a double
image of the period-2 trajectory is observed as in Figure
13. Period-8 bifurcation lasts for the smallest range of Vin
values from Vin = 32.35V to Vin = 33V. Period-8 bifurcation
waveforms which is observed when Vin is set to be 32.35V
can be seen in Figures 14 to 17.

Equation 7

14

Journal The Institution of Engineers, Malaysia (Vol. 75, No. 1, June 2014)

Bifurcation Behaviour of the Buck Converter

Figure 2: Output Voltage, VC at Vin = 20V

Figure 3: Inductor Current, IL at Vin = 20V

Figure 4: FFT Spectrum at Vin = 20V

Figure 5: Trajectory when Vin = 20V


Journal The Institution of Engineers, Malaysia (Vol. 75, No. 1, June 2014)

15

Ir. Dr Ng Kok Chiang, Dr Nadia Tan Mei Lin and Dr. Michelle Tan Tien Tien

Figure 6: Output Voltage, VC at Vin = 28V

Figure 7: Inductor Current, IL at Vin = 28V

Figure 8: FFT Spectrum at Vin = 28V

Figure 9: Trajectory when Vin = 28V


16

Journal The Institution of Engineers, Malaysia (Vol. 75, No. 1, June 2014)

Bifurcation Behaviour of the Buck Converter

Figure 10: Output Voltage, VC at Vin = 32V

Figure 11: Inductor Current, IL at Vin = 32V

Figure 12: FFT Spectrum at Vin = 32V

Figure 13: Trajectory when Vin = 32V


Journal The Institution of Engineers, Malaysia (Vol. 75, No. 1, June 2014)

17

Ir. Dr Ng Kok Chiang, Dr Nadia Tan Mei Lin and Dr. Michelle Tan Tien Tien

Figure 14: Output Voltage, VC at Vin = 32.35V

Figure 15: Inductor Current, IL at Vin = 32.35V

Figure 16: FFT Spectrum at Vin = 32.35V

Figure 17: Trajectory when Vin = 32.35V


18

Journal The Institution of Engineers, Malaysia (Vol. 75, No. 1, June 2014)

Bifurcation Behaviour of the Buck Converter

Figure 18: Output Voltage, VC at Vin = 33V

Figure 19: Inductor Current, IL at Vin = 33V

Figure 20: FFT Spectrum at Vin = 33V

Figure 21: Trajectory when Vin = 33V


Journal The Institution of Engineers, Malaysia (Vol. 75, No. 1, June 2014)

19

Ir. Dr Ng Kok Chiang, Dr Nadia Tan Mei Lin and Dr. Michelle Tan Tien Tien

Figure 22: Output Voltage, VC at Vin = 40V

Figure 23: Inductor Current, IL at Vin = 40V

Figure 24: FFT Spectrum at Vin = 40V

Figure 25: Trajectory when Vin = 40V


20

Journal The Institution of Engineers, Malaysia (Vol. 75, No. 1, June 2014)

Bifurcation Behaviour of the Buck Converter

At Vin = 33V, the operation of the buck converter


moves into the chaotic region. Random, unsymmetrical
disjoint and aperiodic nature is evident in the waveforms
of the output voltage and the inductor current of the buck
converter as in Figures 18 and 19. The output voltage and
the inductor current waveforms do not follow a specific
form of repetition and are of random structures [24-28].
Furthermore, the Fast Fourier Transform Spectrum in
Figure 20, which has a continuous and broadband nature,
further emphasises that the buck converter is now operating
in the chaotic region. The trajectory however, exhibits a
strange attractor which signifies chaotic behaviour [16,
18-20, 25-27]. Figure 21 shows the chaotic waveform
corresponding to Vin = 33V. To confirm that the buck
converter continues to operate in the chaotic region after
Vin = 33V, simulations when Vin = 40V was carried out
and as expected, the results obtained as depicted in Figures
22 to 25 point to operation of the buck converter in the
chaotic domain.

4.0 Conclusion
Being one of the simplest of the DC-to-DC converters, the
buck converter is chosen to be the subject of this study
because of its widespread representation of the circuit
to many practical DC-to-DC converters. Also, due to
its extensive applications in industrial and engineering
applications, the knowledge of the system behaviour in
different regions of parameter space should be crucial,
especially in designing the buck converter for sensitive
equipment. The bifurcation phenomenon and chaos in
the voltage mode controlled buck converter has been
investigated with the modelling and simulation of the buck
converter in PSPICE in this study. It has been found that
the buck converter system experiences the normal period
doubling bifurcations leading to a stepwise transition from
period-1 behaviour to chaos. Figures 5, 9, 13, 17, and 21
are phase portrait diagrams which show the progression of
the change from period-1 to period-2, period-4, period-8,
and lastly to chaotic operation of the buck converter
when Vin is varied from 20V to 33V. For low values of
the input voltage, the system is periodic, but as the input
voltage is increased the system bifurcates into period-2
orbit and subsequently into period-4 and period-8 orbits
when the input voltage is increased further. When border
collision occurs at a much higher input voltage, the system
inevitably moves into the chaotic region. The bifurcation
pathway that is observed involves that of smooth period
doubling. Period doubling bifurcation concerns the break
of symmetry as can be seen in the trajectory waveforms. It
is also known as the sudden appearance of a qualitatively
different behaviour when a parameter of the circuit is
Journal The Institution of Engineers, Malaysia (Vol. 75, No. 1, June 2014)

changed. When period doubling recurs, an infinite period


will ultimately lead to chaos. If bifurcations are under
appropriate control, they can be both important and
beneficial.
There are still much to be pursued both in the study
of the non-linear behaviour of power electronics and the
development of more effective control strategies for these
behaviours. Following this study for example, future
work needs to be done on investigating the bifurcation
behaviour of the buck converter when other parameters
besides Vin are varied. Other parameters in the circuit such
as the load resistance, R, the inductance, L, the capacitor C,
the switching frequency, f and the amplitude of the ramp
voltage should be varied so as to enable the study of nonlinear effects they might have on buck converter operation.
The ultimate goal of all these studies on the non-linear
behaviour of the DC-to-DC converters is to gain adequate
information and understanding of the system behaviour for
better design, functionality, reliability and performance of
the converters when operating in unstable modes or even
chaotically.

References
[1] G. Chen, J.L. Moiola and H.O. Wang Bifurcations:
Control and Anti-Control, IEEE Circuits and Systems
Society Newsletter, vol. 10, no. 2, June/July 1999, pp.
4-31.
[2] M.H. Rashid, Power Electronics Circuits, Devices, and
Applications, (Third Edition) University of West Florida:
Pearson Prentice Hall International Edition, 2004.
[3] C.K. Tse, Recent Development in the Study of Nonlinear
Phenomena in Power Electronics Circuits, IEEE Circuits
and Systems Society Newsletter, March Issue, pp. 14-48,
2000.
[4] C.K. Tse and M. di Bernardo, Complex Behavior in
Switching Power Converters, Proceedings of IEEE,
Special Issue on Application of Nonlinear Dynamics to
Electronic and Information Engineering, vol. 90, no. 5,
pp.768-781, May 2002.
[5] J. Baillieul, R.W. Brockett, and R.B. Washburn,
Chaotic Motion in Nonlinear Feedback Systems, IEEE
Transactions on Circuits and Systems, vol. 27, no. 11, pp.
990-997, November 1980.
[6] E. Fossas and G. Olivar, Study of chaos in the buck
converter, IEEE Transactions on Circuits Systems I, vol.
43, pp. 13-25, Jan. 1996.
[7] D.C. Hamill and D.J. Jefferies, Subharmonics and Chaos
in a Controlled Switched-mode Power Converter, IEEE
Transactions on Circuit Systems I, vol. 35, pp. 1059-1061,
August 1988.
21

Ir. Dr Ng Kok Chiang, Dr Nadia Tan Mei Lin and Dr. Michelle Tan Tien Tien

[8] J.H.B. Deane and D.C. Hamill, Instability, subharmonics


and chaos in power electronics systems, in IEEE Power
Electronics Specialists Conference Record, 1989, pp.3442.
[9] J.H.B. Deane and D.C. Hamill, Instability, subharmonics
and chaos in power electronics systems, IEEE
Transactions on Power Electronics, vol. 5, no. 3, pp.260268, 1990.
[10] P.T. Krein and R.M. Bass, Types of Instability
Encountered in Simple Power Electronics Circuits:
Unboundedness, Chattering, and Chaos, in APEC90,
IEEE Applied Power Electronics Conference Proceedings,
1990, pp. 191-194.
[11] J.H.B., Deane and D.C. Hamill, Analysis, Simulation
and Experimental Study of Chaos in the Buck Converter,
PESC90, IEEE Power Electronics Specialists Conference
Record, 1990, Vol. II, pp.491-498.
[12] Poddar, Gautam, K. Chakrabarty and S. Banerjee,
Experimental Control of Chaotic Behavior of a Buck
Converter, IEEE Transactions on Circuits and Systems I,
vol. 43, no. 8, August 1995, pp. 502-504.
[13] Y. Zhou, C.K. Tse, S. Qiu and F.C.M. Lau, Applying
Resonant Parametric Perturbation to Control Chaos in the
Buck DC/DC Converter with Phase Shift and Frequency
Mismatch Consideration, International Journal of
Bifurcation and Chaos, vol. 13, no. 11, pp. 3459-3471,
2003.
[14] Y. Braiman and I. Goldhirsch Taming chaotic dynamics
with weak periodic perturbations, Phys. Rev. Lett. 66,
2545-2548, 1991
[15] R. Chacn and J. Daz Bejarano Routes to suppressing
chaos by weak periodic perturbations, Phys. Rev. Lett. 71,
3103-3106, 1993.
[16] W.C.Y. Chan and C.K. Tse, Study of Bifurcations in
Current-Programmed DC/DC Boost Converters: From
Quasi-Periodicity to Period-Doubling, IEEE Transactions
on Circuits and Systems I, vol. 44, no. 12, pp. 1129-1142,
December 1997.
[17] P. Colet and Y. Braiman Control of chaos in multimode
solid state lasers by the use of small periodic perturbations,
Phys. Rev. E53, 200-206, 1996.
[18] R. Lima and M. Pettini Suppression of chaos by resonant
parametric perturbations, Phys. Rev. A41, 726-733, 1990.

22

[19] K.A. Mirus and J.C. Sprott Controlling chaos a


high dimensional system with periodic parametric
perturbations, Phys. Lett. A254, 275-278, 1999.
[20] G. Chen, Chaos: Control and Anti-Control, IEEE
Circuits and Systems Society Newsletter, pp. 1-5, March
1998.
[21] K. Chakrabarty, G. Podder, and S. Banerjee, Bifurcation
behavior in buck converter, IEEE Transactions on Power
Electronics, vol. 11, pp. 439-447, May 1996.
[22] R. Gavagsaz-Ghoachani, M. Phattanasak, J.P. Martin, S.
Pierfederici, B. Davat Predicting the onset of bifurcation
and stability study of a hybrid current controller for a boost
converter, Mathematics and Computers in Simulation,
vol. 91, pp. 262-273, May 2013.
[23] Hebertt Sira-Ramrez, Alberto Luviano-Jurez, John
Corts-Romero, Robust inputoutput sliding mode
control of the buck converter, Control Engineering
Practice, vol. 21, pp 671-678, May 2013.
[24] Lu Wei-Guo, Zhou Luo-Wei, Luo Quan-Ming, Wu JunKe, Non-invasive chaos control of DC-DC converter and
its optimization, International Journal of Circuit Theory
and Applications, vol. 39, pp 159174, Feb 2011.
[25] Meyer, E., Zhiliang Zhang, Yan-Fei Liu, Digital
Charge Balance Controller to Improve the Loading/
Unloading Transient Response of Buck Converters, IEEE
Transactions on Power Electronics, vol. 27, pp. 1314
-1326, March 2012. http://ieeexplore.ieee.org/Xplorehelp/
Help_periodicals.html
[26] El Aroudi, A., Robert, B. Stability Analysis of a Voltage
Mode Controlled Two-Cells DC-DC Buck Converter,
Power Electronics Specialists Conference, 2005. PESC
05. IEEE 36th, pp. 1057-1061, June 2005.
[27] Karama Kaouba, J. Pelaez-Restrepo, M. Feki, B.G.M.
Robert, A. El Aroudi, Improved static and dynamic
performances of a two-cell DC-DC buck converter using
a digital dynamic time-delayed control, vol 40, pp. 395407, April 2012.
[28] Chung-Chieh Fang, Eyad H. Abed, Analysis and Control
of Period-Doubling Bifurcation in Buck Converters
Using Harmonic Balance, International Journal of Latin
American Applied Research, vol. 31, pp. 149-156, Jul.
2001.

Journal The Institution of Engineers, Malaysia (Vol. 75, No. 1, June 2014)

Bifurcation Behaviour of the Buck Converter

profiles
NG KOK CHIANG graduated from the University of Western Australia with first class honours in Bachelor of
Engineering in Electrical & Electronics and Bachelor of Commerce majoring in Accounting, Investment Finance
(Derivatives), and Managerial Accounting. He then furthered his studies to the University of Nottingham, UK and
graduated with a PhD in Engineering having worked in the area of renewable energy and its storage for three and
a half years. Ir. Dr Ng Kok Chiang in his course of research and work had liaised with various organisations such
as E.ON (Power and Gas), Lockheed Martin, Jaguar/Land Rover (supercapacitors in automotive industry/electric
cars), Battelle (lab management and commercialisation), Malaysia Rubber Board (energy management, artificial
intelligent, control, and electronics), and MOSTI (Fabrication of Advanced Supercapacitors). He is currently the
Chief Technology Officer of MyBig Sdn. Bhd. and a Professional Engineer with the R&D Centre at Leong Hing Sdn.
Bhd. involved in research and prototyping projects in collaboration with various Malaysian Government Agencies
and research bodies. Among the prominent solutions founded were the advanced switching mechanism in the Nexcap
storage to efficiently capture minuscule trickle of charges, intelligent control systems incorporating power electronics
device, and the advanced Sunopy solar system.
NADIA TAN MEI LIN was born in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. She received the B.Eng. (Hons.) degree from the
University of Sheffield, Sheffield, U.K., in 2002, the M.Eng. degree from Universiti Tenaga Nasional, Kajang,
Malaysia, in 2007, and the Ph.D. degree from Tokyo Institute of Technology, Tokyo, Japan, in 2010, all in electrical
engineering. Since October 2010, she has been a Senior Lecturer in the Department of Electrical Power Engineering,
Universiti Tenaga Nasional. Her current research interests include power conversion systems and bidirectional
isolated dc-dc converters. Dr Tan is a Graduate Member of the Institution of Engineers, Malaysia (IEM), a Member
of the Institution of Engineering and Technology (IET), and a Member of the Institute of Electrical and Electronics
Engineers (IEEE).

