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# 8.2.1.

## 1 describe the energy transformations required in one of the following:

mobile telephone fax/modem radio and television
Energy is stored as chemical energy in the phones battery. Chemical energy is transformed
into electrical energy to operate the phone. The microphone converts sound energy in to electrical
energy. Antanna converts electrical to electromagnetic energy to send a siginal. The receiver speaker
converts electric energy in to sound energy.

8.2.1.2 describe waves as a transfer of energy disturbance that may occur in one,
two or three dimensions, depending on the nature of the wave and the medium
The energy from waves may spread out as a disturbance in

## 1 Dimension- Energy travels in a straight line from the source

2 Dimensions- Energy spreads out in a plane or surface
3 Dimensions- Energy spreads out in to space surrounding the source in all directions

8.2.1.3 identify that mechanical waves require a medium for propagation while
electromagnetic waves do not
1. Mechanical waves: require a medium, solid, liquid or gas to transfer energy.
2. Electromagnetic waves: which dont require a medium for transfer of energy.

8.2.1.4 define and apply the following terms to the wave model: medium,
displacement, amplitude, period, compression, rarefaction, crest, trough,
transverse waves, longitudinal waves, frequency, wavelength, velocity

## Medium: is what isnt need for the electromagnetic spectrum to travel.

Displacement: the distance from the point of equilibrium to the wave
Amplitude: the distance to the point of maximum displacement
Period: time taken o complete a single wave length
Compression: an area where partials are pushed together

Rarefaction: point where a partial reaches its maximum displacement vertically down
Crest: the point where a partial reaches its maximum displacement vertically up
Trough: the point where a partial reaches its maximum displacement vertically down
Transverse waves: the direction of travel is at right angles to the oscillation (figure 2)
Longitudinal waves: the direction of travel is parallel to the oscillation (figure 1)
Frequency: the number of oscillations that pass a point in a second.
Wavelength: the distance from crest to crest, trough to trough, compression to compression
and rarefaction to rarefaction.
Velocity: the speed at which a wave is travelling.

8.2.1.5 describe the relationship between particle motion and the direction of
energy propagation in transverse and longitudinal waves

## Transverse waves: the direction of travel is at right angles to the oscillation

Longitudinal waves: the direction of travel is parallel to the oscillation

8.2.1.6 quantify the relationship between velocity, frequency and wavelength for
a wave: v=f
v=velocity
f=frequency
= wavelength
v= /T
v= f

## 8.2.2.1 identify that sound waves are vibrations or oscillations of particles in a

medium
The longitudinal waves used by sound require a medium to travel. This is because they move the
particles from one point to another in order to create sound.

8.2.2.2 relate compressions and rarefactions of sound waves to the crests and
troughs of transverse waves used to represent them

## 8.2.2.3 explain qualitatively that pitch is related to frequency and volume to

amplitude of sound waves

## The higher the frequency the higher the pitch.

The greater the displacement the louder the noise

## Echo occurs when a sound wave is reflected from a boundary.

When a wave experiences a change in the medium it is travelling through it will be reflected.
If it is reflected between two very different mediums than most of the energy is reflected in
the interphase. When it occurs between two very similar mediums little energy is lost.

8.2.2.5 describe the principle of superposition and compare the resulting waves
to the original waves in sound
Two waves passing through the same region of space at the same time produce a resultant wave,
which, at every point in the region of interaction, has a resultant amplitude, which is the sum of the
amplitudes of the interacting waves.

8.2.3.1 describe electromagnetic waves in terms of their speed in space and their
lack of requirement of a medium for propagation
Any wave from electromagnetic spectrum doesnt require a medium to travel. It also travels at the
speed of light. The consist of oscillating electric and magnetic fields.8.2.3.2 identify the
electromagnetic wavebands filtered out by the atmosphere, especially UV, X-rays and gamma rays

## 8.2.3.3 identify methods for the detection of various wavebands in the

electromagnetic spectrum

Method of detection

Gamma rays

Gamma camera
Gamma telescope

X rays

Film

Ultraviolet
Visible

Film
Some salts
Eyes
Film
Light sensitive diodes

Infrared

Skin
Thermo pole
Photo diods

Microwaves

Antenna

Antenna

Uses
Astronomy
Detect floors in materials
Density of different objects
Cracks in materials
Black light
Sterilization
Sensory input
Fibre optics
CD,DVD
T.V. remote
Missiles
Night visibility goggles
Soft tissue treatment
Mobiles
Sending info.
Cooking
Communication
Astronomy

