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Biomass Energy

I. SOURCE

What is Biomass?
Bio- biological
Mass- material
Biological material/matter
Carbon based

Renewable energy
Stored energy from the sun

Carbon
*Carbon footprint
*Carbon Emissions

Global Warming

BIOMASS
Clean, alternative
renewable energy

Biomass
Burnable material
Any type of animal or plant material that
can be converted into energy
like:

shrubs

trees

Crops

Grass

Algae

Aquatic plants

Animal waste

Forest residues

Agricultural waste

Energy Crops

Sources of Energy
Crops
Wood Fuel
Alcohol Fuel

Waste
Products
Landfill Gas

Typical Biomass Products

*MWe means megawatt of


electricity
*MSW/MLW means municipal
solid/liquid waste

GJ- gigajoules (1 million kilojoules)


MC- moisture content

How is energy generated from


Biomass?

Conversion

Methods of Conversion
Thermal Conversions
Combustion
Gasification
Pyrolysis

Chemical Conversions
Fermentation
Anaerobic Digestion

Combustion
Burning of organic material
Requires oxygen

Used for millenia, domestically


Steam powered engines
As simple as taking a piece of wood and
putting it on fire

Direct Combustion Process


Addition of biomass products
Heating and combustion of products
Thermal energy is produced and water
can be heated to steam
Steam is then brought to the turbine to
produce energy transformer grid
Condenser and circulation of water
Dust and other particulates can be
disposed of through induced fan

Biomass Gasification
Conversion of solid fuels into combustible gas mixture
called producer gas (CO + H2 + CH4)
Involves partial combustion of biomass
Four distinct process in the gasifier:
- Drying
-Pyrolysis
-Combustion(burning)
-Reduction

Gasification Process
Biomass feed
Preliminary gas
cleaner
Gas filter
Gas cooler
Reactor or turbine
(depends on
application)

Gasification for Electricity

Gasification for Power Process

Same process as in video for biofuels


Biomass feed
Drying and combustion
Filtration of char, ash, other unnecessary
particles
The producer gas is brought to a tank to
heat fluid (most likely water) to produce
steam for a turbine that can produce
electrical power

Pyrolysis
Process used to create syngas (synthetic
gas or fuel for vehicles)
Gasification without oxygen
Refining of oil
Produced oil is used for fuels and oils for
vehicles

Fermentation
Process used in brewing and wine making
for the conversion of sugars to alcohol
(ethanol CH3CH2OH).
Can be used to obtain pure ethanol
(bioethanol) for use as a transport biofuel
Bioethanol is relatively inefficient

Methane Fermentation

Digestion
Bacteria break down organic material in
the absence of air, yielding a biogas
containing methane
Carbon dioxide and methane
Methane can be burned for heat or electricity
generation
Solid residues for soil conditioning

Applications
Power Generation

Thermal Applications

Irrigation Pumping
Village Electrification
Captive Power(Industries)
Grid-fed power
Simultaneous Charcoal and
Power Production

Hot Air Generators


Dryers
Boilers
Thermic fluid heaters
Ovens
Furnaces and Kilns

II. ENERGY
PRODUCING
POTENTIAL OR
POWER

Does our country have the


potential for biomass energy?

Philippines
-

mainly an agricultural country with


a land area of 30M hectares, 47%
of which is agricultural.

the total area devoted to


agricultural crop is 13M hectares
which is distrubuted among
(food grains, food crops and nonfood crops).

Philippine Biomass
Wood fuel and wood waste
are the most significant
indigenous energy source in the
philippines
-Wood fuel are used for in-plant
power generation and process
heating

Philippine Biomass
Bagasse
Is used as an on-site fuel in
sugar mills to produce steam
for power generation.