MICHELLE TAN TIEN TIEN is an Assistant Professor in the Department of Electrical & Electronic Engineering at
the University of Nottingham Malaysia Campus. She received her BEng. degree in Electrical & Electronic Engineering
at Swansea University, Wales, UK where she also completed her PhD on using one dimensional Zinc Oxide nanowires
for bio-sensing application. Michelles current research focuses on the synthesis and characterisation of nanomaterials
for bio-sensing applications, with emphasis on graphene, metal oxide and graphene/metal oxide composites. Besides
that, her research also focuses on incorporating graphene composites for application in critical and hard environments,
such as aerospace applications, of which is currently funded by the Ministry of Science Technology & Innovation
(MOSTI), Malaysia.

Journal The Institution of Engineers, Malaysia (Vol. 75, No. 1, June 2014)

23

Novel Bimetallic Tin-Manganese Oxides/Carbon Nanotube


Nanocomposite and Their Charge Storage Properties
(Date received: 20.09.2013/Date accepted: 05.05.2014)

Ir. Dr Ng Kok Chiang*1, Ms. Siew Shee Lim2, Dr Chuang Peng3


R&D Centre, Leong Hing Sdn. Bhd., No.1, Jalan P4/7, Seksyen 4, Bandar Teknologi Kajang,
43500, Semenyih, Selangor, Malaysia
2
Department of Chemical and Environmental Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, University of Nottingham Malaysia Campus,
Jalan Broga, 43500 Semenyih, Selangor, Malaysia
3
Renewable Energy Research Group, College of Engineering, Mathematics and Physical Sciences, University of Exeter,
Cornwall Campus, Penryn, Cornwall, UK TR 10 9EZ
1

*Corresponding author: kokchiang.ng@leonghing.com

ABSTRACT
The synthesis of CNTs/(Sn+Mn)Ox nanocomposites were first attempted through combining the hydro-oxidation
of SnCl2 to SnO2 and the reduction of KMnO4 to MnO2 onto CNTs in this work. The reducing presence of SnCl2
accelerated the deposition of MnO2 from 7 days to a day. Subsequently, CNTs/(Sn+Mn)Ox nanocomposites were
characterised by X-ray diffraction, scanning and transmission electron microscopy, cyclic voltammetry, and
galvanostatic charge-discharge. These microstructure and electrochemical results indicated that this nanocomposite
showed synergetic effect in term of specific capacitance, charge storage capacities and exceptional cycling stability.
All these enhanced electrochemical properties were attributed to increased surface area, increased utilisation of
co-deposited cassiterite-type SnO2 nanoparticulates and birnessite MnO2 monolayer. Additionally, their improved
electronic conductivity facilitated better mass transport of ions during charging and discharging process. Based on
the findings above, CNTs/(Sn+Mn)Ox nanocomposite will be served as promising and affordable positive electrode
materials for high performance supercapacitors.
Keywords: Energy Storage, Cassiterite, Manganese Oxide, Nanocomposites, Supercapacitors

1.0 Introduction
The depletion of fossil fuel has urged the development of
more sustainable energy sources. Extensive efforts have
been put for developing more sustainable energy storage
devices such as supercapacitors. Supercapacitors fill in
the gap between conventional capacitors and batteries
by showing best power characteristics. They provide
higher power densities, higher energy densities and longer
cycle life [1]. The superior electrochemical performance
of supercapacitors is mainly attributed to the electrode
materials used. Three main materials for fabricating
supercapacitors are metal oxide [2], electronically
conducting polymer [3] and carbon-based supercapacitors
[4].

24

In the case of carbon-based supercapacitors, carbonnanotubes (CNTs) have been heavily used as electrode
materials. The interconnected nanoporous structure
of CNTs specifically opened mesopores allows better
mass transport of ions during charging and discharging
than activated carbon. Moreover, CNTs are much better
than activated carbon in term of conductivity, corrosion
resistance, mechanical strength, temperature stability and
ease of functionalization. Due to those forementioned
properties of CNTs, the development of carbon nanotubebased (CNTs) supercapacitors was first adopted in
American aerospace and military application. These
sectors heavily rely on the use of supercapacitors as energy
storage devices in their light weight hybrid system such as
electric satellite, pulse power and propulsion systems [5].
Journal The Institution of Engineers, Malaysia (Vol. 75, No. 1, June 2014)

Novel Bimetallic Tin-Manganese Oxides/Carbon Nanotube Nanocomposite


and Their Charge Storage Properties

Recently, on-going researches on CNT-based


supercapacitor have emphasized on the deposition
of transition metal oxides which have higher specific
capacitance onto CNTs to enhance the pseudocapacitance
performance of CNTs. This is due to the fact that transition
metal oxides exhibit fairly higher electronic conductivity
than CNTs. Transition metal oxides such as MnO2, NiO,
SnO2, Co2O3 have been introduced onto CNTs through
different deposition methods and studied in term of
their electrochemical performance. For instance, two
separate nanocomposites namely CNTs/MnO2 and CNTs/
SnO2 were synthesized and reported to show improved
pseudo-capacitance in the work by Ng and co-workers
[6]. They successfully demonstrated the deposition of
MnO2 and SnO2 onto CNTs through simple redox and
hydro-oxidation reactions separately. Both CNTs/MnO2
and CNTs/SnO2 nanocomposites served as positive and
negative electrode respectively and showed superior
charge-storage capacity, high cell voltage, cycle life,
and electrochemical kinetics. The improved capacitance
was observed as these nanomaterials combined both ion
adsorption and fast redox reactions.
SnO2 has recently been reported to exhibit pseudocapacitance behaviour with long cycle life in aqueous
solutions. This material has traditionally been investigated
for lithium ion battery applications but gained light in the
recent years with the growing demand for greater power
in applications utilising supercapacitors. Wu et al. [7]
has shown that specific capacitances of 298 F/g and 125
F/g can be achieved at scan rates of 10 and 200 mV/s
respectively on SnO2 prepared by cathodic deposition at
a constant current of 2.5 mA/cm2. Rajendra Prasad and
Miura [8] on the other hand also reported a maximum
specific capacitance of 285 F/g at a scan rate of 10 mV/s
with SnO2 prepared via potentiodynamic deposition at
a scan rate of 200 mV/s. SnO2 has also been reported to
be inserted in various different transition metal oxides
or conducting polymers [9] as mixed composites for
supercapacitor applications due to its pseudo-capacitive
and other encouraging properties as will be discussed
below. In particular, SnO2 has been extensively studied
in some complicated oxides with RuO2. Such composites
have resulted in the reduction of the overall cost of the
synthesis due to the known high cost of the RuO2 oxides.
RuO2 has very high specific capacitance but is low
in conductivity [10, 11]. Because of this very reason
its usages are only limited to thin film applications in
consumer products such as mobile phone and portable
electronics. This drawback of RuO2 may be overcome by
introducing a more conducting oxide such as SnO2 which
is traditionally used in many semiconductor and electronic

Journal The Institution of Engineers, Malaysia (Vol. 75, No. 1, June 2014)

devices as transparent conducting materials [12]. SnO2 is


also known to have lower toxicity as compared to some
other transition metal compounds used in supercapacitors
[12, 13]. The various synthesis methods for the Ru-Sn
composites include the DC reactive sputtering carried out
by Kim et al. [14], hydrothermal synthesis by Wang and
Hu [15], co-annealing by Hu et al. [16] and sol gel process
by Wu et al. [16]. SnO2 has also been combined with other
metal oxides such as Al2O3 [17], V2O5 [18], and In2O3 [19].
Manganese dioxide, MnO2, on the other hand has
always been utilised in many electrochemical power
sources dating back to the work of Leclanch in the 1980s
in his work with alkaline batteries [20]. In the recent
years, MnO2 has been extensively reported in a wide
range of journals as a promising electrode material for
the electrochemical capacitors. This is due to its low cost
and the environmental consideration when compared to
other oxides besides the fairly high pseudo-capacitance
exhibited. The investigation on this oxide started with only
6 papers from the year 1999-2000 to more than 75 papers
from 2004-2007. There have been attempts to further
improve the performance of MnO2 by seeking synergetic
effect of combining the oxide with other transition metal
oxides or conducting polymers [21]. Among the transition
metal oxides and conducting polymers combined with
MnO2 for the improvement of the specific capacitance
include NiO [22], Co2O3 [22], PbO2 [26], Fe2O3 [27, 28],
MoO2 [29], V2O5 [30], PANI [31], and PPy [32]. The
Ni-Mn hydroxide reported by Shlyakhtin et al. showed
significant reversible electrochemical capacity at high
discharge rate (up to 70 mAh/g at I = 70 mA/cm2) [33,
34]. Prasad and Miura [26] and Zhao et al. [23-25] also
reported improvement with the addition of Co2O3 in the
specific capacitance of MnO2. Remarkably high specific
capacitance was achieved with the electrochemically
synthesised MnO2 embedded in PPy besides improving its
charge-discharge stability by Sharma et al. [32].
However, to date, there have not been any studies to
combine the MnO2 with SnO2, despite the high specific
capacitance achievable by both oxides [6]. SnO2 has
properties which are complementary to those of MnO2.
The tendency to form nanoparticulate, even in the hydrous
form, can increase the specific area available for pseudocapacitive reactions. The high conductivity, i.e. 102 to 103
S/cm [35, 36] of SnO2 is also higher than that of MnO2 (103 to 10-4 S/cm) [37, 38-40], which would in turn improve
the electrochemical utilisation of MnO2 when combined
with the SnO2. In this work, the co-deposition of MnO2
and SnO2 was attempted and the deposition of MnO4 was
accelerated due to the reducing presence of SnCl2. The
synergetic effects of the combined metal oxides in term

25

Ir. Dr Ng Kok Chiang, Ms. Siew Shee Lim, Dr Chuang Peng

of electrochemical performance will be further discussed.


The nanocomposite synthesised is denoted as CNTs/
(Sn+Mn) Ox.

2.0 Methodology
Synthesis of the CNTs/(Sn+Mn)Ox nanocomposites 1.0g
of SnCl2 salt (Sigma-Aldrich, 98%) was dissolved in 50.0
mL of deionised H2O with 1.0 mL of HCl (30% w.t.) and
continuously stirred for 1 hour before the addition of acid
treated multi-walled CNTs (L. MWNTs-1030, >95%, 1030 nm in diameter, 5-15 m in length, amorphous carbon <
3%). 10mg of acid-treated CNTs were immersed in SnCl2
solution to synthesise nanocomposites with the mixedoxide loadings of 60% w.t. Subsequently, 1.21 g of KMnO4
was added to obtain a Sn:Mn ratio of 1:1 in the deposited
oxides. The mixtures were stirred at 200 rpm for 24 hours.
After 24-hr stirring, brown precipitate was settled at the
bottom of the flask. The products were filtered and washed
with deionised H2O prior to 24-hour drying at 60C. The
dried products were ground using an agate and pestle.
Chemical and structural characterisation of
CNTs/(Sn+Mn)Ox nanocomposites The ground
nanocomposites were characterised by an Environmental
Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM, Philips FEI XL30
FEG-ESEM), a low resolution TEM (LR-TEM, JEOL
2000FX) and X-ray diffraction (XRD, Hiltonbrooks DG3
generator plus Philips PW1050/25 goniometer, CuK
radiation). A Micromeritics ASAP 2020 V3.01 H BET
surface area analyser was used to evaluate the surface area
of the nanocomposites powders. All samples were dried
thoroughly in the conventional oven before the degassing
and further heating at 100 C for 60 minutes in the machine.
Nitrogen sorption isotherms and textural properties of the
materials were determined at 77 K using liquid nitrogen
in a conventional volumetric method. The surface areas of
the nanocomposites were calculated using the BrunauerEmmett-Teller (BET) technique based on adsorption data
in the partial pressure (P/P0) range of 0.05-0.35.
Preparation of nanocomposite thin-films on
electrode for electrochemical studies 95% w.t. CNTs/
(Sn+Mn)Ox nanocomposite of different oxide loading
and 5% w.t. PTFE binder (60% w.t. aqueous emulsion
of polytetrafluroethylene, Aldrich) were thoroughly
dispersed in 4ml of deionised water. 10.0 l of the mixture
was cast onto epoxy-sheathed graphite electrode (0.25cm
in diameter) to form a very thin nanocomposite film using
electronic micropipette (EDP3 Rainin LTS 10-100 L
with wide orifice tips). Thin nanocomposite films (65m
on average thickness) on graphite electrodes were dried
in desiccators overnight before electrochemical studies

26

(AUTOLAB PGSTAT30) in a one-compartment threeelectrode cell with the Ag/AgCl (2M KCl) reference
electrode and a graphite counter electrode at room
temperature.

3.0 Results and Discussions


Figure 1 shows the BET surface area of the nanocomposites
of different (Sn+Mn)Ox loadings. As stated before, the
surface area of the acid-treated CNTs was found to be
107.75 m2/g. In Figure 1, the BET surface area of the
nanocomposites shows an increasing trend up to a mixedoxides loading of 60% w.t. but a decreasing trend thereafter.
The initial increase in surface area can be attributed to
the fact that the mixed-oxides by themselves may have a
higher surface area as compared to the CNTs. However,
the surface area of the mixed-oxides by themselves only
would be expected to be slightly less than the surface
area recorded for the CNTs/(Sn+Mn)Ox 80% as can be
seen from the declining rate of decrease in surface area
of the nanocomposites as the loading of the mixed-oxides
increases beyond the 60% w.t. loading. This would also
elucidate the reason behind the maximum surface area
achieved at 60% w.t. loading. This is because if the surface
area of the mixed-oxides on their own is slightly less than
the nanocomposite with 80% w.t. oxides loading but higher
than that of the acid-treated CNTs, the maximum achieved
at the loading of 60% w.t. would be associated with the
CNTs providing a three-dimensional nanostructure for the
deposition of the mixed-oxides. The (Sn+Mn)Ox on their
own may not be able to achieve as high BET surface area
without the acid-treated CNTs because they may exist as
agglomerates with low porosity. Thus, the CNTs substrate
has actually provided a synergetic effect with its structure
in improving the overall surface area of the nanocomposite.
With the mixed-oxides depositing onto the CNT substrate
instead of forming agglomerates together with the nature
of the random packing of the CNTs, the nanocomposites
formed would have higher porosity than that of the pure
mixed-oxides.
In addition, the corrosion phenomenon by KMnO4 on
the CNTs at high loading of MnO2 which was previously
reported [29] shortened and destroyed the structure of the
CNTs substrate in the CNTs/MnO2 nanocomposite. The
decrease in surface area as the mixed-oxides loadings
are increased beyond 60% w.t. may also be associated
with the destruction of porous structure provided by the
CNTs substrate due to the corrosion by KMnO4. When
this happens, the synergetic effect provided by the long
entangled framework of the CNTs would be lost, hence
the decrease in the BET surface area.