## 8.2.3.4 explain that the relationship between the intensity of electromagnetic

radiation and distance from a source is an example of the inverse square law

## The intensity of the electromagnetic radiation is

proportional to 1 divided by the distance squared. As the
waves travel further from the point of origin they spread
out and become less intense.
I=k/d2
I=intensity
k=constant
d= distance

## 8.2.3.5 outline how the modulation of amplitude or frequency of visible light,

microwaves and/or radio waves can be used to transmit information
Information is converted into a wave and then placed on a carrier wave. It uses the properties of
superposition to place the wave on to the carrier wave. Digital is made up of a series of ones and
zeros.

Digital encoding is made in to binary and are transmitted via light, microwaves, television waves and
waves from the electromagnetic spectrum.
There are two types of analogue transition one is AM. AM stands for Amplitude Modulation. This
works by a using a high frequency carrier wave which has the modulation signal placed on it.
Frequency will remain the same but amplitude will change.
The other Form is FM. This stands for Frequency Modulation. A wave is frequency is chosen as the
carrier wave and the modulation signal is placed on the carrier wave. Amplitude stays the same.

## 8.2.3.6 discuss problems produced by the limited range of the electromagnetic

spectrum available for communication purposes
All EMR (electromagnetic radiation) will suffer attenuation (reduction in intensity) as they pass
through the atmosphere or any other material. As the earth is bombarded with UV radiation from
the sun the ionosphere becomes charged. This can cause problems such as ghosting which is a
double image on your T.V. screen.
Also large portions of EMR are unable to be used because they are too dangerous such as Gammarays and X-rays. Ultraviolet and visible are too difficult to produce and encounter too much
interference. Near infrared and infrared also have difficult because of impurities in optical fibbers
will absorbed the light. Microwaves and T.V. waves require line of sight to be practical.

8.2.4.1 describe and apply the law of reflection and explain the effect of reflection
from a plane surface on waves
Electromagnetic waves may be reflected from a plane surface and they must obey the Law of
Reflection:

## Angle of incidence equals the angle of reflection

Incident ray, reflected ray and normal must all be in the same plane.

8.2.4.2 describe ways in which applications of reflection of light, radio waves and
microwaves have assisted in information transfer
Light is used in optical fibbers to transmit data. The light is reflected off the inside of the glass tube
and can carry multiple messages at the same time in a single fibber.
Radio waves are reflected off the ionosphere to that they can travel a longer distance.
Microwaves send transitions to satellites where they are reflected back through the atmosphere to
earth.

## 8.2.4.3 describe one application of reflection

Plane surfaces
Mirrors. They allow people to look at their bodies without distortion.

Concave surfaces
Satellite dishes. They focus incoming rays to a single point called the focus and energised the signal
at this point.

Convex surface
Rear vision mirrors. They allow a large field of view in a small area but will give the viewer a false
scene of distance

## Radio waves being reflected by the ionosphere

Radio. Radio waves are reflected off the ionosphere to provide a greater distance to which a listener
can be from the source of the broadcast.

## 8.2.4.4 explain that refraction is related to the velocities of a wave in different

media and outline how this may result in the bending of a wavefront
Refraction is the phenomenon where waves
appear to bend as the waves pass from one
medium to another.
If wavefronts strike a boundary at any other
angle other than 90 than a change of speed
will occur.
If a wave goes from one medium to another
and the speed is lower than it will bend
towards the normal. If it goes into a medium
where the speed is faster than it will bend
away from the normal.
The waves bend because the incident ray first
strikes the medium it slows down and the rest
of the ray continues at the same speed until it
makes contact with the medium. It is the
wavelength that changes not the frequency.

## 8.2.4.5 define refractive index in terms of changes in the velocity of a wave in

passing from one medium to another
The refractive index is the ratio of the two wave velocities during the refraction. The refractive index
is a measure of how much the light bends.

