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Prof. Dr.-Ing.

Martin Schwesig IFDC-BA4

Tasks and Methods of Static Analysis


in
Civil Engineering
Purpose of Static Analysis:
verification of structural stability
ultimate limit states: yielding, fracture, collapse, fatigue

proof of usability
serviceability limit state (SLS): deformation, vibration

development of structural variations


efficiency; cost optimization
construction progress; production method; side management
failure analysis; expert opinion

Calculation Process in Static Analysis

Loading Conditions on Buildings (especially facades)

dead
load

Impact,
explosio
n, earthquake

life load

DIN 1055,
DIN EN
1991
(EC1)
temperature

wind

snow

DIN 1055: Einwirkungen auf Tragwerke


Teil 100:
Grundlagen der Tragwerksplanung, Sicherheitskonzept und
Bemessungsregeln (03.2001)

Teil 1:

Teil 2:
Bodenkenngren

Teil 3:

Wichte
und
Flchen
lasten
von
Baustoffen,
Bauteilen
und
LagerStoffen
06.2002

Eigenund
Nutzlasten
fr
Hochbauten

E06.2002

03.2002

eingefhrt

Entwurf

eingefhrt

Teil 4:
WindLasten

03.2005
mit
B1
03.2006

eingefhrt

Teil 5:

Teil 6:

Teil 7:
Temperatureinwirkungen

Teil 8:
Einwirkungen
whrend
der
Bauausfhrung

Teil 9:
Auergewhnliche
Einwirkungen

Teil
10:

Schneeund
Eislasten

Einwirkungen
auf
Silos
und
Flssigkeitsbehlter

07.2005

03.2005

03.2002

01.2003

03.2002

03.2002

eingefhrt

eingefhrt

keine
Einfhrung
vorgesehen

eingefhrt

keine
Einfhrung
vorgesehen

keine
Einfhrung
vorgesehen

Einwirkungen
infolge
Krane
und
Maschinen

DIN EN 1990 (Eurocode): Basics of Structural Design

EN 1991
EC 1:
1-1
1-2
1-3
1-4
1-5
1-6
1-7
2
3
4

EN 1992 bis EN 1996

Actions on Structures
Dead Loads, Life Loads
Influence of Fire
Snow
Wind
Temperature
Building Status
Extraordinary Actions
Life Loads on Bridges
Crane Loads
Silo Loads

EC 2: Concrete Constructions
EC 3: Steel Constructions
EC 4: Composite
Constructions
EC 5: Timber Constructions
EC 6: Masonry Constructions

EN 1999
EC 9: Aluminum Constructions
EN 1997 und EN 1998

EC 7: Geotechnical Installations
EC 8: Building in Seismic Domains

Wind Loads acting on a Faade Structure


Wind loading is characterized by:
weather phenomenon
different magnitudes and directions
wind gusts
luv (wind pressure) and lee (wind suction)
time dependent loading
wind is not exactly predictable (probabilistics)

Wind load according to DIN 1055-4 (Rev. 03/2005)

building

location of building

wind zone (1 - 4)
wind speed
wind pressure

category of topic ( I- IV)


Wind load
construction height

aerodynamic factor

pressure from gust speed

Wind zone map and respective


wind speed vref and wind pressure qref according to DIN10554, Appendix A

2
v2
q= v =
1600
2
q
v

wind pressure [kN/m]


wind speed [m/s]
density of air [kg/m]
(=1,25 [kg/m] at 1013 [hPa] air
pressure and T=10 [C] at sea level)

Listed are values for average wind


speed in the 4 wind zones and
respective
wind
pressure.
The
values apply at 10 [m] high in plain,
open
area for a measure-timeperiod of 10 minutes and an annual
exceedance probability of
0,02
(that means a return period of 50
years).

Terrain category I:
Open sea; seas with minimum 5
km open area in wind direction;
plain area without barriers.

Terrain category II:


Terrain with hedges, single
farms, residential buildings or
trees, for example agricultural
area.

Terrain category III:

Suburbs, industrial areas,


forrests.

Terrain category IV:

Cities, with minimum 15% of


planted area with buildings
(average hight more than 15
m).