Journal The Institution of Engineers, Malaysia (Vol. 75, No. 1, June 2014)

Novel Bimetallic Tin-Manganese Oxides/Carbon Nanotube Nanocomposite


and Their Charge Storage Properties

of CNT substrate. Thus, the porous three-dimensional


structure of CNTs was still retained. Such porous
structure was necessary for the ease of intercalations and
deintercalations of cations from the electrolyte during the
charge and discharge cycles. This would allow a better
kinetic reversibility and improve the capacitance of the
nanocomposite.
(a) 60% w.t.

Figure 1: BET surface area of the CNTs/(Sn+Mn)Ox


nanocomposites at different loadings of (Sn+Mn)Ox
(i.e. from 20% to 60% w.t. (Sn+Mn)Ox in 10% increments)

As the co-deposition of the mixed-oxides is uneven on


the surface of the CNTs, the mixed-oxides would in effect
introduce more overall surface area to the nanocomposite
as compared to oxides which uniformly coat the CNTs.
Uniform coating of oxides on the surface CNTs without
jagged texture as in our case of the CNTs/(Sn+Mn)
Ox would increase the diameter of the nanocomposite
fibrils uniformly, thus, would be expected to show lower
surface area as compared to the acid-treated CNTs. The
nanocrystalline particulates of 4 nm in diameter of the
SnO2 which are enveloped by the amorphous MnO2 as
seen in the HR-TEM images have certainly contributed to
the increase in surface area of the nanocomposites. This
is because the nanoparticulates themselves have very
high surface area due to the size and it is also because
of these nano-agglomerates which promotes the jagged
morphology of the nanocomposites as viewed under the
SEM machine.
Figures 2 (a) and (b) show the SEM images of the
CNTs/(Sn+Mn)Ox 60% w.t. nanocomposites at different
magnifications. Jagged and consistent coarse surfaces of
CNTs clearly shown in Figures 2 (a-b) were caused by the
deposition of (Sn+Mn)Ox agglomerates at nanoscale. The
co-deposited oxides on CNTs at the metal oxide loading of
60% w.t caused an overall increase in the fibril diameter
of nanocomposite. The co-deposition of metal oxides,
however, did not cause opening blocking to the randomly
packed CNTs bundles. These SEM images indicated that
co-deposition of metal oxide was formed on the surface

Journal The Institution of Engineers, Malaysia (Vol. 75, No. 1, June 2014)

(b) 60% w.t.

Figures 2 (a) and (b). SEM images of the CNTs/ (Sn+Mn)Ox


60% w.t. nanocomposites at magnifications of 80,000
and 160,000 times

Figures 3 (a) to (e) show TEM images of the CNTs/


(Sn+Mn)Ox 60% w.t. nanocomposite, while Figures 3
(f) and (g) depict the darkfield images of the fibrils of
the nanocomposites. Broken CNT fibrils heavily coated
with (Sn+Mn)Ox were observed in Figures 3 (a-b). The
structural destruction of CNTs was caused by the reduction
reaction of KMnO4 to MnO2 in which the carbon in CNTs
was consumed. The deposition mechanism of MnO2 on
CNTs is shown as below [6]. The consumption of carbon
in the reduction reaction resulted in the formation of
shorter fibrils.

27

Ir. Dr Ng Kok Chiang, Ms. Siew Shee Lim, Dr Chuang Peng

Figure 3: TEM images of the CNTs/(Sn+Mn)Ox 60% w.t. nanocomposite at different magnifications

4KMnO4 (aq) + 3C (s) + H2O g 4MnO2 (s) +


K2CO3 (aq) + 2KHCO3 (aq)

(1)

The distribution of the metal oxide across the surface


of CNTs was confirmed by the darkfield images in Figures

28

3 (f) and (g). The bright spots on the darker fibrils were
the deposited metal oxides through redox reaction.
Agglomerates with thickness of 5-10 nm were observed
in Figure 3 (e). This was believed that those agglomerates
were mixture of nanoparticulates of SnO2 and MnO2
Journal The Institution of Engineers, Malaysia (Vol. 75, No. 1, June 2014)

Novel Bimetallic Tin-Manganese Oxides/Carbon Nanotube Nanocomposite


and Their Charge Storage Properties

from the results of the XRD. This uneven deposition of


nano agglomerates was also initiated by the adsorption
of tin ions onto the surface of acid-treated CNTs due to
electrostatic attraction, subsequent in situ oxidisation to
SnO2 nanoparticulates by O2 dissolved in the solution. The
exact deposition mechanism of SnO2 is shown below:
2SnCl2 (aq) + 2H2O + O2 g 2SnO2 (s) +
4HCl (aq)

(2)

was enlarged for determining the interplanar spacing of


fringes exhibited by the dark crystalline grains and outer
coating of the dark crystalline grains in Figure 3-1 (d). The
measured d-spacing for the fringes found in the crystalline
grains and the outer coating of the crystalline grains were
approximately 0.3 nm and 0.7 nm respectively. The value
of 0.3 nm corresponds to the d(110) of the cassiterite-SnO2
in the JCPDS data of 41-1445, while 0.7 nm corresponds
to the d(001) of the monoclinic-MnO2 in the JCPDS data
of 65-1798. These TEM images evidently demonstrate
that CNTs were not the only nucleation sites for MnO2,
SnO2 nanoparticulate clusters simultaneously served
as heterogeneous sites for the nucleation and growth of
MnO2 nanomaterials. This substantiates the claim that

This controlled deposition of SnO2 on the CNTs


resulted in a thinly and dispersedly coated SnO2 based
nanocomposite. Further deposition of the SnO2 on the
CNTs greatly depends on the adsorption of tin ions on
the as-originated SnO2 coating, which is a
slow crystalisation route. Following such
deposition mechanism, uneven distribution
of SnO2 nano aggloramates was observed
and contributed to the jagged surface
of CNTs observed in Figures 3 (a-b).
Additionally, rapid co-deposition of MnO2
and SnO2 prevented the formation of thick
coatings of MnO2, as well as embedding
SnO2 nanocrystals in the structure. The thin
coating of both metal oxides led to reduced
electron transport lengths and ion diffusion
distances. The improvement of electron
kinetic was thus expected.
From the reactions (1) and (2), it can be
seen that the formation of the MnO2 solid
involved the reduction of MnO4 ions, while
in the controlled hydro-oxidation reaction,
SnO2 nanoparticulates were formed via
the oxidation of the Sn2+ ions on CNTs.
Instead of just CNTs acting as the reducing
agent for the deposition of MnO2, the
acceleration of such deposition to a day was
also due to the reducing presence of SnCl2
solution which was acidic in nature. This
work demonstrated that the reduction of
KMnO4 was much preferably under acidic
condition. On the other hand, the formation
of SnO2 on CNTs did not require the active
participation of the carbon according to the
hydro-oxidation reaction above, it was found
that CNTs were still instrumental in the codeposition, as they provided nucleation sites
for the deposition of SnO2 nanoparticulates. Figure 3-1 (a) CNTs/SnO 60% w.t. nanocomposite (b) CNTs/MnO 60% w.t.
2
2
To further verify the types of metal nanocomposite, (c) the nano-agglomerates on the CNTs/(Sn+Mn)Ox 60% w.t.
oxide in those nano agglomerates, one nanocomposite surface, and (d) the d-spacing values of the fringes observed
from the enlarged portion of image (c)
of agglomerates shown in Figure 3-1 (c)

Journal The Institution of Engineers, Malaysia (Vol. 75, No. 1, June 2014)

29

Ir. Dr Ng Kok Chiang, Ms. Siew Shee Lim, Dr Chuang Peng

MnO2 layers were blanketing the agglomerates of the


SnO2 nanoparticulates which together formed the lumps
observed.
Figure 4 shows the XRD patterns of the acid-treated
CNTs, nanocomposites of CNTs/SnO2 60% w.t. [6],
nanocomposites of CNTs/MnO2 60% w.t. [6], and
nanocomposites of CNTs/(Sn+Mn)Ox of 60%. The metal
oxides deposited on CNTs caused the broadening of the
CNT peaks and made those peaks become less distinctive.
The SnO2 presence corresponds to the cassiterite-type
SnO2, while the MnO2 to the birnessite-type MnO2 and
both match the JCPDS data of 41-1445 and 42-1317
respectively. The cassiterite-type SnO2 deposited had a
structure which corresponds to a = 4.738, b = 4.738, and c
= 3.187 , while the birnessite-type MnO2 was monoclinic
with a = 5.150, b = 2.844, c = 7.159, and = 100.64 in
accordance with the XRD data obtained.

coupled with the proton and cations deintercalations


and desorptions. Based on the findings of charge storage
mechanism of MnO2 by Lee and Goodenough et al.
[43] and electrochemical performance of SnO2 by Wu
et al. [44], the charge storage mechanism of the CNTs/(
Sn+Mn)Ox nanocomposite involving surface adsorption of
the alkali metal cation (K+) on the SnO2 and MnO2 in this
work can be expressed as the following equations.
(SnO2)surface + aK+ + ae

(SnO2 Ka+)surface

(3)

(MnO2)surface + xK+ + xe

(MnO2 Kx+)surface

(4)

In the amorphous SnO2 and MnO2, there exist facile


diffusion of protons into the hydrous structure of both
oxides, the cation (K+) would be able to intercalate and
deintercalate into the hydrous layer and lattice of the thin
deposition of the oxides on the CNTs during the redox
reaction corresponding to the following equations;
SnO2 + aK+ + ae

SnOOKa

(5)

MnO2 + xK+ + xe

MnOOKx

(6)

The second pseudo-capacitive mechanism includes


the intercalation of protons (H+) in the bulk of the
nanocomposite during reduction and deintercalations in
the oxidation cycle. Wu et al. [44] and Pang et al. [45]
proposed the following reactions for the SnO2 and MnO2
respectively;

Figure 4: X-ray diffraction patterns of the acid-treated CNTs,


CNTs/SnO2 60% w.t., CNTs/MnO2 60% w.t., and CNTs/
(Sn+Mn)Ox 60% w.t. nanocomposites

Figure 5 depicts the cyclic voltammogram of the


CNTs/(Sn+Mn)Ox 60% w.t. nanocomposite in a 2.0 M KCl
which is relatively rectangular in shape similar to that of
the pure double-layer storage by carbon. The rectangular
shaped voltammogram is due to the continuous electron
transfer into the wide range of energy states closely
located near the redox active sites on the surface of the
electrode in semiconductors such as SnO2 and MnO2. In
the anodic sweep, oxidation from Mn(III) to Mn(IV) took
place together with the protons and cations intercalations
and adsorptions (for both SnO2 and MnO2), while in the
cathodic scan, the reduction of Mn(IV) to Mn(III) occurred,

30

SnO2 + bH+ + be

SnOOHb

(7)

MnO2 + yH+ + ye

MnOOHy

(8)

The simultaneous occurrence of the intercalation/


deintercalation of the protons and alkali metal cations
have been confirmed in the recent studies by Toupin et
al. [46] using the X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy
(XPS) technique. In addition, Toupin et al. [46] had
demonstrated that there is a change in the state of MnO2
during the charge and discharge cycle, where there exist
components in the XPS results which correspond to the
manganese oxidation state of 4 and 3 for the oxidised
and reduced film electrodes respectively. Combining the
simultaneous reactions would give the following equations
for the pseudo-capacitive storage mechanism of the CNTs/
(Sn+Mn)Ox nanocomposite in this study;
Oxidation:
Sn(IV)(a+b)OOKaHb + Mn(III)(x+y)Mn(IV)1-(x+y)
OOKxHy g Sn(IV)O2 + Mn(IV)O2 + (a+x)K+ +
(b+y)H+ + (a+b+x+y)e

(9)

Journal The Institution of Engineers, Malaysia (Vol. 75, No. 1, June 2014)

Novel Bimetallic Tin-Manganese Oxides/Carbon Nanotube Nanocomposite


and Their Charge Storage Properties

Reduction:
Sn(IV)O2 + Mn(IV)O2 +(a+x)K+ + (b+y)H+ +
(a+b+x+y)e g Sn(IV)(a+b)OOKaHb + Mn(III)(x+y)
Mn(IV)1-(x+y)OOKxHy

(10)

Redox:
SnO2 + MnO2 + (a+x)K+ + (b+y)H+ +
(a+b+x+y)e
SnOOKaHb + MnOOKxHy

(11)

Figure 5 also shows that the CNTs/(Sn+Mn)Ox


nanocomposite has very good positive polarisation up to
a value of 0.9 V (oxygen evolution occurs at 0.6V vs. Ag/
AgCl in neutral solution [47]). For a neutral pH value of
6.67 in the aqueous KCl electrolyte, a potential window
of 1V can be achieved with no oxygen evolution observed
in the potential range selected as can be seen in the cyclic
voltammogram where there are no fast current leaps of a
gas evolution present [47].
Figure 6 shows the cyclic voltammograms and the
corresponding voltage dependent normalised capacitance
of the thin casted film of the CNTs/(Sn+Mn)Ox 60% w.t.
nanocomposite at different sweep rates of 5, 10, 20, 50, 70,
and 100 mV/s at a potential range of -0.1 to 0.9 V against
Ag/AgCl. The shapes of voltage dependent normalised
capacitance curves are similar to that of the cyclic