## 8.2.4.6 define Snells Law:

V1 and V2 are the speeds of the waves in wave in the different mediums. Sin i is the angle of
incidence and sin r is the angle of reflection.
It is the relationship between speed, wavelength and angles of incidence refraction was determined
experimentally by Willebrorod Snell and is known as Snells law.

8.2.4.7 identify the conditions necessary for total internal reflection with
reference to the critical angle
If the critical angle is reached than the angle or reflection is 90. When the critical angle is exceeded
than the light cant escape and total internal refraction occurs. The light must be travelling from a
medium with a higher refractive index to one with a lower refractive index.

## 8.2.4.8 outline how total internal reflection is used in optical fibres

Optical fibbers are one application of total internal refraction. They are made of high purity glass,
the central region is called the core and the outer region called the cladding. The cladding confines
the light to the core and thus must have a lower refractive index than the core.
Once information is digitally encoded, at the transmitting end, the signal is converted from electrical
energy to light energy and then transmitted along the optical fibre. The information is sent as a
series of coded pulses of light. The pulse is either on or off. At the receiving end it is decoded.

## 8.2.5.1 identify types of communication data that are stored or transmitted in

digital form
CD ROMs (Compact Disk Read-Only Memory) these discs store data in digitised form as tiny
bits. They are read using a low power laser beam. They cannot be edited and are read only.
They are fairly slow to read and can only store 8000Mbytes

DVD (Digital Versatile Discs) these disks can hole 5 billion bytes of data, thus making
possible the storage of memory consuming movie length video and sound.
GPS (Global Positioning Systems) this worldwide system uses a fleet of 24 satellites that
transmit signals constantly. A GPS system, few hundred dollars, can interact with the
satellite to pinpoint your latitude, longitude and altitude with in 50m.

8.3.1.1 discuss how the main sources of domestic energy have changed over time.
The sources of domestic energy have changed rapidly over time:

## 50,000 BC: control of fire: cooking and heating

10,000 BC: domestication of animals: animal power for transport and ploughing.
3,000 BC: wind and water power: sailing boats and windmills
1750 AD: burning of coal begins to replace wood. Steam engines, trains, steam, ships.
1780-1800: scientific investigations of the properties of electricity. Conflicting theories,
scientific curiosity small amounts of energy in batteries.
1830s: discover how to generate electricity using a dynamo (generator). Still used in
scientific labs.
1880-1910: a flood of inventions such as the light bulb, telephone, gramophone and radio
were create with electricity.
1950- : all industrialized nations had become totally converted to electricity for domestic
power.

8.3.1.2 assess some of the impacts of changes in, and increased access to, sources
of energy for a community
Some impacts of charges in sources of energy are:
The use of coal has had a particularly large impact on our society.

## Coal burns hot fires to make steel and other metals.

Steel major factor that lead to the industrial revolution.
Coal lead to the development of the steam engine.
Pollution and global warming was created.

8.3.1.3 discuss some of the ways in which electricity can be provided in remote
locations
Use small generators that rotate a coil by a petrol or oil motor. Solar cells and wind generators are
also used to convert sunlight and wind into electricity.

8.3.2.1 describe the behaviour of electrostatic charges and the properties of the
fields associated with them

## Two types of charges positive and negative

charges go away from positive, charges go towards negative
An electrostatic charge is a charge due to an excess or deficiency of electrons.
A body with equal number of protons and electrons will be neutral.
Body has an excess of electron is negatively charged.

## 8.3.2.2 define the unit of electric charge as the coulomb

Electric charge is measured in coulombs
the coulomb (c) is the SI unit of electric charge.
1 coulomb = 1c = 6.25 x10^18 charge
= 1.6 x10^19 charge

8.3.2.3 define the electric field as a field of force with a field strength equal to the
force per unit charge at that point:

## E = magnitude of electric field (NC-1) Newton per coulomb

q = charge (C) coulombs
F = force (N) Newton

8.3.2.4 define electric current as the rate at which charge flows (coulombs/ second

## or amperes) under the influence of an electric field

Current is the rate at which charge flows (C\sec. or Amperes) under the influence of an electric field.

