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ME 204P Fluid Mechanics

School of Technology, PDPU

Experiment No:

Bernoullis Theorem

OBJECTIVES
1. To verify the Bernoullis theorem.
EXPERIMENT SETUP
The experiment setup consists of transparent and uniformly varying cross sectional conduit of converging
and diverging sections as shown in the attached Figure-1. It is made of Perspex sheets of known size at
entrance, centre and outlet. The conduit is connected to a constant head supply tank (1) at one end. A
Piezometric tube (10) is also connected to measuring tank (4) to measure level of water in the tank. An
outlet gate valve (7) at downstream end of conduit and inlet gate valve at the upstream end are provided to
regulate the water flow in conduit and Piezometric tubes (5). Piezometric tubes are fitted on the conduit at
regular intervals to measure the Piezometric head (pressure head + datum head) at each gauge point. A
graph paper can be fixed on the wooden board placed behind the Piezometric tubes for measuring water
levels. Collecting (or measuring) tank is provided to measure actual discharge through conduit under
different water heads of supply tank (1).

Figure 1 Experiment Setup


1. Water supply tank
2. Centrifugal Pump with variable speed Motor
3. Storage tank
4. Measuring Tank
5. Piezometric tubes
6. Conduit
7. Water Flow Control valve
8. Drain Valve
9. Pipes
10. Water Level Indicating Tube

ME 204P Fluid Mechanics

School of Technology, PDPU

TECHNICAL SPECIFICATIONS
Collection Tank



Material
Diameter

: SS
: 27 cm

Test Section


Material

: Acrylic

OPERATION PROCEDURE
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.

Allow the water into variable conduit by adjusting inlet gate valve (7) such that the flow is
steady at a measured head (H1).
Measure the water level in the Piezometric tubes and their distances from inlet of conduit.
Measure the diameter of the collecting Tank.(4)
Measure the time required to collect water in the collecting tank under steady flow conditions.
Calculate cross sectional areas of conduit at various Piezometric connection points.
Calculate actual discharge of flow at constant head at supply tank, H1.
Calculate H1, which is to be measured from the same datum line which was considered for
Piezometric tubes.
Calculate pressure head and velocity head at various Piezometric connection points.
Calculate sum of the pressure head, velocity head and the datum head at each section of the
conduit and verify the Bernoullis equation.

OBSERVATION TABLE
Table1: Piezometric tapings observations
Piezometric
Connection Point
L1
L2
L3
L4
L5
L6
L7
L8
L9
L10
L11
L12
L13

Piezometer tube
Distance from Inlet
(cm)
7
11
16.5
22
27
29.5
32
37.5
41
50
58
68
71.5

ME 204P Fluid Mechanics

Area of conduit at Ln
(cm)2

Rise of level in
Piezometric Tubes
(cm)

24
22
14
6.5
3.5
2.5
3.6
3.2
4.2
8.7
13.7
21.6
24

School of Technology, PDPU

Table 2: Energy Heads


Rise of Velocity (v ) = Velocity
Area of
level in
(V0 / A)
Head
conduit

Piezom A= Area of
(
at Ln

etric
conduit @
Piezometric
Tubes
L
Connection
N
Point
(Cm)2
(cm)
(cm/s)
cm
C0

C1

C2

C3=
C22/2g

Pressure Datum
Head
Head

(
(

Total
Head

Loss
of
Head

cm
C6 =
[C3 + C4
+ C5]

cm
C7 =
H1C6

cm

cm

C4 = C1

C5 = 0

L1
L2
L3
L4
L5
L6
L7
L8
L9
L10
L11
L12
L13
REMARKS: Height of liquid level in supply tank and Piezometric Tubes to be taken from the same datum (i.e. conduit
top level).

SHUTDOWN PROCEDURE
1. Switch OFF the Pump.
2. Fully open all valves.
3. Drain the water completely from the test section, measuring tank and discharge tank into the sump
tank.
4. Turn off the main switch and disconnect the test rig from the power supply.

RESULTS AND DISCUSSIONS (on separate paper)


Plot the following graphs and discuss the reasons for different trends of graphs



Distance of Piezometric tubes from inlet Vs total head


Distance of Piezometric tubes from inlet Vs head loss

SAMPLE CALCULATION: For reading no: ______


ME 204P Fluid Mechanics

School of Technology, PDPU

Volume flow rate through test rig


Rise of water level in measuring tank (h)

: _____________ m

Diameter of measuring (d)

: ______________ m

Area of measuring tank (A)

: ______________ m2

Time taken for rise of water level (h) in measuring tank (t)

: ______________ sec

Volume flow rate through test rig (Q)

A.h
(m3/s)
t

=
=
Velocity of water at each Piezometric Connection (v)

Q
Ln

=
=
Velocity head

v2
=
2g
=
=

Pressure head

= Rise of water level in Piezometer


=

Total head

= velocity head + pressure head


+potential head
=

Date of Performance

ME 204P Fluid Mechanics

Sign. of Faculty

School of Technology, PDPU