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MATERIAL BALANCE

Chemical Reaction:
CH3

150C 270C
+ 3O2

CH3

COOH

------------------------->
1500kPa 3000kPa

+ 2H2O
COOH

OVERALL BALANCE:
Basis: 2 x 105 Kg of Terephthalic acid
Assume working plant days = 300 days
Given:
Purity of Product - 99%
Conversion

- 95%

Solvent

- 0.05 Kg / Kg of product

O2

- 5 15 % excess from theoretical value

For 1 day basis:


Product:
From data product is 99% pure assume rest 1% is water.
Therefore amount of product (Terephthalic acid) =
Water associated with it

660000 Kg = 3975 Kmoles

= 6670 Kg = 370.55 Kmoles

Feed:
From the chemical equation 1 Kmole of p-Xylene = 1 Kmole of
Product
But given that conversion is 95%
Therefore 1 Kg mole of p- xylene = 0.95 of Terephthalic acid
Therefore amount of p-Xylene reqd. = 3975/0.95 = 4185 Kmoles
Unconverted Feed = 0.05 x 4185 = 209.25 Kmoles
Air:
1 Kmole of p-Xylene = 3 Kmoles of Oxygen
Therefore theoretical amount of Oxygen reqd. = 4185 x 3 = 12555 Kmoles

An excess of 15 % is used to inhibit the formation of byproducts


Excess amount of oxygen = 12555 x 0.15 = 1885.25 Kmoles
Total amount of Oxygen = 14440.25 Kmoles
Nitrogen associated = (79/21) x 16243.66 = 54322.85 Kmoles
Total Air required = 68763.1 Kmoles
Water:
1 Kmole of PTA = 2 Kmole of H2O
Amount of water formed = 3975 x 2 = 7950 Kmoles
Oxygen in outlet:
Amount of oxygen leaving the system = 5% unreacted + 15% excess
Amount of oxygen leaving = 2513 Kmoles
Solvent Required:
Given that solvent required = 0.05 Kg/Kg of PTA
Amount of Acetic Acid required = 555.55 Kmoles = 33333.5 Kg
Balance across each equipment:
Reactor & G-L separator:
Basis : 1 Day operation
INLET:
Component

Kmoles

Kg x 10-3

p-Xylene

4185

443.610

Acetic Acid

555.55

33.333

Air

68763.1

1983.12
3
Total : 2460.06 x 10 Kg

OUTLET:
Component
p-Xylene

Kmoles
209.25

Kg x 10-3

Acetic Acid

555.55

33.333

Water Formed

7950

143.10

Air(N2+O2)

56835

1601.21

Terephthalic acid

3975

659.859

22.18

Total: 2460.06 x 103 Kg

Surge Tank:
INLET:
Kg x 10-3

Component

Kmoles

p-Xylene

209.25

22.18

Acetic Acid

555.55

33.333

Water Formed

7950

143.10

Terephthalic acid

3975

659.859
Total: 858.472 x 103 Kg

OUTLET:
Component
p-Xylene

Kmoles
209.25

Kg x 10-3

Acetic Acid

555.55

33.333

Water Formed

7950

143.10

Terephthalic acid

3975

659.859

22.18

Total: 858.472 x 103 Kg


Centrifuge:
INLET:
Component
p-Xylene

Kmoles
209.25

Kg x 10-3

Acetic Acid

555.55

33.333

Water Formed

7950

143.10

Terephthalic acid

3975

659.859

22.18

Total: 858.472 x 103 Kg


In the centrifuge two streams separate out
i.

Stream to the Rotary Drier (solid + moisture)

ii.

Stream to the Residue Still

To Estimate the amount of water entering the Drier:


Assume the drier is capable of removing 60% moisture
entering. We have outlet from the drier as
Terephthalic acid solid = 3975 Kmoles.
Water associated with it = 370.55 Kmoles.

Let y be the amount of water in inlet of the


drier. y 0.6 y = 370.55 Kmoles.
Therefore the inlet to the drier y = 370.55/0.4 = 926.37 Kmoles = 16.67 x 103Kgs.
Water removed in the drier (60%) = 0.6 X 926.37= 555.82 Kmoles = 10.004 x 103
Kgs.
Water to the residue still =7950-926.37= 7023.63 Kmoles= 126.42 x 103 Kgs.
Drier:
INLET:
Acetic acid enters the drier in a negligible amount and hence can be neglected
Component
Water

Kmoles
926.37

Kg x 10-3

Terephthalic acid

3975

659.85

16.67
Total: 676.52 x 103 Kg

OUTLET:
Component
Water

Kmoles
370.55

Kg x 10-3

Terephthalic acid

3975

659.85

6.67

Water Lost (evaporated) :


Total :

10.00 x 103 Kgs


676.52 x 103 Kgs

Residue Still:
INLET:
Component
p-Xylene

Kmoles
209.25

Kg x 10-3

Acetic Acid

555.55

33.333

Water Formed

7023.63

126.42

22.18

Total : 181.933 x 103 Kgs

OUTLET:
p-Xylene is a heavy key and hence in trace amounts in the distillate.
From the data, it is given that about 80 95 % of acetic acid is recovered hence assume
that 5% (mole) goes in the residue stream and about 10% (mole) of water entering goes in
the residue.
Component

Distillate (Kgs) x 10-3

Residue (Kg) x 10-3

p-Xylene

22.18

Acetic Acid

31.66

1.66

Water Formed

113.77

12.64
Total : 181.933 x 103 Kgs

Dehydration Tower:
INLET:
Acetic Acid : 0.527 X 103Kmol
Water

: 6.3207 X 103Kmol

XF = 0.923 ,
XD = 0.998 ,
Xw = 0.012 , - From Perrys Handbook / Acetic Acid Water Properties
F XF = D XD + W XW
W (Residue) = 0.527 X 103 Kmol
D (Distillate) = 6.3062 X 103 Kmol
F= (0.527 + 6.307) X 103 = 6.834 X 103 Kmol
Acetic-Acid recycled back to reactor 95% recover