I = current
Q= charge (coulombs)
T= time (sec)
8.3.2.5 identify that current can be either direct with the net flow of charge

carriers moving in one direction or alternating with the charge carriers moving
backwards and forwards periodically
DC = direct current

## Charge moves in one direction

Direct positive to negative movement

AC = alternating current

## Charge moves back and forth periodically.

Directions changes 50 times per second.

8.3.2.6 describe electric potential difference (voltage) between two points as the

change in potential energy per unit charge moving from one point to the other
(joules/coulomb or volts)
Electric potential difference (Voltage) between two points is the change in potential energy per unit
charge moving from one point to another (joules/coulomb or Volts).

8.3.2.7 discuss how potential difference changes between different points around a

DC circuit
Potential difference can vary at different points around a circuit for example there will be different
voltage drops across various resistors, light globes and rheostats which would be different to the
voltage rise across the power pack.
8.3.2.8 identify the difference between conductors and insulators
Insulators will not allow electricity to flow through them because they have a very high resistance.

Conductors have a very low resistance and therefore will allow current to flow through them.

## 8.3.2.9 define resistance as the ratio of voltage to current for a particular

conductor:
V= Voltage
I= Current in amps
R= Resistance in ohms

8.3.2.10 describe qualitatively how each of the following affects the movement of
electricity through a conductor:

Length: Resistance is proportional to length; the longer a conductor the greater the
resistance

Cross sectional area: larger the cross-section the lower the resistance.
Temperature: temperature increases ions vibrate increasing resistance.
Material: material of a conductor influences resistance; copper is commonly used for
household wiring, gold or silver used when minimal resistance required.

Series:

## There is only one current pathway.

Current is the same throughout the whole circuit
If a series circuit is broken at any point then the electricity cannot flow through it.
Current remains constant and voltage varies (VT=V1+V2+V3).

Parallel:

## There is more then one current pathway.

All components have the same potential difference across them
In parallel, voltage remains constant and current varies (IT=I1+I2+I3).

8.3.3.2 compare parallel and series circuits in terms of voltage across components
and current through them
Parallel
VT= V1 = V2 = V3
IT=I1 + I2 + I3

Series
VT= V1 + V2 + V3
IT=I1 = I2 = I3

## Ammeters measure the flow of electrons through a point in the circuit.

Voltmeters measure the potential difference between two points.

## 8.3.3.4 explain why ammeters and voltmeters are connected differently in a

circuit

Ammeter: cannot change the current being measured, must have minimum resistance,
current must flow through the ammeter, MUST BE PLACED IN SERIES
Voltmeter: measure the penitential difference (voltage) between two points in a circuit,
PLACED IN PARALLEL CURCUITS, important that voltmeter has high resistance so that there
is not affect on the circuit.

8.3.3.5 explain why there are different circuits for lighting, heating and other
appliances in a house
In a house there are separate circuits for lighting, heating and other appliances so that appliances
that require large amounts of current can still function without over-loading the circuit. If everything
was on one circuit there would be too much current used and the wires would become hot and
potentially cause a fire.

8.3.4.1 explain that power is the rate at which energy is transformed from one
form to another

Power is defined as the rate at which energy is transformed from one form to another.
1 watt=1 W=1J/s 1kW=1000watts

## Power ((Joules = watts (W)) = Energy (J) / time (s)

8.3.4.2 identify the relationship between power, potential difference and current
Power is the number of joules per second (watts), for every current (I in Amps), Voltage (v in volts)
are dissipated.

## Power (Watts) = Voltage (V) x Current (A)

8.3.4.3 identify that the total amount of energy used depends on the length of time
the current is flowing and can be calculated using:
Electrical energy (joules) = Voltage (volts) x Current (amps) x Time (sec)

## 8.3.4.4 explain why the kilowatt-hour is used to measure electrical energy

consumption rather than the joule
1kW.h is the energy used by a 1 kW appliance operating for 1 hour. Measuring in joule is a big
inconvenient because 1 joule is a very tiny amount of energy.

8.3.5.1 describe the behaviour of the magnetic poles of bar magnets when they
are brought close together
Magnets have 2 different poles north and south. They can either be attract or repel each other.
Opposite poles attract, same poles repel.