Simplified Wind-Gust-Pressure for Buildings


up to 25 m Hight

Windzone

1
2

1)
2)

Geschwindigkeitsdruck q in kN/m
bei einer Gebudehhe h in den Grenzen von
h 10 m

10 m < h 18 m

18 m < h 25 m

Binnenland

0,50

0,65

0,75

Binnenland

0,65

0,80

0,90

Kste und Inseln der Ostsee

0,85

1,00

1,10

Binnenland

0,80

0,95

1,10

Kste und Inseln der Ostsee

1,05

1,20

1,30

Binnenland

0,95

1,15

1,30

Kste der Nord- und Ostsee


und Inseln der Ostsee

1,25

1,40

1,55

Inseln der Nordsee

1,40

Zur Kste zhlt ein 5 km breiter Streifen, der entlang der Kste verluft und landeinwrts gerichtet ist.
Auf den Inseln der Nordsee ist der Bengeschwindigkeitsdruck fr Bauwerke ber 10 m Hhe gem
Regelfall zu bestimmen.

Static Analysis of Beam Structures


a) Plane Systems
Beams

Internal Forces:

Truss

Internal Force:

Static Analysis of Beam Structures


a) Plane Systems
Frame

Mixed Systems

Internal Forces:

Static Analysis of Beam Structures (3D-Systems)


Isometrie

Steel lattice girder bridge


Metal space truss
X

0.000

Bearing and Supporting

system

degree of
freedom

reaction
force

internal
force

u,

Av

N=0
M=0
V=Av

Ah, Av

M=0
N=Ah
V=Av

Ah, Av, AM

M=AM
N=Ah
V=Av

Calculation of (simple) Beam Structures


Steps of calculation procedure:
(1) known:

system, bearing, loading

(2) unknown:

support-reactions, internal forces

(3) solution:

a) system is statically determinate


calculation of support reactions by
equilibrium conditions
b) system is statically indeterminate
calculation of support reactions by
equilibrium conditions and continuity
conditions
c) principle of reaction force at section is
used to calculate the internal forces

Example:

a) Simple supported Beam with uniform Loading

Example:

b) Coupled Beam Structure


LF1: Volllast

Entgegen der Y-Richtung

40.00

30.00

10.00

X
150.00

3.000

5.000

12.000

4.000

Example:

c) Plane Frame (with 3 joints)

Example:

d) Complex Faade Structure

Internal Forces and Material Stresses

a) Plane system

Cross-section values:

A, Iy, Sy

b)

3D-system

Cross-section values:

A, Iy, Iz, IT, Sy, Sz

Example:
Stress distribution over a
complex cross-section
(calculated with DUENQ)

Stress distribution over the cross section


axial stress (My)

shear stress (Vz)

Stress distribution over the cross section


axial stress (My)

shear stress (Vz)

Material Behaviour ( characterized by the stress-strain


relationship)
Steel

Features:
linear elastic range
yielding, hardening,
fracture
same behavior for
tension/compression

Material Behaviour ( is characterized by the stress-strain


relationship)
Aluminium

Features:
pronounced nonlinear
relation
no yielding
continous rise until fraction
scattering range
Calculation:
multiple linear relation (DIN 4113)
Romberg-Osgood-Formula (EC 9)

= + 0,002

E
f
0, 2
ln 2
n=
f
ln 0, 2
f 0,1

Comparison of Steel/Aluminum Profile


with similar Stiffness

www.alu-scout.ch (a recommended webpage)

Comparison of Material Properties


Material Property

Aluminium

Steel

70000

210000

0,3

0,3

2310-6

1210-6

[W/(mK)]

160

60

[C]

660

1500

2700

8100

modulus of elasticity

[N/mm]

poisson ratio

[-]

thermal expansion coefficient

coefficient of thermal conductivit

Ralu

[1/C]

melting point

density

Strength

[kg/m3]

Aluminium
(extruded)

Steel
S 235

Steel
S 355

Yield Strength

[N/mm]

100-290

215-240

335-360

Tensile Strength

[N/mm]

140-350

360

490

Comparison of Stiffness between Aluminum and Steel

(bending) stiffness:
material dependent:
geometry dependent:

EJ
E
J

Design Effect of Faade Elements


with different Depth of Section

(With kind support of RP-Technik Company, Bnen)