Figure 5: The cyclic voltammogram of the


CNTs/(Sn+Mn)Ox 60% w.t. nanocomposite at a scan rate
of 5 mV/s in 2.0 M KCl electrolyte

voltammograms, thus enabling a better examination of the


cyclic voltammograms of the lower scan rates such as 5
mV/s. The cyclic voltammogram of the CNTs/(Sn+Mn)Ox
nanocomposite approximates to an ideal behaviour at the
lowest sweep-rate of 5 mV/s, i.e. a voltammogram having
an almost rectangular shape and mirror-image symmetry
of the current responses about the zero-current line can be

Figure 6: (a) Cyclic voltammograms and (b) mass-normalised capacitance vs. potential (vs. Ag/AgCl) of the CNTs/(Sn+Mn)Ox
60% w.t. nanocomposite at various scan rates (5, 10, 20, 50, 70 and 100 mV/s) in 2.0 M KCl.
Arrow indicates increasing scan rates

Journal The Institution of Engineers, Malaysia (Vol. 75, No. 1, June 2014)

31

Ir. Dr Ng Kok Chiang, Ms. Siew Shee Lim, Dr Chuang Peng

observed. With increasing scan rates, the voltammograms


become deformed from the rectangular shape. Decreasing
the scan rates enables the ions to reach deeper into the
electrode whilst interacting with active materials more
completely (redox reactions) to give the pseudo-capacitive
effect which results in a more rectangular curve such as
the one observed at the scan rate of 5 mV/s.
The
mass
specific
capacitance
for
the
CNTs/(Sn+Mn)Ox 60% w.t. nanocomposite, which
decreased from 222.74 F/g to 71.69 F/g as the scan rate
increased from 5 to 100 mV/s, indicated that parts of
the surface of the nanocomposite in the electrode were
inaccessible at high sweep rates [48-50]. These inaccessible
parts were likely the inner active sites that could not sustain
the redox transitions completely at higher sweep rates as a
result of the diffusion effect of protons within the deposited
(Sn+Mn)Ox [49]. Thus, the specific capacitance obtained
at the lowest scan rate was of the highest utilisation of the
pseudo-capacitive material in the nanocomposite among
all the scan rates examined. Additionally, the specific
capacitance at the lowest scan rate of this nanocomposite
was much higher than those reported in the CNTs-MnO2
and CNTs-SnO2 nanocomposites prepared by Ng and coworkers [6]. This clearly indicated the synergetic effect of
the co-deposition of SnO2 and MnO2 onto CNTs in term of
specific capacitance.
Figure 7 shows the galvanostatic charge-discharge
properties of the nanocomposites of the CNTs/(Sn+Mn)

Ox 60% w.t. against Ag/AgCl at different normalised


currents of 0.4, 0.8, 1.6, 3.2 and 6.4 A/g. All the potentialtime plots from the galvanostatic charge-discharge test
show good linear variations of the potential (vs. Ag/
AgCl) with respect to time in the potential range of -0.1
to 0.9V for this nanocomposite. This was an indication
of excellent capacitive behaviour by the nanocomposite
at all normalised currents applied. Specifically, CNTs/
(Sn+Mn)Ox 60% w.t. nanocomposite exhibited the largest
mass specific capacitance of 337.15 F/g at the normalised
current of 0.4 A/g which was much higher than those of
CNTs/MnO2 and CNTs/SnO2 by Ng and co-workers [6].
Assuming proportional contributions from the oxide/oxides
and CNTs in each of the three different nanocomposites,
the values of the specific capacitance, CM- oxide(s) of the
(Sn+Mn)Ox, MnO2, and SnO2 were found to be 534.44 F/g.
The resulted higher specific capacitance of nanocomposite
was due to the increased surface area of the electrodes by
both SnO2 and MnO2 nanoparticulates. The co-deposited
SnO2 nanoparticulates serving as a more conductive metal
oxide also enhanced the electronic conductivity of such
nanocomposite by preventing the formation of thick nanolayer of MnO2 under acidic condition. The active site
utilisation of the co-deposited oxides was much higher and
the complete utilisation of those sites would be possible
with the reduction of the normalised currents due to the
slower rate of intercalation and deintercalation of the ions
into or from the structure of the nanocomposite, resulting
in more extensive mass transport processes.

Figure 7: Potential-time plots from the galvanostatic charge-discharge test of the CNTs/(Sn+Mn)Ox 60% w.t. nanocomposites
at different normalised currents (0.4, 0.8, 1.6, 3.2, and 6.4 A/g) in 2.0 M KCl. Mass of nanocomposites on each of the electrode:
0.10 mg.

32

Journal The Institution of Engineers, Malaysia (Vol. 75, No. 1, June 2014)

Novel Bimetallic Tin-Manganese Oxides/Carbon Nanotube Nanocomposite


and Their Charge Storage Properties

Figure 8: (a) Mass and (b) electrode specific capacitance of the CNTs/(Sn+Mn)Ox 60% w.t. nanocomposite at different charge/
discharge normalised currents (0.4, 0.8, 1.6, 3.2, and 6.4 A/g). Mass of active material on each of the electrode: 0.10 mg.

The increase in specific capacitance followed an


increasing rate with the decreasing normalised current
and this was especially obvious in the case of the CNTs/
(Sn+Mn)Ox 60% w.t. nanocomposite as compared to the
nanocomposite with the lower mixed-oxides loading.
The acid-treated CNTs showed the smallest increase
among the three materials examined, i.e. from 30.13 to
41.21 F/g when the normalised currents were decreased.
The significant increase in the specific capacitance at an
increasing rate at lower normalised currents especially
in the case of both nanocomposites could be attributed
to the porous structure of the nanocomposites and active
site utilisation of the mixed-oxides. Especially when there
was a high loading of the mixed-oxides, a more complete
active site utilisation would be possible with the reduction
of the normalised currents because of the slower rate of
the intercalation or deintercalations of the ions into or
Parameters
Charge Slope (V/s)
Discharge Slope (V/s)
Specific cap. from charge slope (F/g)
Specific cap. from the discharge slope (F/g)
Ave. specific cap. (F/g)
iR Drop (V)

from the structure of the nanocomposite, resulting in more


extensive mass transport processes. At higher normalised
currents the iR drop was higher due to the distribution of
charges within the pores, thus the lower capacitance.
Table 1 shows the properties and the calculation of
the charge-discharge of the CNTs/(Sn+Mn)Ox 60% w.t.
nanocomposite at the different normalised currents and the
associated iR drops. As expected, the iR drop decreases
with decreasing normalised currents applied (thus,
increasing specific capacitance). Nonetheless, it should be
noted that at the normalised current of 0.4 A/g, the CNTs/
(Sn+Mn)Ox 60% w.t. recorded an iR drop of only 9.2
mV, which is equivalent to 0.92% of the 1.0 V operating
potential range.

0.4
0.0011
-0.0013
373.27
301.03
337.15
0.0092

Normalised Currents (A/g)


0.8
1.6
3.2
0.0023
0.0051
0.0116
-0.0030
-0.0070
-0.0174
346.32
316.14
275.77
266.61
228.60
184.18
306.47
272.37
229.97
0.0150
0.0296
0.0441

6.4
0.0290
-0.0484
220.33
132.32
176.33
0.0586

Table 1: The parameters measured from the potential-time curves from the galvanostatic charge-discharge test and the
calculated values of the capacitance and iR drop for the CNTs/(Sn+Mn)Ox 60% w.t. nanocomposite for the potential range
from -0.1 to 0.9 V (vs. Ag/AgCl) in 2.0 M KCl. Mass of the CNTs/(Sn+Mn)Ox 60% w.t. nanocomposite on the electrode:
0.10mg.
Journal The Institution of Engineers, Malaysia (Vol. 75, No. 1, June 2014)

33

Ir. Dr Ng Kok Chiang, Ms. Siew Shee Lim, Dr Chuang Peng

Figure 9 shows the cyclic voltammograms and the


corresponding potential dependent normalised capacitance
plots of the CNTs/(Sn+Mn)Ox 60% w.t. at different
cycles, namely 3rd, 40th, 350th, and 1000th where
notable changes in the specific capacitance occurred.
On the whole, after 1000 cycles at 20 mV/s, the CNTs/
(Sn+Mn)Ox 60% w.t. nanocomposite retained 95.92% of

its initial capacitance. Its pseudo capacitive property of


this nanocomposite was still retained even after intensive
scans by showing rectangular shaped voltammogram. The
results demonstrated that the long cycle life of the CNTs/
(Sn+Mn)Ox 60% w.t. nanocomposite which deemed the
material suitable for the supercapacitor application.

Figure 9: The changes in (a-c) cyclic voltammograms and (d-f) the corresponding normalised capacitance vs. potential (vs. Ag/
AgCl) plots of the 3rd, 40th, 350th and 1000th cycle for the CNTs/(Sn+Mn)Ox 60% w.t. nanocomposite at a scan rate of 20
mV/s in 2.0 M KCl. Mass of CNTs/(Sn+Mn)Ox 60% w.t. on the electrode: 0.10mg.

34

Journal The Institution of Engineers, Malaysia (Vol. 75, No. 1, June 2014)

Novel Bimetallic Tin-Manganese Oxides/Carbon Nanotube Nanocomposite


and Their Charge Storage Properties

capacitance contributed by the mixed-oxides as compared


to the single oxides in the different nanocomposites, the
potential-time curves from the galvanostatic chargedischarge test would be used.

Figure 10: Cyclic voltammograms of the CNTs/(Sn+Mn)Ox


60% w.t. nanocomposite in comparison to the acid-treated
CNTs, CNTs/MnO2 60% w.t. and CNTs/SnO2 60% w.t.
nanocomposites at the scan rate of 5 mV/s. Mass of active
material on each of the electrode: 0.10 mg.

Figure 10 shows the cyclic voltammograms of the


different nanocomposites and the acid-treated CNTs in the
same potential range as that used for the CNTs/(Sn+Mn)
Ox 60% w.t. nanocomposite. As can be seen, the CNTs/
(Sn+Mn)Ox 60% w.t. nanocomposite showed larger
currents on the cyclic voltammogram as compared to both
CNTs/SnO2 60% w.t. and the CNTs/MnO2 60% w.t.
nanocomposite indicating that the mixed-oxides possessed
a synergistic effect of combining MnO2 and SnO2. To
better evaluate the improvement in terms of specific

From the potential-time curves, it was found that the


average specific capacitance values were 337.15, 236.62,
95.36, and 41.21 F/g for the CNTs/(Sn+Mn)Ox 60%
w.t., CNTs/MnO2 60% w.t., CNTs/SnO2 60% w.t., and
acid-treated CNTs respectively. Assuming proportional
contributions from the oxide/oxides and CNTs in each
of the three different nanocomposites, the values of the
specific capacitance of the (Sn+Mn)Ox, MnO2, and
SnO2 were found to be 534.44, 366.89, and 131.46 F/g
respectively. Although the loadings of these oxides were
the same in each of the nanocomposite, i.e. 60% w.t.,
the mixed-oxides showed an excellent improvement in
terms of their specific capacitance contribution to the
CNTs/(Sn+Mn)Ox nanocomposite as compared to the
single oxides to their respective nanocomposites. This
also indicates that by combining the SnO2 and the MnO2
oxides, the effect is synergistic in terms of capacitance.
Figure 12 shows the Nyquist plots of the CNTs/
(Sn+Mn)Ox 30% w.t. and 60% w.t. nanocomposites in the
frequency range of 10 mHz to 100 kHz at different biased
potential (vs. Ag/AgCl) within the working potential range
of -0.1 and 0.9 V as defined earlier in other electrochemical
techniques. The capacitance of the nanocomposite can be
derived from the linear part of the Z vs. 1/(2f) plots.
Both Nyquist plots of the nanocomposites indicated that
the maximum specific capacitance was found at a bias
potential of 0.8 V. Examining the impedance plots, the one
for the CNTs/(Sn+Mn)Ox 30% w.t. nanocomposite at a
bias potential of 0.8 V showed an almost straight line in the
lower frequencies indicating ideal capacitive behaviour.
The Nyquist plots of the CNTs/(Sn+Mn)Ox 60% w.t.
nanocomposite demonstrated a slight departure from the
ideal straight vertical line of the capacitive behaviour

Figure 11: Potential-time curves from the galvanostatic


charge-discharge test of the CNTs/(Sn+Mn)Ox 60%
w.t. nanocomposite in comparison to the acid-treated
CNTs, CNTs/SnO2 60% w.t., and CNTs/MnO2 60% w.t.,
nanocomposite at the normalised current 0.4 A/g. Mass of
active material on each of the electrode: 0.10 mg.

Journal The Institution of Engineers, Malaysia (Vol. 75, No. 1, June 2014)

35

Ir. Dr Ng Kok Chiang, Ms. Siew Shee Lim, Dr Chuang Peng

Figure 12: Complex plane impedance plots of the CNTs/(Sn+Mn)Ox (a) 30% and (b) 60% w.t. nanocomposite at various bias
potentials (vs. Ag/AgCl) of 0, 0.2, 0.5 and 0.8 V. Mass of nanocomposite on each of the electrode: 0.10 mg.

because of existence of a constant phase element. The


delay caused by electrochemical changes especially with
regards to the oxidation and reduction between the Mn(III)
and Mn(IV) species in the working potential range and the
surface adsorption of the electrolyte cation of K+ for both
oxides would cause Faradic resistance which would in turn
contribute towards the deviation from the ideal 90 straight
line behaviour of the nanocomposite. In addition, the
distributed capacitance along the inhomogeneous electrode
surface and the porous structure of the nanocomposite film
would have also played a part in the divergence in the ideal
capacitive behaviour.

4.0 Conclusion
In conclusion, the synthesis of CNTs/(Sn+Mn)Ox 60% w.t.
nanocomposite through combining the hydro-oxidation of
SnCl2 to SnO2 and the reduction of KMnO4 to MnO2
was successfully achieved in a day due to the reducing
presence of SnCl2. The acceleration of MnO2 deposition
from 7 days to a day was caused by the acidic condition
facilitated by SnCl2 solution. The structural destruction of
CNT was observed in SEM and TEM images. However,
this length reduction of CNTs was compensated with the
increase in their fibril diameter by the uneven co-deposition
of SnO2 and MnO2 nanoparticulates. The formation of
cassiterite SnO2 (JCPDS 41-1445) and monoclinic MnO2
(JCPDS 42-1317) was confirmed in the determination

36

of interplanar spacing of fringes for both metal oxides


in the high resolution TEM images. This result was in
accordance with the crystallinity of both metal oxides
determined in XRD patterns. Electrochemically, this
nanocomposite exhibited a good positive polarization at
potential range of -0.1 to 0.9V against Ag/AgCl. Ideal
cyclic voltammogram behavior of this nanocomposite
was further demonstrated by showing rectangular shape
during charge-discharge process at a scan rate of 5 mV/s.
The highest mass specific capacitance achieved by CNTs/
(Sn+Mn)Ox 60% w.t. was 337.15 F/g at normalised current
of 0.4 A/g which correspond to the specific capacitance
(CM-oxide) of (assuming proportional contribution)
534.44 F/g. Pseudocapacitance of this nanocomposite was
still retained at least 95% even after long cycle life at scan
rate of 20 mV/s which deemed the material suitable for the
supercapacitor application.