8.3.5.2 define the direction of the magnetic field at a point as the direction of force
on a very small north magnetic pole when placed at that point
The direction of a magnetic field is the direction of force on a very small magnetic north pole placed
in the field.
The currents from the north pole more towards to the south pole.

## 8.3.5.3 describe the magnetic field around pairs of magnetic poles

Field lines come out of the North and into the south.
Field lines never cross.
The magnitude of the field is indicated by the density of the field lines.

## 8.3.5.4 describe the production of a magnetic field by an electric current in a

straight current-carrying conductor and describe how the right hand grip rule can
determine the direction of current and field lines
The direction of the magnetic field is described by the right hand rule. Right hand grip rule: Grip
wire with right hand, thumb pointing in direction of conventional current, fingers will curl around in
the direction of the magnetic field.

8.3.5.5 compare the nature and generation of magnetic fields by solenoids and a
bar magnet

## A solenoid is a coil of wire.

When a current flows in the solenoid it produces a magnetic field around the coil which is
similar to that of a bar magnet.

## In a solenoid the field continues through the middle as parallel lines.

The direction of the magnetic field inside a solenoid is given by the right hand rule.

8.3.6.1 discuss the dangers of an electric shock from both a 240 volt AC mains
supply and various DC voltages, from appliances, on the muscles of the body
The neuromuscular system runs on the movement of electrical changes. An electric current through
the body has the effect to disrupt its normal function.
A typical response of your bodys muscles to an electric shock would be:
1. Muscles contract so you wont be able to let go.
2. Muscles controlling the diaphragm cause it to clamp (cant breathe)
3. Heart muscle goes into fibrillation (stops effective beating till heart stops altogether)
4. Death
Human bodies can withstand ten times as much DC current as AC, AC operates on frequency (50-60
Hz) which is the same frequency our heart operates making AC significantly more lethal than DC. 50100 mA are the lethal limits for electric shock.

## 8.3.6.2 describe the functions of circuit breakers, fuses, earthing, double

insulation and other safety devices in the home

Circuit breakers: they use an electromagnet to mechanically break the circuit. Once the
current exceeds the maximum value.
Fuses: they prevent overloading of circuits. They are made of a metal with a low melting
point. They melt when the current through the circuit exceeds the wiring. They are usually
contained in high melting point materials to avoid fires.
Earthing: they protect from shock. If an appliance has any metal exposes than it will have
the outer cover earthed to protect shock. It works on the bases that there is less resistance
through the wire rather than through a person.
Double insulation: house hold wiring must be covered by an insulator. Usually made of
plastic ((polyvinylchloride, (PVC)) many have double insulating in case the inner insulation
melts when the metal gets to hot.

## 8.4.1.1 identify that a typical journey involves speed changes

In a typical car journey, a car may travel at different speeds, accelerate and decelerate, changes
direction and stops therefore although there is an average speed for the entire journey, the vehicle
does not travel at a constant speed.

## 8.4.1.2 distinguish between scalar and vector quantities in equations

Scalar quantities are those that specify size (magnitude), but not direction.
Vector quantities are defined by both size (magnitude) and direction.
Vectors
Scalar
Force
Mass
Velocity
Speed
Displacement
Distance
Acceleration
Work
Momentum
Energy
Magnetic Fields
Power
Electric Fields
Time

average velocity

## Average Speed = Distance/Total Time

Instantaneous Speed is the speed of an object at a particular instant of time.
Velocity (v) is the time rate of change of the displacement. It is a vector; it requires both size
and direction. It is speed with a direction.
Displacement (s) is distance in a given direction.
Instantaneous velocity is the velocity at a particular instant, the speed and the direction.
Average Velocity is displacement/time.

## 8.4.1.4 define average velocity as:

r = s = displacement.
Average velocity= change in displacement/ change in time.

## 8.4.2.1 describe the motion of one body relative to another

Motion occurs when an object changes its position relative to other or some co-ordinate system (a
frame of reference).
If a change in direction occurs thorough vector qualities, must be dealt with as vectors.

8.4.2.2 identify the usefulness of using vector diagrams to assist solving problems
Vectors qualities have magnitude and direction.
1. Draw the first vector.
2. Draw the second vector starting from the end of the first.