Philippine Biomass
Coconut residue includes
shells, husks and fronds from
coconuts
- largely used as fuel in domestic
and industrial sectors

- Coconut shells are converted


into charcoal
Rice residue may also be
utilized in rice mills for steam and
electricity generators

Philippine Biomass
Animal wastes
-animal wastes coming from
commercial-scale livestock and
poultry for a viable biogas
production

Philippine Biomass
As of 2011, 30% of energy consumed is
biomass
Mostly in provincial areas for culinary
purposes

Philippine Biomass
15% of primary energy source
200MW- Power potential capacity
At present biomass is the largest
renewable source of energy globally and
accounts for a significant share normally
20%-90% of the total energy consumption
in developing countries

27% of that is for industrial and


commercial applications
92% of that was traced to boiler fuel
applications for power and steam
generation while the rest for drying,
ceramic and metal production
By EC-ASEAN COGEN Program- 16
million tons of agro waste per year.
12% of total national energy supply is
bagasse, coconut husks and shell
World Bank-Energy Sector Management
ASsistance Program predicts that:
sugar-90MW
rice- 40MW
Coconut- 20MW

II. ENERGY
PRODUCING
POTENTIAL OR
POWER

Advantages

Disadvantages

Advantages

Disadvantages

No Harmful Emissions

Expensive

Clean Energy

Inefficient as Compared to
Fossil Fuels

Abundant and Renewable


Harmful to Environment
Reduce Dependency on
Fossil Fuels

Consume More Fuel

Reduce Landfills

Require More Land

Can be Used to Create


Different Products

Advantages
1.) No Harmful Emissions
- for the most part, creates no harmful carbon dioxide emissions.
-Many energy sources used today struggle to control their carbon
dioxide emissions, as these can cause harm to the ozone layer and
increase the effects of greenhouse gases, potentially warming the
planet.
-It is completely natural, has no such carbon dioxide side effects in
its use

Advantages
2.) Clean Energy
- Because of its relatively clean use, biomass energy, when used in
commercial businesses such as airlines, receives tax credit from the
US government.
- This is good for the environment and good for business.
-It does release carbon dioxide but captures carbon dioxide for its
own growth. Carbon dioxide released by fossil fuel are released into the
atmosphere and are harmful to the environment.

Advantages
3.) Abundant and Renewable
- Biomass products are abundant and renewable. Since they
come from living sources, and life is cyclical, these products potentially
never run out
-so long as there is something living on earth and there is
someone there to turn that living things components and waste
products into energy.
-In the United Kingdom, biomass fuels are made from recycled
chicken droppings. In the United States and Russia, there are plentiful
forests for lumber to be used in the production of biomass energy.

Advantages
4.) Reduce Dependency on Fossil Fuels
-It has developed as an alternate source of fuel for many
homeowners and have helped them to reduce their dependency on
fossil fuels
5.) Reduce Landfills
-Another benefit of this energy is that it can take waste that is harmful
to the environment and turn it into something useful.
- garbage as landfill can, at least partially, be burned to create
useable biomass energy

Advantages
6.) Can be Used to Create Different Products
- Biomass energy is also versatile, as different forms of organic
matter can be used to create different products.
- Ethanol and similar fuels can be made from corn and other crops.
With so many living things on the planet, there is no limit to how many
ways it can be found and used.

Disadvantages
1.) Expensive
-Firstly, its expensive. Living things are expensive to care for, feed,
and house, and all of that has to be considered when trying to use
waste products from animals for fuel.
2.) Inefficient as Compared to Fossil Fuels
- Ethanol, as a biodiesel is terribly inefficient when compared to
gasoline, and it often has to be mixed with some gasoline to make it
work properly anyway.
- On top of that, ethanol is harmful to combustion engines over long
term use.

Disadvantages
3.) Harmful to Environment
- using animal and human waste to power engines may save on
carbon dioxide emissions, but it increases methane gases, which are
also harmful to the Earths ozone layer. So really, we are no better off
environmentally for using one or the other.
-And speaking of using waste products, there is the smell to
consider. While it is not physically harmful, it is definitely unpleasant,
and it can attract unwanted pests (rats, flies) and spread bacteria and
infection.