5.0 References
[1] M. Endo, et al, High Power Electric Double Layer
Capacitors (EDLCs) Form Operating Principle to Pore
Size Control in Advanced Carbons, 2 Carbon Science,
2001. p117-128.
[2] Q.L. Fang, et al, Ruthenium Oxide Film Electrodes Prepared
at Low Temperature for Electrochemical Capacitors.
Electrochemical Society, 2001. 148J: pA833-A837.

Journal The Institution of Engineers, Malaysia (Vol. 75, No. 1, June 2014)

Novel Bimetallic Tin-Manganese Oxides/Carbon Nanotube Nanocomposite


and Their Charge Storage Properties

[3] M. Mastragostino, et al, Conducting Polymers as Electrode


Materials in Supercapacitors. Solid State Ionics, 2002.
148: p493-498.
[4] D. Lozano-Castello, et al, Influence of Pore Structure and
Surface Chemistry on Electric Double Layer Capacitance
in Non-aqueous Electrolyte. Carbon, 2003. 41: p17651775.
[5] J.M. Boyea, R.E. Camacho, S.P. Turano and W.J. Ready,
Carbon-nanotube-based supercapacitors: Technologies
and Markets. Nanotechnology Law and Business, 2007.
4(1): p 585-593.
[6] Ng, K.C., et al. CNTs/SnO2 and CNTs/MnO2
nanocomposites for the fabrication of the electrodes
for supercapacitors. The Journal of the Institution of
Engineers, Malaysia, 2012. 73(3): p.7-13.
[7] Kuo, S. L. and N. L. Wu, Electrochemical capacitor of
MnFe2O4 with organic Li-ion electrolyte, Electrochemical
and Solid-State Letter, 2007. 10(7): p. A171-A175.
[8] Wu, M., et al., Cathodic deposition and characterization
of tin oxide coatings on graphite for electrochemical
supercapacitors, Journal of Power Sources, 2008. 175(1):
p. 669-674.
[9] Prasad,R. K. and N. Miura, Electrochemical synthesis
and characterization of nanostructured tin oxide for
electrochemical redox supercapacitors, Electrochemistry
Communications, 2004. 6(8): p. 849-852.
[10] Hu, Z.-A., et al., Polyaniline/SnO2 nanocomposite for
supercapacitor applications. Materials Chemistry and
Physics, 2009. 114(2-3): p. 990-995.
[11] Zheng, J.P., P.J. Cygan, and T.R. Jow, Hydrous Ruthenium
Oxide as an Electrode Material for Electrochemical
Capacitors, Journal of The Electrochemical Society, 1995.
142(8): p. 2699-2703.
[12] Zheng, J.P., Ruthenium Oxide-Carbon Composite
Electrodes for Electrochemical Capacitors, Electrochemical
and Solid-State Letters, 1999. 2(8): p. 359-361.
[13] Gordon, R.G., Criteria for choosing transparent conductors,
MRS Bulletin, 2000. 25(8): p. 52-57.
[14] Kimbrough, R.D., Toxicity and health effects of selected
organotin compounds: A review. Environ, Health Perspect,
1976. 14: p. 51-56.
[15] Kim, H.-K., et al., Characteristics of RuO2-SnO2
nanocrystalline-embedded amorphous electrode for thin
film microsupercapacitors, Thin Solid Films, 2005. 475(12): p. 54-57.
[16] Wang, C.-C. and C.-C. Hu, Electrochemical and textural
characterization of binary Ru-Sn oxides synthesized
under mild hydrothermal conditions for supercapacitors,
Electrochimica Acta, 2005. 50(13): p. 2573-2581.

Journal The Institution of Engineers, Malaysia (Vol. 75, No. 1, June 2014)

[17] Hu, C.-C., C.-C. Wang, and K.-H. Chang, A comparison


study of the capacitive behavior for sol-gel-derived and coannealed ruthenium-tin oxide composites, Electrochimica
Acta, 2007. 52(7): p. 2691-2700.
[18] Jayalakshmi, M., et al., Nano SnO2-Al2O3 mixed oxide
and SnO2-Al2O3-carbon composite oxides as new and
novel electrodes for supercapacitor applications, Journal
of Power Sources, 2006. 158(2): p. 1538-1543.
[19] Jayalakshmi, M., et al., Hydrothermal synthesis of SnO2V2O5 mixed oxide and electrochemical screening of
carbon nano-tubes (CNT), V2O5, V2O5-CNT, and SnO2V2O5-CNT electrodes for supercapacitor applications,
Journal of Power Sources, 2007. 166(2): p. 578-583.
[20] Miura, N., S. Oonishi, and K.R. Prasad, Indium Tin Oxide/
Carbon Composite Electrode Material for Electrochemical
Supercapacitors, Electrochemical and Solid-State Letters,
2004. 7(8): p. A247-A249.
[21] Chabre, Y. and J. Pannetier, Structural and electrochemical
properties of the proton / g-MnO2 system, Progress in
Solid State Chemistry, 1995. 23(1): p. 1-130.
[22] Chang, J.-K., W.-C. Hsieh, and W.-T. Tsai, Effects of the Co
content in the material characteristics and supercapacitive
performance of binary Mn-Co oxide electrodes, Journal of
Alloys and Compounds, 2008. 461(1-2): p. 667-674.
[23] Liu, E.-H., et al., Preparation and characterization of
nanostructured NiO/MnO2 composite electrode for
electrochemical supercapacitors, Materials Research
Bulletin, 2009. 44(5): p. 1122-1126.
[24] Chuang, P.-Y. and C.-C. Hu, The electrochemical
characteristics of binary manganese-cobalt oxides
prepared by anodic deposition, Materials Chemistry and
Physics, 2005. 92(1): p. 138-145.
[25] Zhao, G.-Y., C.-L. Xu, and H.-L. Li, Highly ordered cobaltmanganese oxide (CMO) nanowire array thin film on Ti/
Si substrate as an electrode for electrochemical capacitor,
Journal of Power Sources, 2007. 163(2): p. 1132-1136.
[26] Machefaux, E., et al., Supercapacitor behavior of new
substituted manganese dioxides, Journal of Power Sources,
2007. 165(2): p. 651-655.
[27] Rajendra Prasad, K. and N. Miura, Electrochemically
synthesized MnO2-based mixed oxides for high
performance redox supercapacitors, Electrochemistry
Communications, 2004. 6(10): p. 1004-1008.
[28] Wang, S.-C., et al., Supercapacitive properties of spray
pyrolyzed iron-added manganese oxide powders deposited
by electrophoretic deposition technique, Thin Solid Films,
2008. 517(3): p. 1234-1238.

37

Ir. Dr Ng Kok Chiang, Ms. Siew Shee Lim, Dr Chuang Peng

[29] Lee, M.-T., et al., Annealed Mn-Fe binary oxides for


supercapacitor applications, Journal of Power Sources,
2008. 185(2): p. 1550-1556.

[43] Lee, H.Y. and J.B. Goodenough, Supercapacitor behavior


with KCl electrolyte. Journal of Solid State Chemistry,
1999. 144(1): p. 220-223.

[30] Nakayama, M., et al., Electrodeposition of manganese


and molybdenum mixed oxide thin films and their charge
storage properties, Langmuir, 2005. 21(13): p. 5907-5913.

[44] Wu, N.L., C.Y. Han, and S.L. Kuo, Enhanced performance
of SnO2 xerogel electrochemical capacitor prepared by
novel crystallization process. Journal of Power Sources,
2002. 109(2): p. 418-421.

[31] Nakayama, M., et al., Effects of heat-treatment on


the spectroscopic and electrochemical properties of a
mixed manganese/vanadium oxide film prepared by
electrodeposition, Journal of Materials Research, 2004.
19(5): p. 1509-1515.
[32] Sun, L.-J., et al., Electrodeposited hybrid films of
polyaniline and manganese oxide in nanofibrous structures
for electrochemical supercapacitor, Electrochimica Acta,
2008. 53(7): p. 3036-3042.
[33] Sharma, R.K., A.C. Rastogi, and S.B. Desu, Manganese
oxide embedded polypyrrole nanocomposites for
electrochemical supercapacitor, Electrochimica Acta,
2008. 53(26): p. 7690-7695.
[34] Shlyakhtin, O.A., et al., Ni-Mn hydroxides as new high
power electrode materials for supercapacitor applications,
Materials Letters, 2009. 63(1): p. 109-112.
[35] Wu, N.-L., S.-L. Kuo, and M.-H.Lee, Preparation and
optimization of RuO2-impregnated SnO2 xerogel
supercapacitor. Journal of Power Sources, 2002. 104 (1): p
62-65.
[36] Blanger, D., T. Brousse and J.W. Long, Manganese
oxides: Battery materials make the leap to electrochemical
capacitors. Electrochemical Society Interface, 2008: p 49.

[45] Pang, S.-C., M.A. Anderson, and T.W. Chapman,


Novel electrode materials for thin-film ultracapacitors:
Comparison of electrochemical properties of sol-gelderived and electrodeposited manganese dioxide. Journal
of The Electrochemical Society, 2000. 147(2): p. 444-450.
[46] Toupin, M., T. Brousse, and D. Belanger, Charge
storage mechanism of MnO2 electrode used in aqueous
electrochemical capacitor. Chemistry of Materials, 2004.
16(16): p. 3184-3190.
[47] Pourbaix, M., Atlas of electrochemical equilibria in
aqueous solutions. 1966, Pergamon Press, New York.
[48] Chang, K.-H. and C.-C. Hu, Oxidative synthesis of
RuOxnH2O with ideal capacitive characteristics for
supercapacitors. Journal of The Electrochemical Society,
2004. 151(7): p. A958-A964.
[49] Gujar, T.P., et al., Electrosynthesis of Bi2O3 thin films
and their use in electrochemical supercapacitors. Journal
of Power Sources, 2006. 161(2): p. 1479-1485.
[50] Gujar, T.P., et al., Electrochemically deposited nanograin
ruthenium oxide as a pseudocapacitive electrode.
International Journal of Electrochemical Science, 2007. 2:
p. 666-673.

[37] Glicksman, R. and C.K. Morehouse, Resistivity studies


of various Leclanch cathode materials. Journal of the
Electrochemical Society, 1956. 103 (3): p 149-153.
[38] Li, J., et al., A new type of MnO2.xH2O/CRF composite
electrode for supercapacitors. Journal of Power Sources,
2006. 160 (2): p 1501-1505.
[39] Wei, J., N. Nagarajan, and I. Zhitomirsky, Manganese
oxide films for electrochemical supercapacitors. Journal of
Materials Processing Technology, 2007. 186 (1-3): p 356361.
[40] Jin, X., et al., Nanoscale microelectrochemical cells on
carbon nanotubes. Small, 2007. 3(9): p. 1513-1517.
[41] Han, W.Q. and A. Zetti, Coating singled-walled carbon
nanotubes with tin oxide. Nano Letters, 2003. 3 (5): p.
681-683.
[42] Wang, Z.G. Chen, and D. Xia, Coating of multi-walled
carbon nanotube with SnO2 films of controlled thickness
and its application for Li-ion battery, Journal of Power
Sources, 2008. 184 (2): p. 432-436.

38

Journal The Institution of Engineers, Malaysia (Vol. 75, No. 1, June 2014)

Novel Bimetallic Tin-Manganese Oxides/Carbon Nanotube Nanocomposite


and Their Charge Storage Properties

profiles
IR. DR. NG KOK CHIANG graduated from the University of Western Australia with first class honours in Bachelor
of Engineering in Electrical & Electronics and Bachelor of Commerce majoring in Accounting, Investment Finance
(Derivatives), and Managerial Accounting. He then furthered his studies to the University of Nottingham, UK and
graduated with a PhD in Engineering having worked in the area of renewable energy and its storage for three and
a half years. Ir. Dr. Ng Kok Chiang in his course of research and work had liaised with various organisations such
as E.ON (Power and Gas), Lockheed Martin, Jaguar/Land Rover (supercapacitors in automotive industry/electric
cars), Battelle (lab management and commercialisation), Malaysia Rubber Board (energy management, artificial
intelligent, control, and electronics), and MOSTI (Fabrication of Advanced Supercapacitors). He is currently the
Chief Technology Officer of MyBig Sdn. Bhd. and a Professional Engineer with the R&D Centre at Leong Hing Sdn.
Bhd. involved in research and prototyping projects in collaboration with various Malaysian Government Agencies
and research bodies. Among the prominent solutions founded were the advanced switching mechanism in the Nexcap
storage to efficiently capture minuscule trickle of charges, intelligent control systems incorporating power electronics
device, and the advanced Sunopy solar system. Ir. Dr. Ng Kok Chiang is also a certified Green Building Facilitator and
a Professional Member of the Malaysia Green Building Confederation. He is currently serving as one of the committee
in the Electrical Engineering Technical Division and the Secretary/Treasurer of the Consulting Engineering Special
Interest Group at the Institution of Engineers, Malaysia.

MS. SIEW SHEE LIM obtained her BSc and MEng in Chemical Engineering at University at Buffalo, New York
(USA) in 2004 and 2005 respectively. After her attainment of MEng degree, she worked as an Assistant Professor
in University of Nottingham Malaysia Campus since 2006. She managed to secure a MOSTI eScience Fund in 2007
and worked on the synthesis of nanoscaffolds for bone regeneration. She successfully completed this eScience Project
in 2009 and is currently working her part time PHD study on the fabrication and functionalisation of nanocomposite
scaffolds using cost effective bioactive compounds. She is co-author of 2 scientific, 1 education journal papers and a
few others in the pipeline.