3. The resultant vector is the line joining the beginning of the first vector to the end of
the second.

10km
6km
a
8km
Subtracting Vectors
V1 V2 = Change in V

## Change = Final Initial

Change V 8-(-10) = 18

V1
-V2

-10m/s
8m/s

V1 V2

8.4.2.3 explain the need for a net external force to act in order to change the
velocity of an object
Forces can internal or external to a system but only the external forces can affect the motion of the
system. Net force = sum of all forces. Change in velocity the object must accelerate.

An object will remain in constant motion (rest or 0 velocity) unless an unbalanced force acts
on the object.
To accelerate there must be an outside force acting (Newtons 1st law).
Newtons first law states that:
A body continues in its state of rest or uniform velocity unless acted upon by an unbalanced
force.

8.4.2.4 describe the actions that must be taken for a vehicle to change direction,
speed up and slow down
Acceleration is defined as the time rate of change of velocity.

## Speeding Up: this can be done by using the accelerator

Slowing Down: this can be done by using the cars brakes
Changing Direction: Using the steering wheel

## Friction between surfaces

Air resistance

There are a number of external forces working on a car and these include:
1. Friction with the Road
2. Air Resistance
3. The weight of the car
Friction is a force that we encounter everyday in everything we do.
Friction is a force that always opposes motion.
Friction arises when two different materials are in contact with each other.
The tires make contact with the road surface and as a result there is friction.
This means that the vehicle has traction and does not simply slide.
Air Resistance is a form of Friction.
As a vehicle moves through the air the two materials, the vehicles body and the air, move
past each other.
Air resistance limits the speed of the vehicle but it can be minimized by designing a vehicle
so that it is aerodynamically shaped.

## 8.4.2.6 define average acceleration as:

therefore

Acceleration is a change in velocity over a certain time period. It can be positive or negative.
v= final velocity, u= initial velocity, t= time taken

8.4.2.7 define the terms mass and weight with reference to the effects of gravity
Mass:

Weight

## Is the measure of the amount of matter in an object

Measure of inertia (resistance to acceleration)
Independent or the effects of gravity
Measured in grams.
Is the force of gravity on an object. On earth weight is the mass x 9.8

## Dependent on the amount of mass

Measure of the gravity and force on an object
Measured in Newtons.

8.4.2.8 outline the forces involved in causing a change in the velocity of a vehicle
when:

## Friction with the Road

Air Resistance
Force Pushing car along

## Pressing on the accelerator

The driver is supplying more fuel to the engine. This allows the engine to apply a greater force on the
wheels and hence make the car speed up. Velocity and acceleration acting in the same direction.

## Pressing on the brakes

Increasing the friction between the brake pads and the metal discs making it harder for the wheels
to turn. Velocity and Acceleration acting in different directions.

## Passing over an icy patch on the road

There is less friction and the wheels cant get as much grip so they may slide.
The car will move at a constant velocity until acted upon by an external force.

## Climbing and descending hills

Friction
Air Resistance
The cars weight causes it to slow down when going up the hill and speed up when going down the
hill

## Following a curve in the road

Centripetal force is causing the car to accelerate as the velocity is changing owing to the change in
direction.
mv 2
F

8.4.2.9 interpret Newtons Second Law of Motion and relate it to the equation:

F= Force in Newtons
m= mass
a= acceleration

8.4.2.10 identify the net force in a wide variety of situations involving modes of
transport and explain the consequences of the application of that net force in
terms of Newtons Second Law of Motion
The acceleration of an object is proportional to the unbalanced force acting on it and is inversely
proportional to the mass.

The consequences of net external force acting on a model of transport are acceleration, deceleration
and a change of direction in motion.
Centripetal force (circular motion)
The force causing the turning is always towards the centre of the circle.
Force (centripetal) = mv^2/ R

## R=radius, V= instantaneous velocity, M= mass

8.4.3.1 identify that a moving object possesses kinetic energy and that work done
on that object can increase that energy
Kinetic Energy is the energy an object possesses because it is moving.
Kinetic energy is dependent on the mass and the square of the velocity of the body as indicated by:

## E= kinetic energy (joules)

M=mass of the object (kg)
V=velocity (m/s)
Work (W) is done when a force (F) is moved through a distance (s).
Work is the product of a force and the distance moved in the direction of that force.
Work transfers energy through the motion of a force. When work is done, energy is required.
W = Change in Kinetic energy