Disadvantages
4.) Consume More Fuel
- using trees and tree products to power machines is inefficient as
well. Not only does it take a lot more fuel to do the same job as using
conventional fuels, but it also creates environmental problems of its
own.
- To amass enough lumber to power a nation full of vehicles or even
a power plant, companies would have to clear considerable forest area.
This results in major topological changes and destroys the homes of
countless animals and plants.

Disadvantages
5.) Require More Land
-Combustion of biomass products require some land where they
can easily be burnt. Since, it produces gases like methane in
atmosphere; therefore it can be produced in those areas which are
quite far from residential homes.

III. SITE
EVALUATION

Factors to consider
Acreage The footprint of a typical biomass energy production
facility ranges from 10 to 100 acres.
Emissions Operation of some biomass plants would result in
emissions of criteria air pollutants and hazardous air pollutants from
combustion, but these emissions would be managed to meet air
quality standards. Dust suppression technologies would be used to
manage the risk of dust emissions.
Waste Generation Direct combustion of biomass in a biomass
power plant would produce ash that would be collected and
removed to a landfill or sold for other uses. Ash from a biomass
power plant using municipal solid waste as its fuel could contain
hazardous constituents

Water Needs A biomass power plant would require a cooling


water system to condense steam that was produced in the boiler
and used to drive a turbine-generator.
Workforce Power-generating plants and other biofuels plants
would require on the order of 30 to 235 personal for 24-hour
operation.
Utility and Emergency Power Requirements Biomass power
plants would use energy produced at the plant. Ethanol and
biodiesel plants would utilize local utilities to meet power
requirements.

Biomass Power Plants

MONTALBAN METHANE
POWER PLANT

Biomass Power Plant (Wood)

Biomass Power Plant (Waste)

IV. LEGISLATION

Laws
REPUBLIC ACT NO. 5092
- An act to promote and regulate the
exploration, development, exploitation and
utilization of geothermal energy, natural gas
and methane gas; to encourage its
conservation; and for other purposes

REPUBLIC ACT NO. 9513: RENEWABLE


ENERGY ACT OF 2008
- Accelerate the exploration and
development of renewable energy resources
to achieve energy self-reliance and not
dependent on fossil fuels.

Republic Act No. 9367


The Biofuels Act of 2006
An Act to direct the use of biofuels, establishing for this
purpose the Biofuels Program, Appropriating Funds
therefor, and for other purposes.

IV. ECONOMICS

Factors Affecting Renewable


Energy Markets

Resource Availability
Technology Availability
Technology Cost
Energy Costs
Economic Factors
Project Financing
Options
Ownership Options

Transmission Issues
Environmental
Considerations
Institutional Structures
Land-use Issues and
Constraints
Information
Dissemination
Social Acceptance
Large Policy Context

Cost
Capital Costs
The capital cost of installation of bagasse based
co-generation projects is in the range of USD
724,275 to USD 804,750/MW depending upon
technical, financial and operating parameters.

Cost of electricity generation


Costs of generation are expected to vary from
USD523,088 to USD603,563/kwh, depending upon
the plant load factor, and interest on term loans.

Life Expectancy
If properly maintained, It can run for
around 20 years.
It is possible to extend the lifetime by
another
10
years
by
major
rehabilitation.

Jobs
Biomass power generating units produce a
significant economic benefit to the area
surrounding the plant.
A 10 MW biomass power project can create
approximately employment for 100 workers during the 18month construction phase
25 full-time workers employed in the operation of the
facility
35 persons in the collection, processing, and transportation
of biomass material.

Land-use Issues and


Constraints
For a 7.5 to 12 MW biomass power
generation units project:
a minimum of 10 acres of land is required.
Depending on the cost of land in the
different areas, land to an extent of 20
acres should be identified for fuel storage.
It is recommended that the fuel storage is
in the vicinity of the plant to lessen the
cost on transportation.

Project Size
Minimum size of project
The right kind of capacity from economic viability
point of view should be between 7.5 to 10 MW.
Beyond this capacity, the logistics of managing
raw material would be difficult.
The project size depends on the fuel (biomass)
availability near the project location.
The collection and storage of biomass is the
critical activity for any biomass project to
succeed.