DR. CHUANG PENG did his BEng in China before coming to the UK in 2003. After obtaining his MSc (2004)
and PhD (2007) in Environmental Engineering and Chemical Engineering respectively, he worked as a research
associate for another three years in the University of Nottingham. Dr. Peng is specialised in materials electrochemistry,
particularly, the development of supercapacitors for energy storage with high power demands. This includes the
synthesis and characterisation of new electrode materials, and the design, testing and optimisation of supercapacitor
units and high voltage stacks. Dr. Peng has also undertaken researches on photo-electro-catalysis and electro-Fenton
process for decontamination of water. He is the author/co-author of 16 scientific journal papers, with accumulated
citations in excess of 260. After joining the CSM in September 2011, Chuang has broadened his research interests to
include various applications of materials electrochemistry in renewable energy and environmental technologies.

Journal The Institution of Engineers, Malaysia (Vol. 75, No. 1, June 2014)

39

Numerical Simulation of the Decay of Grid-generated


Turbulence in a Shock Tube
(Date received: 09.07.2013/Date accepted: 06.05.2014)

Mohammad Ali Jinnah


MCE Department, Islamic University of Technology (IUT),
Board Bazar, Gazipur-1704, Bangladesh.
Email address: jinnah@iut-dhaka.edu

ABSTRACT
The decay of the grid-generated turbulence has been investigated numerically by solving the time-dependent threedimensional Navier-Stokes equations with k-e turbulence model for a compressible fluid. Turbulence grids are
placed in the shock tube to generate shock induced turbulence in the wake of the grid plate. All turbulent fluctuations
are computed along the longitudinal distance in the wake of the grid plate in the shock tube and it is observed that
the decay of the turbulence and the decay of Turbulence Kinetic Energy (TKE) level are accelerated along the
downstream direction and the percentage of decay depends on the strength of incident shock wave. Due to stronger
compressibility effects on decaying turbulent field, all length scales are decreased along the downstream direction.
The decay of dissipation rate of TKE is observed along the downstream direction for gradually decreasing the
turbulence intensity in the wake of the grid plate.
Keywords: Shock wave; Turbulence decay; Navier-Stokes equations; Turbulence model; Turbulent region;

Turbulence grids.

1.0 Introduction
In this paper, the investigations on the decay of gridgenerated turbulence in the shock tube are conducted
and it is one of the innovative works on grid-generated
turbulence. Due to turbulence decay, the strength of the
turbulence in the wake of the grid plate gradually decreases
which may create problems in interaction of reflected
shock with homogeneous, isotropic turbulence.
The turbulence decay in turbulent flow fields is of
great practical importance in engineering applications.
These types of phenomena are commonly seen in
aeromechanical systems and in combustion processes as
well as in high-speed rotor flows. For designing aeromechanism systems such as transport aircraft of supersonic
and hypersonic speed, the shock/turbulence interaction
as well as turbulence decay in shock induced turbulent
field are the important phenomena. After computing the
turbulence fluctuations, a numerical simulation was carried
out by Jinnah and Takayama [1] at different strengths of
40

reflected shock wave and it was found that the strength of


the turbulence was also changed during interaction with
reflected shock wave. The effect of the initial conditions
on the decay of homogeneous and isotropic turbulence
is still under debate, and there is a substantial body of
experimental evidence which would seem to suggest
that the initial conditions and the slope of the spectrum,
at low wave numbers, determine the value of the decay
exponents. It is observed that the actual decay rate of
the isotropic turbulence is not only affected by the large
scale properties, but also by the small scale properties.
An asymptotic similarity state of decaying isotropic
turbulence at high Reynolds numbers was predicted by
Kolmogorov [2] based on a supposed dynamical invariant
of the flow field found earlier by Loitsianski [3]. However,
it was later shown by Batchelor and Proudman [4] that the
Loitsianski integral is, in fact, not invariant. Furthermore,
Saffman [5] proposed a mean of turbulence generation
for which this integral diverges. For this Saffman flow,

Journal The Institution of Engineers, Malaysia (Vol. 75, No. 1, June 2014)

Numerical Simulation of the Decay of Grid-generated


Turbulence in a Shock Tube

a new invariant was discovered, and a similarity state


of decaying homogeneous turbulence at high Reynolds
numbers was postulated based on this invariant. Recent
large-eddy simulations of decaying isotropic turbulence
have confirmed the existence of this exact similarity state
to within a few percent. Previous closure calculations and
numerical simulations have studied the decay of an initially
axisymmetric turbulence [6] in the context of the returnto-isotropy problem. The direct numerical simulations
performed in the latter two works were necessarily limited
to low Reynolds numbers, and the computer resources
available at those times allowed only a resolution of
323. Previously, Lavoie et al. [7] investigated potential
effects of inflow conditions on the decay of approximately
homogeneous isotropic turbulence. Inflow conditions
refer to the way the turbulence was generated. In the wind
tunnel experiments of these authors, the turbulence was
passively generated by square-mesh biplane grids placed
at the test section entry. A particular aspect of the potential
dependence on inflow conditions was whether the powerlaw decay of the far downstream turbulence depends on
them. Lavoie et al. [7] tried four different conventional
passive grids (with square or with round bars with/without
a small helical wire) and two different test sections (one
with and one without a secondary contraction to improve
isotropy). They did not find any significant effect of
inflow conditions on the decay exponent other than that
of anisotropy which was, itself, depended on inflow
conditions and persisted far downstream. Krogstad and
Davidson [8] carried out a similar wind tunnel study but
with two multi-scale grids and one conventional grid.
Their grids were all mono-planar and their two multi-scale
grids were chosen from one of the three design families of
multi-scale grids introduced by Hurst and Vassilicos [9],
specifically the family of fractal cross grids. These grids
are very different in design from the low-blockage spacefilling fractal square grids which have been used in the
vast majority of subsequent works on multi-scale/fractalgenerated turbulence and which revealed the possibility of
a decaying turbulence without the expected high Reynolds
number dissipation scaling.
Many researchers considered the decay of a twodimensional homogeneous turbulence in a fluid of infinite
extent. One of the attractions of studying two-dimensional
turbulence was its computational simplicity with respect
to fully developed three-dimensional turbulence.
Nevertheless, numerical simulations are still non-trivial,
requiring high resolution and long-time integrations, and
the asymptotic behavior of the statistics during the decay
remains an open problem. Chasnova [10] contribution was
to present some new direct numerical simulation results for

Journal The Institution of Engineers, Malaysia (Vol. 75, No. 1, June 2014)

decaying two-dimensional turbulence. Particular emphasis


was placed on determining the long-time asymptotic
evolution of the energy and entropy as a function of the
initial Reynolds number of the flow field. He considered
the asymptotic statistical evolution of the flow field
without specifically confronting the existence of coherent
vortices or their intermittent distribution in the fluid. This
was counter to most current trends in two-dimensional
turbulence research. A careful study of the dependence of
the decay statistics on the initial Reynolds number of the
turbulence may yield some useful information about the
physics of the decay. In this previous study, large-eddy
simulations were used to confirm theoretical predictions of
asymptotic decay laws for the energy and the self-similar
decay of the energy spectrum based on low wave number
spectral invariants. The higher resolutions obtainable in
simulations of two-dimensional turbulence permitted a
study of two-dimensional decay at relatively high Reynolds
numbers by direct numerical simulations without the need
for sub-grid scale modeling. For the present numerical
simulation, the three-dimensional Navier-stokes equations
using k-e turbulence model, are solved by shock capturing
method where for more accurate solutions, the grid
adaptation technique is used. Grid adaptation techniques
with k-e turbulence model are the improved techniques
to determine the turbulence decay in the wake of the
turbulence grids.

2.0 Numerical Methods


2.1 Governing Equations
For the present computations, the three-dimensional
numerical code is developed to determine the decay of the
shock induced turbulence in the shock tube and the validity
of the present 3D code has been performed by Jinnah and
Takayama [11]. Without external forces and heat sources,
the conservative form of non-dimensionalized governing
equation in 3D Cartesian coordinate system is

where Q = [r, ru, rv, rw, e, rk, re], the vector of


conservative variables which contains mass, momentum
and energy. All variables are calculated in per unit volume.
r is taken as the mass per unit volume. Three momentum
terms in three-dimensional Cartesian coordinates system
are ru, rv and rw per unit volume. Total energy, e, turbulent
kinetic energy, rk and turbulent dissipative energy, re are
the energy terms per unit volume in these computations.
F, G and H are the three inviscid flux vectors in x-, y-, and

41

Mohammad Ali Jinnah

z-axis respectively. Similarly Fv, Gv and Hv are the three


viscous flux vectors in x-, y-, and z-axis respectively. Also
r is the fluid density and u,v and w are velocity components
in each direction of Cartesian coordinates. While e is the
total energy per unit volume, pressure p can be expressed
by the following state equation for ideal gas,
p = (g 1)[e 12 (u2+ v2+ w2)]
where g is the ratio of specific heats.
The source term S(Q) of the k-e turbulence model is
written by,
S(Q)= [ 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, Pk re Dk , (ce1 Pk ce2 re) ek ]

two-equation k-e turbulence model on solid boundaries, t


is set to zero.

2.2 Grid Systems and Grid Adaptation


Three dimensional hexahedral cells with adaptive grids
are used for these computations. In this grid system, the
cell-edge data structures are arranged in such a way that
each cell contains six faces which are sequence in one
to six and each face indicates two neighboring cells that
is left cell and right cell providing all faces of a cell are
vectorized by the position and coordinate in the grid system.
The initial three-dimensional grid system with turbulencegenerating grids is shown in Fig.1. The physical size of
each cell before adaptation is equal to 5x5x5 (mm) and the
initial number of cell is 2876.

where the production term Pk is given in Cartesian


coordinates as

and the destruction term Dk is given as Dk = g2.rT ke


The mass average turbulent kinetic energy and
homogeneous component of turbulent kinetic energy
dissipation rate are defined by as
k=

1
2

ct2 (u2+v2+w2)

and e = cm k2

The various constants in the k-e turbulence model are


listed as follows:
c = 0.09, ct = 0.03, cm = 0.09, ce1 = 1.45, ce2 = 1.92, sk = 1.00, se = 1.30

The governing equations described above for


compressible viscous flow are discretised by the finite
volume method. A second-order, upwind Godunov
scheme of Flux vector splitting method is used to
discretize the inviscid flux terms and MUSCL-Hancock
scheme with k-e turbulence model is used for interpolation
of variables where HLL Reimann solver is used for shock
capturing in the flow. Central differencing scheme is used
in discretizing the viscous flux terms. The upstream of
incident shock wave is set as inflow boundary condition,
the properties and velocities of which are calculated from
Rankine-Hugoniot conditions with incident shock Mach
number. The downstream inflow boundary condition and
wall surface are used as solid boundary conditions where
the gradients normal to the surface are taken zero. All solid
walls are treated as viscous solid wall boundary. For the

42

Figure 1: Three-dimensional grids and the position of the


turbulence-generating grids are shown.

The grid adaptation is one of the improved and


computational time saving techniques, which is used in
these computations. The grid adaptation is performed by
two procedures, one is refinement procedure and another
is coarsening procedure. The refinement and coarsening
operations are handled separately in computation. The
criterion used for grid adaptation is based on the truncation
error ( ) of the Taylor series expansion of density. The
is defined for every face of a
truncation error indicator
cell and given by the ratio of the second-order derivative
term to the first order one of the Taylor series of density so
that

=max

where c represent the location of any face of a cell and


i and j represent left cell and right cell of that face, dl is
and
the center distance between cell i and j,
i
j
=
(ri-rj)/dl,
are the density gradient for cell i and j,
lc
rc is the density at the interface of right cell and left cell
and af is the constant which is initially designed to prevent
Journal The Institution of Engineers, Malaysia (Vol. 75, No. 1, June 2014)

Numerical Simulation of the Decay of Grid-generated


Turbulence in a Shock Tube

a zero denominator. The value of af is used as 0.02 and it


is problem-independent parameter. The refinement and
value and
coarsening operation for any cell depends on
is determined for each face of a cell. The
the value of
criterion for adaptation for any cell is
Refinement=maximum
Coarsening=maximum

of six faces of a cell >er


of six faces of a cell <ec

where er and ec are the threshold values for refinement and


coarsening. In these computations, the value of er is used
as 0.44 and the value of ec is used as 0.40 and the level of
refinement is 2.
In the refinement procedure, the cells are selected
for refinement in which every cell is divided into eight
new sub cells and these new sub cells are arranged in a
particular sequence so that these sub cells are used suitably
in the data-structure. In the coarsening procedure, the eight
sub cells, which are generated from the primary cell, are
restored into the primary cell.

3 Results and Discussion


For the numerical simulation, turbulence grids are placed
in the shock tube parallel to yz-plane and the position of
the grid plate is shown in Fig.1. The total open area of grid
plate is 50.6 % and the configuration of the grid plate is
shown in Fig.2. Turbulence grids are uniform in size and
spacing, so the shock wave and the gas flow, following
the shock wave after passing through turbulence grids,
generate a compressible flow of homogeneous, isotropic
turbulence and at the same time, the turbulence decay
phenomena happened along the longitudinal direction in
the wake of the grid plate.

Figure 3: Sectional view of zx-plane where the location of


selected turbulent region is shown.

of the turbulent region is treated as the centerline of the


turbulent region. 30 points of equal spacing are taken on the
centerline of the selected turbulent region and all turbulent
parameters (velocity fluctuations, pressure fluctuations
etc.) are computed on these 30 points for the turbulent
region. The lateral planes intersect these 30 points and
parallel to the yz-plane are treated as grid-data planes and
the grids cut by the grid-data planes (lateral planes on 30
points) are the grids on the grid-data planes. The value of
any turbulent parameter on the centerline of the turbulent
region is the average value of all the grid values on the
grid-data plane where the grids near the boundary are not
taken into account due to viscous effect. All the relevant
turbulent parameters (velocity fluctuations, pressure
fluctuations etc.) are determined along the centerline
of the turbulent region for the shock position at the end
wall of the shock tube. The longitudinal distances (x/d)
of any point on the centerline of the turbulent region are
determined from the grid plate where d is the maximum
dimensional length of the grids.
The wall pressure fluctuations <p>/P, are calculated
from the computed numerical data where the RMS value
of wall pressure fluctuation,
<p> =
Where the average pressure, Pav is (1/n)

Figure 2: The configuration of the turbulence-generating


grids in the grid plate.