## 8.4.3.2 describe the energy transformations that occur in collisions

In collisions objects exert forces on each other. Collisions can be either:
1. Elastic
2. Non-Elastic
Elastic Collisions
If in a collision, kinetic energy is conserved, the collision is said to be elastic. An example would be
when Gas molecules collide with each other and with the walls of their container as kinetic energy is
not decreased.
Inelastic Collisions
In inelastic collisions, kinetic energy is not conserved. Some of the Kinetic energy is transformed into
other forms of energy such as heat and sound. If the colliding parts stick together, the collision is
inelastic

## 8.4.3.3 define the law of conservation of energy

In all types of interactions, both elastic and inelastic, total energy is conserved.
Energy cannot be destroyed only can be changed from one form to another.

## Momentum= mass (kg) x velocity (m/s)

Unit of momentum= kilogram-meter/sec
To stop a moving object, forces must be applied and the forces relate to two factors, the mass of the
object and the velocity of the object.
The time rate of change of momentum is proportional to the resultant force and acts in the
direction of the force.
Always conserved
Vector quantity

## 8.4.4.2 define impulse as the product of force and time

Impulse = F (force) x t (time)
Impulse = change in momentum
Impulse = Ft = mv mu
mv = final momentum
mu = initial momentum
The unit of Impulse is N.s which is the same as the Unit of momentum= kilogram-meter/sec
(kg.m/sec)

## 8.4.4.3 explain why momentum is conserved in collisions in terms of Newtons

Third Law of motion
Force (action) = Force (reaction)
Conservation of Momentum
The total momentum of a system is always the same unless the system on by some external force.
P (before) = P (after)

This equation shows that: the vector sum of the momentum of the objects before collision equals
the vector sum of the momentum after collision.
Momentum is conserved only in isolated systems (those free from external forces).
The Law of the Conservation of Momentum can be stated as:
In interactions between objects, momentum is conserved in an isolated system.

8.4.5.1 define the inertia of a vehicle as its tendency to remain in uniform motion
or at rest
Newtons 1st law: Inertia: Tendency of any object to resist any change in motion.
E.g. when a car stops suddenly, the objects and people in the car remain in the current motion
unless acted upon by an external force such as a seatbelt.

8.4.5.2 discuss reasons why Newtons First Law of Motion is not apparent in many
real world situations
Common experience is not apparent in Real World Situations as the driver of a car still needs to
depress the accelerator to move at a constant rate because of friction between the car and the road.

8.4.5.3 assess the reasons for the introduction of low speed zones in built-up
areas and the addition of air bags and crumple zones to vehicles with respect to
the concepts of impulse and momentum

Introduced low speed zones into built areas to reduce the speed of drivers as the faster you
are moving the more damage you do in a collision.
Crumple Zones were introduced so that the front and rear end of the car should crumple in a
collision which increases the time it takes for the car to come to rest so the forces are
lessened.
Air Bags were introduced which provide a cushion and takes the impact out of a collision.

## 8.4.5.4 evaluate the effectiveness of some safety features of motor vehicles

Seat Belts
They are effective in limiting the effect of inertia when a vehicle breaks suddenly. It absorbs a lot of
the force of a collision.
Airbags
Air Bags were introduced which provide a cushion and takes the impact out of a collision.
Crumple Zones
Crumple Zones were introduced so that the front and rear end of the car should crumple in a
collision which increases the time it takes for the car to come to rest so the forces are lessened.

8.5.1.1 outline the historical development of models of the Universe from the time
of Aristotle to the time of Newton
Plato

Eudoxus

circular motions

Aristotle

## developed Eudoxus model to 53 spheres.

Aristarchus

The sun is in the centre (heliocentric) with everything orbiting around it and
epicycle moments to explain planetary movements; Earth must rotate on its
axis, so it appears that everything moves around us.

Ptolemy

## believed in geocentric universe, stars existed on a sphere which rotated every 24

hours, earth is a sphere and at rest, motion of sun and plants moved in perfect
circles.