Biomass Power Plants in


Philippines

Montalban Methane
Power Plant

Location: Montalban,
Rizal Philippines
Status: Operating
Biomass Source:
Municipal solid
waste

Capacity: 7.5 MW
Constructed: 2007
Cost: P1.32B

San Pedro Methane


Power Plant

Location: San Pedro ,


Laguna Philippines
Status: Operating
Biomass Source:
Municipal solid
waste

Capacity: 4 MW
Constructed: 2010
Cost: P798M

Green Power Panay


Philippines Inc.

Location: Mina, Ilollo,


Panay Philippines
Status: Project
Capacity: 35 MW
Biomass Sources:
Agricultural Crops
Food Processing
Wastes
Construction:
Ongoing (Started 2008)
Cost: P3.52B

San Carlos Biomass


Power Plant Inc.

Location: San Carlos


City, Negros Occ.
Philippines
Status: Project
Capacity: 18 MW
Biomass Source:
Sugarcane
Construction:
Ongoing (Started 2013)
Cost: P3B

AREVA and Engcon


Energy Philippines

Eastern Petroleum
Group

Location: Manila
Philippines
Status: Project
Capacity: 12 MW
Biomass Source:
Rice husk
Construction:
Contract
Cost: N/A

Location: Butuan City,


Mindanao Philippines
Status: Project
Capacity: 20 MW
Biomass Source:
Wood chips
Construction:
Ongoing
Cost: P3.08B

Biomass Power Plants


International

Tilbury B

Location: Tilbury,
United Kingdom
Status: Stopped 2013
Biomass Source:
Wood pellet

Capacity: 750 MW
Constructed: 2011 by
converting a station
that is operating from
coal
Largest Biomass
Power Plant

Drax

Location: Drax, North


Yorkshire, England
United Kingdom
Status: Operating
Biomass Source:
Wood pellet

Capacity: 660 MW
Constructed: 2004

Alholmens Kraft

Location: Alholmen,
Jakobstad Finland
Status: Operating
Biomass Source:
Forest residue

Capacity: 265 MW
Constructed: 2001

NUMBER

POLICY

Sources of Eectricity

Most used plants

43% of Philippines primary energy comes


from renewable energy sources. It is one
of the highest in Southeast Asia.
15% comes from Biomass Energy.

Graph of most used biomass


fuel

Performance
Emission
The average emission content in the flue
gas leaving the electrostatic precipitator
will not exceed the following averages:

Particulate matter (dust)


Nitrogen Oxide calculated as NO2
Sulphur Dioxide or SO2
CO

<150mg/Nm3
<500mg/Nm3
<700 mg/Nm3
<250 mg/Nm3

N term is an abbreviation of norm or normal.


Normal means a temperature of 0 degrees Celsius and a pressure of
1.013 bar the conditions at which one mole of an ideal gas has a volume
of 22.413837L.
ppm (parts per million)in the USA

Performance
Prevention
CO2 equivalent being prevented from being
emitted in the environment:
EX. 40,000 tons per year
Equivalent to:
Planting more than a million trees each year
Taking off 7,600 cars from the road each
year

Performance
Noise
The noise level 10 meters from the plant
boundary should not exceed:
At Night Time 75 dB (Average)
At Day Time 85 dB (Average)

References
http://www.bioenergyconsult.com/biomass-philippines/

http://www.biomassenergycentre.org.uk/portal/page?_pageid=75,20
041&_dad=portal&_schema=PORTAL
http://beraonline.org/yahoo_site_admin/assets/docs/cyclopediaofEn
ergy.35293015.pdf
http://www.biomassenergycentre.org.uk/portal/page?_pageid=75,15
179&_dad=portal&_schema=PORTAL
http://www.kobelco-eco.co.jp/english/product/biomass/methane.html
http://gekgasifier.pbworks.com/f/biomass%20fuel%20properties%20
Miles.pdf

http://www.omafra.gov.on.ca/english/engineer/ge_bib/biomass.htm