To compute turbulent parameters in the turbulent


region, a selected turbulent region is taken in the wake
of the grid plate, which is shown in Fig.3. The region
between lateral plane AA and BB (parallel to the yz-plane)
is taken as the selected turbulent region as shown in Fig.3
and the centerline along the longitudinal direction (x-axis)

Journal The Institution of Engineers, Malaysia (Vol. 75, No. 1, June 2014)

, pi is the

instantaneous pressure and n is the number of grids, cut off


by the grid-data plane where the grids near the boundary
are not taken into account due to viscous effect. P is the
pressure difference between upstream and downstream of
the shock wave.
Similarly the turbulence intensities, <u>/ U are
calculated from the measured numerical data where, the
longitudinal velocity fluctuation in x-axis,

43

Mohammad Ali Jinnah

u=
The RMS value of longitudinal velocity fluctuation in
x-axis,
<u> =

and

Skewness of velocity fluctuation, Su=


The average longitudinal velocity,

Uav is (1/n)

plate is lower and the percentage of longitudinal decay is


accelerated as increasing the longitudinal distance from the
grid plate. The approach to isotropy of the flow was assessed
by considering the skewness of the velocity fluctuations
Su. From the results of Mohamed and Larue [12], it is
observed that the uncertainty in their measurement of Su
is 0.01, these authors concluded that the position where
Su = 0.01 is taken for isotropic flow. According to this
recommendation, the present flow appears to be isotropic
at all downstream positions where the value of Su is always
less than 0.01 in the turbulent region.

where ui is the instantaneous longitudinal velocity. U is


the velocity difference between upstream and downstream
of the shock wave.
The lateral velocity fluctuation in y-axis,
v =
The RMS lateral velocity fluctuation in y-axis,
<v> =
The average lateral velocity in y-direction,
Vav is (1/n)
where, vi is the instantaneous lateral velocity in y-direction.
Similarly, the lateral velocity fluctuation in z-axis,
w=

Figure 4: The longitudinal turbulence intensity decay along


the centerline of the turbulent region.

The RMS lateral turbulence intensity variations are


determined along the centerline of the selected turbulent
region in the wake of the turbulence grids. It is observed
in Fig.5-6 that the decay of lateral turbulence intensities
along the longitudinal direction are more fluctuating
and the lateral turbulence decay phenomena along the

The RMS lateral velocity fluctuation in z-axis,


<w> =
The average lateral velocity in z-direction, Wav is
(1/n)

where, wi is the instantaneous lateral velocity

in z-direction.
The RMS longitudinal turbulence intensity variations
are determined along the centerline of the selected
turbulent region in the wake of the turbulence grids. The
decay phenomena in 3D turbulent field are observed along
the longitudinal direction and the variations of turbulence
decay are determined along the longitudinal direction by
taking the reference value as an initial value. It is observed
in Fig.4 that the decay rate at the near region of the grid
44

Figure 5: The lateral (y-axis) turbulence intensity decay


along the centerline of the turbulent region.

Journal The Institution of Engineers, Malaysia (Vol. 75, No. 1, June 2014)

Numerical Simulation of the Decay of Grid-generated


Turbulence in a Shock Tube

Figure 6: The lateral (z-axis) turbulence intensity decay


along the centerline of the turbulent region.

Figure 7: The decay of dissipative length scale along the


centerline of the turbulent region.

longitudinal direction are identical which was explained


by Barre et al. [13] and confirmed that the <v> and <w>
components behave in the same way along the lateral
direction in the turbulent region.
The decay of pressure fluctuations are determined
along the centerline of the selected turbulent region in
the wake of the turbulence grids and it is observed that no
substantial pressure fluctuations variations occur along the
longitudinal direction in the 3D turbulent region.
The dissipative-length scale is defined by the
expression, k3/2/e where the turbulent kinetic energy,

shock interactions. Due to stronger compressibility effects,


the turbulent dissipative length scale decreases and as the
compressibility effects decrease, the dissipative length
scale increases.
The velocity length scale is defined by the expression,
k1/2. The decay of velocity length scale is determined along
the centerline of the turbulent region in the wake of the
grid plate which is shown in Fig.8. It is observed that
no substantial velocity length scale decay occurs at the
near region of the grid plate and the decay rate increases
gradually as increasing the longitudinal distance [17].

k=

and ki is the instantaneous turbulent kinetic

energy for any grid on the grid-data plane and n is the


number of grid on the grid-data plane where the grids
adjacent to the boundary are not taken into account due to
viscous effect. Similarly the dissipation rate, e=
where ei is the instantaneous TKE dissipation rate for any
grid on the grid-data plane. The decay of the dissipativelength scale is determined along the centerline of the
turbulent region in the wake of the grid plate which is
shown in Fig.7. It is observed that no substantial change of
the dissipative length scale decay occurs at the near region
of the grid plate and the percentage of decay increases
gradually as increasing the longitudinal distance. The DNS
data of Lee et al. [14] and the DNS data of Hannappel and
Friedrich [15] indicated that the velocity length scale and
the dissipative length scale increased during expansion
process. The DNS results of Lee et al. [16] had indicated
a small increase of dissipative length scales through weak

Journal The Institution of Engineers, Malaysia (Vol. 75, No. 1, June 2014)

Figure 8: The decay of velocity length scale along the


centerline of the turbulent region.

The decay of the turbulent kinetic energy (TKE) is


determined along the centerline of the selected turbulent
region which is shown in Fig.9. It is observed that the
TKE variations are reasonable for the present turbulent

45

Mohammad Ali Jinnah

Figure 9: The decay of TKE along the centerline of the


turbulent region.

Figure 10: The decay of dissipation rate of TKE along the


centerline of the turbulent region.

flow with an initial TKE. The TKE evolves towards outlet


of the nozzle divergent and it represents the turbulence
intensity of the turbulent region. The solution of NavierStokes equations provides the information of turbulent
kinetic energy (TKE) level in the flow field where the TKE

dissipation rate is characterized along the centerline of the


turbulent region and the characteristic curve is shown in
Fig.10. It is observed that the decay of dissipation rate is
accelerated as increasing the longitudinal distance. Even
though change of compressibility is very low but due to
weaker turbulence fields, the dissipation rate decreases as
increasing the longitudinal distance from the turbulence
grids.

is computed from the equation,

and

in this case, the values of TKE are directly related to


the velocity fluctuations of the fluid particles. On the
other hand, the TKE is obtained from the solution of two
equations of k-e turbulence model and the accuracy of
the TKE value depends on the modeling equations. The
values of TKE obtained from the velocity fluctuations of
the fluid particles in the flow field are compared with the
values of TKE obtained from the solution of two equations
of k-e turbulence model because all turbulence modeling
equations are not ideal and it must have some deviations
between these results. The comparisons between the decay
of TKE values obtained from the solution of NavierStokes equations and the solution of turbulence model are
determined along the centerline of the turbulent region
and the comparisons are shown in Fig.9 and the deviations
between these results are 10-20 %. Even though the present
deviation is more due to unsteady state condition but their
decaying characteristics are almost similar.
The dissipation rate of TKE is changed depending on
the compressibility level of the turbulent field and this
value vanishes for incompressible flow. Due to shock
wave interaction with the turbulent field of stronger
compressibility level, the dissipation rate is decreased
more and so more dissipation energy converts to thermal
energy or internal energy of the flow. The decay of

46

4 Conclusions
A numerical simulation has been conducted to determine
the decay of the 3D turbulence in the wake of the
turbulence grids along the centerline of the shock tube. The
present computational results indicate that the turbulence
decaying phenomena in the wake of the turbulence grids
are the key factors during interaction with shock, reflected
from the end wall of the shock tube. The use of the present
technique has the advantage to get the different turbulence
fields where the intensity of the turbulence varies along
the downstream direction of the shock wave. So due to
the turbulence decay, it is possible to get the outcomes of
the shock wave interaction with turbulence of different
strengths and the interaction results provide the important
information on shock wave interaction with different
strengths of turbulent fields. The behavior of turbulence
properties are analyzed due to turbulence decay in the wake
of the turbulence grids. It is observed from the decaying
phenomena that all turbulent length scales decrease and
this result agrees with other existing computational results.
The dissipation rate of turbulence kinetic energy depends
on the turbulence strength and due to turbulence decay
along the longitudinal direction; the dissipation rate of

Journal The Institution of Engineers, Malaysia (Vol. 75, No. 1, June 2014)

Numerical Simulation of the Decay of Grid-generated


Turbulence in a Shock Tube

TKE is decreased more as the longitudinal distance from


the turbulence grids increases.

[15] Hannappel R and Friedrich R. (1995) Direct numerical


simulation of a Mach 2 shock interacting with isotropic
turbulence, Appl. Sci. res., 54, pp. 205-21.

References

[16] Lee S, Lele SK and Moin P. (1994) Interaction of isotropic


turbulence with a strong shock wave. AIAA paper 940311, Dept. Mech. Eng., Stanford Univ., CA.

[1] Jinnah MA, Takayama K. (2003) Numerical simulation


of shock Mach effect on normal shock/homogeneous
turbulence interaction. Computational Methods and
Experimental Measurements XI (Proc. of the eleventh
international CMEM-2003 conference), pp. 505-515
[2] Kolmogorov AN. (1941) On degeneration of isotropic
turbulence in an incompressible viscous liquid, Dokl.
Akad. Nauk. SSSR 31, 538.

[17] Jinnah MA and K. Takayama K. (2012) Numerical


Measurements of Turbulent Length Scales in Shock/
Turbulence Interaction, Journal of The Institution of
Engineers (India): C93(1):7581.

[3] Loitsianski LG. (1939) Some basic laws for isotropic


turbulent flow. Trudy Tsentr. Aero. Giedrodin. Inst. 440,
31.
[4] Batchelor GK and Proudman I. (1956) The large-scale
structure of homogeneous turbulence. Philos. Trans. R.
Sot. London 248, 369.
[5] Saffman PG. (1967) The large-scale structure of
homogeneous turbulence. J. Fluid Mech. 27, 581.
[6] Herring JR. (1974) Approach of axisymmetric turbulence
to isotropy. Phys. Fluids 17, 859.
[7] Lavoie P, Djenidi L and Antonia R. (2007) Effects of
initial conditions in decaying turbulence generated by
passive grids. J. Fluid Mech. 585, 395420.
[8] Krogstad PR and Davidson PA. (2011) Freely decaying,
homogenous turbulence generated by multi-scale grids. J.
Fluid Mech. 680, 417434.
[9] Hurst DJ and Vassilicos JC. (2007) Scalings and decay of
fractal-generated turbulence. Physics of Fluids 19, 035103.
[10] Chasnov JR. (1997) On the decay of two-dimensional
homogeneous turbulence, Phys. Fluids 9 (1), pp- 171-80.
[11] Jinnah MA and Takayama K. (2011) Numerical and
Experimental Study of Shock/Turbulent Flow Interaction
A Code Validation Test. Journal IEM, Vol. 72, No.4:
37-46.
[12] Mohamed MS and LaRue JC. (1990) The decay of
power law in grid-generated turbulence. Journal of Fluid
Mechanics; Vol. 219: p-195.
[13] Barre S, Allem D and Bonnet JP. (1996) Experimental
study of a normal shock/homogeneous turbulence
interaction, AIAA J, 34, pp. 968-74.
[14] Lee S, Lele SK and Moin P. (1993) Direct numerical
simulation of isotropic turbulence interacting with a weak
shock wave, Journal of Fluid Mechanics, 251, pp. 533-62.

Journal The Institution of Engineers, Malaysia (Vol. 75, No. 1, June 2014)

47

Mohammad Ali Jinnah

profiles
Dr. Mohammad Ali Jinnah is an Associate Professor in Department of Mechanical and Chemical Engineering,
Islamic University of Technology (An Organ of the OIC), Bangladesh. He obtained his Ph.D. from Tohoku University,
Sendai, Japan in 2005 specialising in Shock Wave interaction with turbulent flow.

48

Journal The Institution of Engineers, Malaysia (Vol. 75, No. 1, June 2014)

GUIDELINE FOR AUTHORS


Submission of a contribution is taken to manifest the fact that the
submission has not been submitted, accepted, published, or copyrighted
elsewhere. To avoid publication delays, please send all manuscripts to
the Editor and observe the following guidelines.
A. submission of paper
Four types of papers are solicited for the IEM Journal:
1. Regular Paper Presentation of significant research, developments or
applications in any field of engineering or within the scope of the journal.
Tutorials and surveys are also considered. For submissions, the length
should be about 30 pages.
2. Brief Paper A concise description of new technical concepts or
applications within the scope of the journal. Submission should be about
20 pages.
3. Technical Correspondence Letter to the Editor, comments on
established engineering topics and discussion of published papers.
Submission should be about 10 pages.
4. Review Paper Articles which survey the state-of-the-art of a specific
area of research.
A minimum of 10 references, primarily to recent journal paper is expected.
Citations of textbooks and web pages should be used very rarely. In order to
verify of the IEM journal is the right Journal for manuscript submission authors
may check if they are able link their to findings to other work published in the
IEM Journal. Plagiarism is strictly prohibited for the IEM Journal.
Manuscripts submitted as papers should state the significance of the problem
in the Introduction.
Authors are to suggest at least 4 reviewers who are able to review the
submitted paper. These reviewers should be the experts in the area of
research.
If the manuscript has been presented, published, or submitted for publication
elsewhere, please also inform the Editor. Our primary objective is to publish
technical materials not available elsewhere.
The language of the Journal is in English. However, a paper in Bahasa
Melayu is also accepted. For accepted papers, an abstract in English and
Bahasa Melayu must be included.
B. STYLE FOR DRAFT OF MANUSCRIPT FOR REVIEW PROCESS
The manuscript should be typewritten using double-spacing, font of 12
(Times); on one side of sheet only and in a single column format. The format
for IEM Journal follows that of the IEEE Transactions (USA).
Provide an informative 100- to 250-words abstract at the head of the
manuscript.
All sections should be numbered in Arabic such as 1, 2, etc. with the title in
capitals. Sub-sections should be numbered such as 1.1, 2.3, etc.
Numbered all equations in round brackets ( ) flush to the right. The equation
should be in the center.

Journal - The Institution of Engineers, Malaysia (Vol. 68, No.3, September 2007)

References in the text should be cited following the Harvard style, with the
following format:


Single author: Author, year


Two authors: Author and Author, year
Three and more authors: First author et al., year

In the reference section, the references should be written in full, as follows:


Style for papers: Author last name, followed by first initial, (year), Journal
Title (italics), volume (issue), page range.
Style for books: Author last name, followed by first initial, (year) title (italics),
location and publisher, chapter or page numbers (if desired).
Style for website: www.iem.org.my (accessed October 2013)
Sample format for references is as follows:
For Paper
Khalid, M. Omatu, S. and Yusof, R. (1995). Temperature Regulations with
Neural Networks and Alternative Control Schemes, IEEE Trans on Neural
Networks, 572-582,.
For Book
Omatu, S. Khalid, M. and Yusof, R. (1995). Neural-Control and Its
Applications, London: Springer-Verlag,.
At the end of the manuscript, each author should provide a brief profile (less
than 150 words), together with recent photographs (preferable less than 3
MB).
C. STYLE FOR ILLUSTRATIONS
Try to include the illustrations in between the text.
Originals for illustrations should be sharp, noise-free and of good contrast.
Each illustration must be numbered such as Figure 1, Figures 2-3, etc. and
have a meaningful caption at the bottom. For tables, the caption must be at
the top.
On graphs, show only the coordinate axes, or at most the major grid lines, to
avoid a dense hard-thread result.
All lettering should be large enough to permit legible reduction of the figure
to column width, perhaps as much as 4:1. Typing on figures is not acceptable.
Photographs should be glossy prints, of good contrast and gradation and any
reasonable size.
D. SUBMISSION OF PAPER
Authors are required to submit the manuscript via email for consideration
of publication in IEM Journal and enclose a cover letter giving your contact
details including telephone and e-mail address for correspondence.
Submissions should be made to the address below:
Chief Editor
The Institution of Engineers, Malaysia
Bangunan Ingenieur, Lots 60 & 62, Jalan 52/4
Peti Surat 223 (Jalan Sultan), 46720 Petaling Jaya, Selangor Darul Ehsan
Tel: 03-7968 4001/2 Fax: 03-7957 7678
E-mail: pub@iem.org.my or iemjournal@gmail.com
(for attachment bigger than 5 MB)

49

This page is intentionally left blank

The Institution of Engineers, Malaysia


Bangunan Ingenieur, Lots 60/62, Jalan 52/4, Peti Surat 223 (Jalan Sultan), 46720 Petaling Jaya, Selangor Darul Ehsan
Tel : 03-79684001/2
Fax : 03-79577678
E-mail : sec@iem.org.my
IEM Homepage : www.myiem.org.my

REFEREES FOR VETTING OF IEM PUBLICATIONS 2014/2015


The Standing Committee on Information and Publications is in the midst of compiling and updating the list of referees to assist in the vetting of articles received from
members and non-members. The referees should preferably be at least Corporate Members of The Institution or graduates with higher degrees or with academics
background.
The aim of appointing the referee is to ensure and maintain standard in the publication of the IEM Journal.
Members who are interested to be placed in the database of referees are to return the registration form
to the IEM Secretariat, providing details of their degrees and particular expertise and experience in the
engineering fields.
We need your generous services to look into the vetting and improving the IEM Journal articles received
for Publications. An acknowledgement would be made at the end of the Sessions in either the Bulletin
and Journal. Referees must be committed to return the papers within two weeks or a month from date
of appointment made.
Thank you.
Principal Journal Editor
Standing Committee on Information and Publications

All submissions and correspondences are to be


addressed to: Journal Editorial Board
Standing Committee on Information and Publications
The Institution of Engineers, Malaysia
Bangunan Ingenieur, Lots 60 & 62, Jalan 52/4
P.O. Box 223 (Jalan Sultan)
46720 Petaling Jaya, Selangor Darul Ehsan
Tel: 603-7968 4001/2 Fax: 603-7957 7678
E-mail: pub@iem.org.my/sec@iem.org.my
Website: www.myiem.org.my

DISCIPLINES / SUB-DISCIPLINES OF VETTER


Please tick ( ) the appropriate boxes.
Agricultural
Aerospace
Aeronautical
Chemical
Civil

Communication
Electrical
Electronics
Environmental
Industrial

Manufacturing
Marine
Mechanical
Mining
Naval Architecture

Petroleum
Production
Structural
Others (Please specify)

Military Vehicles
Mini Pressure Meters
Mining Engineering
Naval Architecture
Navigation
Oil and Gas Engineering
Operation Research
Palm Oil Industries
Petrochemicals
Petroleum Engineering
Pharmaceuticals
Piling
Plumbing Engineering
Pollution Control
Ports and Harbor Engineering
Power Electronics
Power Generation
Pressure Vessels
Prestressed Concrete
Project Management
Public Administration
Public Health Engineering
Quarry Engineering
Railways
Reclamation Works
Refrigeration
Reinforced Concrete Beams
Road Transport
Robotics
Roof Structures

Room Temperature
Safety Engineering
Scaffolding Works
Seepage
Sewerage
Shipbuilding
Signal Processing
Solar Energy Technology
Steelworks Design
Stream Turbine Power Plant
Structural Analysis
Structural Rehabilitation
Survey Engineering
Tailgates
Telecommunication
Thermal Engineering
Timber Design
Tool Engineering
Transfer Tunnels
Transportation Engineering
Urban Planning
Vehicles
Vertical Transportation
Waste Treatment
Waste Water
Water Resources Engineering
Water Pollution Control
Wind Engineering
Others (please specify)

AREAS OF INTEREST FOR VETTING OF PAPERS


Please tick ( ) the appropriate area of interest that you are able to vet the papers
Acoustics
Aerodynamics
Air Conditioning
Air Pollution Control
Aircraft
Airport Engineering
Aluminum Design
Arbitration
Automation
Automotive Engineering
Biochemical Engineering
Biotechnology
Boiler Engineering
Bridge Engineering
Building Services
Coastal Engineering
Co-Generation
Computer Engineering
Concrete Design
Concrete Technology
Construction Management
Control Engineering
Drainage Engineering
Dynamics Design
Earthworks
Edible Oil Refining
Electrical Transmission
Electrochemical
Electrotechnology
Energy Technology

Engineering Education
Environmental Engineering
Fine Chemical
Finite Element
Fire Detection
Fire Engineering
Floods
Food Processing
Foundation Engineering
Fuzzy Logic
Gas Engineering
Geotechnical
Heat Exchanger
Highway
Hydraulics
H.V. Electrical Distribution
Industrial Engineering
Industrial Transport
Industrial Ventilation
Information Technology
Instrumentation
Lighting System
L.V. Electrical Distribution
Management
Mass Transit
Manufacturing
Mechanical Handling Equipment
Metal Fabrication
Metallurgy
Micro Electronics

Journal - The Institution of Engineers, Malaysia (Vol. 68, No.3, September 2007)

51

RESEARCHER / REVIEWERS DETAILS


Name
:

Membership No.
:
(if applicable)

Grade
:
Graduate
Member
Fellow

Non-member
Others (please specify)

Affiliate




Qualifications
:

Correspondence
Address
:




Contact Details
Mobile No
:

Office :

E-mail Address
:

Fax :


Brief biodata (not longer than 50 words) (to be appended with this Reply Slip).

Have you ever reviewed submissions for publication in any Journal(s) before?
Yes

No

If YES, name the Journal(s) : Do you have papers published in any Journal(s)?
Yes

No

If YES, name the Journal(s) :

Date :

Signature :

CALL FOR SUBMISSION OF IEM JOURNAL


The IEM Journal is an Engineering peer-reviewed journal published by The
Institution of Engineers, Malaysia. IEM Journal is dedicated to increasing the
depth of research across all areas of engineering field: http://www.myiem.org.
my/content/journal-122.aspx.
IEM Journal welcomes the submission of manuscripts that meet the general
criteria of significance and scientific excellence in any of the Engineering field, and
will publish:
Original articles in basic and applied research


Case studies

Critical reviews, surveys, opinions, commentaries and essays
52

We invite you to submit your manuscript(s) in Times New Roman (12 point double
spacing) to:
The Principal Journal Editor
Standing Committee on Information and Publications
The Institution of Engineers, Malaysia
Bangunan Ingenieur, Lots 60 & 62, Jalan 52/4
P.O. Box 223 (Jalan Sultan)
46720 Petaling Jaya, Selangor Darul Ehsan
Tel: 603-7968 4001/2 Fax: 603-7957 7678
E-mail: pub@iem.org.my/sec@iem.org.my Website: www.myiem.org.my
Journal - The Institution of Engineers, Malaysia (Vol. 68, No.3, September 2007)

ADVISORY PANEL FOR IEM JOURNAL


(MAY 2013 TO MARCH 2015)
Prof. Dr Azah binti Mohamed
Department of Electrical, Electronic and Systems Engineering
Faculty of Engineering and Built Environment
Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia
43600 UKM, Bangi, Selangor Darul Ehsan
E-mail: azah@eng.ukm.my
Expertise: Research and innovation

Assoc. Prof. Dr Yasmin binti Ashaari


Department of Civil Engineering, Faculty of Engineering
Universiti Teknologi MARA
40450 UiTM, Shah Alam, Selangor Darul Ehsan
E-mail: yasminashaari@yahoo.com
Expertise: Civil engineering

Ir. Prof. Dr Ruslan bin Hassan


Department of Civil Engineering, Faculty of Engineering
Universiti Teknologi MARA
40450 UiTM, Shah Alam, Selangor Darul Ehsan
E-mail: drruslan@yahoo.com
Expertise: Civil engineering

Engr. Prof. Dr Bujang Kim Huat


Dean, School of Graduate Studies
Universiti Putra Malaysia
43400 UPM, Serdang, Selangor Darul Ehsan
E-mail: bujang@eng.upm.edu.my
Expertise: Civil engineering

Dato Ir. Prof. Abang Abdullah bin Abang Ali


Coordinator, Housing and Research Development
Universiti Putra Malaysia
43400 UPM, Serdang, Selangor Darul Ehsan
E-mail: aaaa@eng.upm.edu.my
Expertise: Research and development

Tan Sri Prof. Dr Ghauth Jasmon


Vice Chancellor
University of Malaya
50603 Kuala Lumpur

Dato Ir. Prof. Dr Mohd. Saleh bin Jaafar


Deputy Vice-Chancellor (Research and Innovation)
Universiti Putra Malaysia
43400 UPM, Serdang, Selangor Darul Ehsan
E-mail: msj@eng.upm.edu.my
Expertise: Civil engineering

Ir. Prof. Dr Wan Ramli bin Wan Daud


Director, Fuel Cell Institute,
Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia
43600 UKM, Bangi, Selangor Darul Ehsan
E-mail: wramli@eng.ukm.my

Ir. Prof. Dr Muhd. Fadhil bin Nuruddin


Dean, Faculty of Engineering
Universiti Teknologi PETRONAS
Bandar Seri Iskandar
31750 Tronoh, Perak Darul Ridzuan
E-mail: fadhilnuruddin@petronas.com.my

Prof. Dr Che Husna binti Ashari


Department of Mechanical and Materials Engineering
Faculty of Engineering, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia
43600 UKM, Bangi, Selangor Darul Ehsan
E-mail: chehusna@eng.ukm.my
Expertise: Civil engineering

Dr Amit Chaudhry
Sr. Assistant Professor (Microelectronics)
University Institute of Engineering and Technology
Panjab University, Sector-25
Chandigarh 160014, INDIA
E-mail: amit_chaudhry01@yahoo.com
Expertise: Modeling of quantum mechanical effects in Nanoscale
MOSFETs, microelectronics engineering

Dr Nutthita Chuankrerkkul
Metallurgy and Materials Science Research Institute
Chulalongkorn University
Soi Chula 12, Phyathai Road
Bangkok 10330, THAILAND
E-mail: Nutthita.C@chula.ac.th
Expertise: Metallurgy and materials engineering

Assoc. Prof. Margaret Jollands


School of Civil, Environmental and Chemical Engineering
RMIT University, 124 La Trobe St.
Melbourne, Victoria 3000
AUSTRALIA
E-mail: margaret.jollands@rmit.edu.au
Expertise: Environmental and engineering education

Prof. Sofiene Tahar


Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering
University of Concordia, Montreal
1455, de Maisonneuve Blvd. W.
Montreal, Qubec H3G 1M8 CANADA
E-mail: tahar@ece.concordia.ca
Expertise: Electrical and computer engineering

Prof. Dr Michael R. Neuman


Department of Biomedical Engineering
401 Minerals and Materials Engineering Building
Michigan Technological University
1400 Townsend Drive Houghton, Michigan, 49931-1295
UNITED STATES OF AMERICA
E-mail: mneuman@mtu.edu
Expertise: Biomedical engineering

Assoc. Prof. Dr Fevzi Bedir


Suleyman Demirel University
Department of Mechanical Engineering
32260 Isparta, TURKEY
E-mail: fevzibedir@sdu.edu.tr
Expertise: Mechanical engineering

Prof. Zekai Sen


Istanbul Technical University
Department of Hydraulics and Water Resources Department
Faculty of Civil Engineering
Maslak, 34469 Istanbul, TURKEY
E-mail: zsen@itu.edu.tr
Expertise: Hydrology

Prof. Emer. Kenkichi Ohba


Fluids Engineering and Biomechanics
ORDIST
Kansai University, Yamate-Cho 3-3-35 Suita
Osaka 564-8680, JAPAN

Emeritus Prof. Dr Daryl Lund


Department of Food Engineering
University of Wisconsin-Madison
151 E, Reynolds Street, Cottage Grove WI 53527
E-mail: dlund@wisc.edu

Dear Readers,
If you have any comments or feedback
concerning the Journal, please write in to
pub@iem.org.my within one month from the
publication of this issue.

PUBLICATION DISCLAIMER

The publication has been compiled by IEM and Dimension with great care and they disclaim any duty to investigate any product, process, service, design and the like which may may be described in
this publication. The appearance of any information in this publication does not necessarily constitute endorsement by IEM and Dimension. They do not guarantee that the information in this publication
is free from errors. IEM and Dimension do not necessarily agree with the statement or the opinion expressed in this publication.

COPYRIGHT

Journal of IEM is the official magazine of The Institution of Engineers, Malaysia and is published by Dimension Publishing Sdn. Bhd. The Institution and the Publisher retain the copyright in all material
published in the magazine. No part of this magazine may be reproduced and transmitted in any form, or stored in any retrieval system of any nature without the prior written permission of IEM and
the Publisher.
We are pleased to announce that the articles in the IEM Journals have been indexed by other organisation i.e. Linda Hall Library of Science, Engineering and Technology, Kansas City.