Copernicus

heliocentric universe, sun was the centre and planets orbited the sun in fixed
circular motions, earth traveled around the sun in 1 year and spins on its axis
every 24 hours.

Galileo

## first to use a telescope, supported the heliocentric idea of Copernicus, worked

on gravitational theory disproved Aristotle concepts of the motion.

## Sir Isaac Newton

from work on motion realized that a forcer must be acting on an object such as
the moon, law of universal gravitation, this explain where things stayed in orbit,
since the time of Newton the heliocentric model was accepted.

8.5.2.1 outline the discovery of the expansion of the Universe by Hubble, following
its earlier prediction by Friedmann

## Alexander Friedman predicted that the universe was expanding.

The predictions rose from calculations based on Einsteins, general theory of
relativity.
Edwin Hubble designed a new and a bigger telescope that leads to the discovery of
the red shift proving that the universe is expanding.
A red shift corresponds to a shift to the lower frequency (longer wavelength). This
indicates that the light source, the galaxy is moving away from us. All galaxies show
this effect indicating that the universe is expanding.

8.5.2.2 describe the transformation of radiation into matter which followed the
Big Bang
After the temperature had dropped enough. The energy began to be converted in to matter.
Hydrogen atoms formed from protons and electrons.

8.5.2.3 identify that Einstein described the equivalence of energy and mass
E= energy (Joules)

m= mass (kg)

## c= speed of light (3 x 108 ms-1)

8.5.2.4 outline how the accretion of galaxies and stars occurred through:

## Expansion and cooling of the Universe

The cooling of the universe allowed the formation of matter. This began to overwhelm the radiation

## Subsequent loss of particle kinetic energy

As the temperature fell this resulted in a loss of kinetic energy (as temperature is the measure of
average kinetic energy of the particles)

## Gravitational attraction between particles

Loss in Kinetic energy meant that the increased gravitational force between particles took effect

## Lumpiness of the gas cloud that then allows gravitational collapse

The greater density of areas of the gas clouds allowed gravity to begin

8.5.3.1 define the relationship between the temperature of a body and the
dominant wavelength of the radiation emitted from that body
The hotter the star the shorter the wave length.

## Hot star: short wave length, more energy.

Cold star: long wave length, less energy

8.5.3.2 identify that the surface temperature of a star is related to its colour
Red
Long wavelength
Orange
Yellow
White blue- white
Short wavelength
The hotter the star gets the more it will shift towards the blue end of the spectrum and thus the
shorter the wavelength.

## 8.5.3.3 describe a Hertzsprung-Russell diagram as the graph of a stars luminosity

against its colour or surface temperature
In the Hertzsprung-Russell diagram a stars surface
temperature and luminosity (brightness) are plotted against
each other. This is because there is a relationship between the
two.

8.5.3.4 identify energy sources characteristic of each star group, including Main
Sequence, red giants, and white dwarfs
Star group
Main sequence

Fuel
H then He

Red giants

H then He

White dwarfs

C and O ions

Characteristics
They are from the top left of the Hertzsprung-Russell
diagram to the bottom right. This shows a trend of hot
and bright to cold and dull
In the upper right corner of the Hertzsprung-Russell
diagram and are bright but cold
Bottom left of the Hertzsprung-Russell diagram. They
are very hot but dim and small.

8.5.4.1 identify that energy may be released from the nuclei of atoms
Light atoms like H will fuse together at extreme temperatures to for stable atoms. This produces
energy. Uranium on the other hand has very unstable nuclei and will break down by emitting energy
or partials randomly. That may be in the form of , or gamma rays.

8.5.4.2 describe the nature of emissions from the nuclei of atoms as radiation of
alpha and beta particles and gamma rays in terms of:
ionising power
penetrating power
effect of magnetic field
effect of electric field

Ionizing
power

Penetrating
Power

## Effect of Magnetic Field

Effect of Electric
Field

Alpha
Particle

Very high
Strong

## Affected according to right

hand palm rule

Limited
very small

Beta
Particle

Less than
Alpha
Weak

Large

Large

Gamma Ray

Less than
Beta
Very Weak

Low
a few cm in the
air
Higher than
Alpha
thin sheets of
Very High
Several cm of

Zero

Zero

8.5.4.3 identify the nature of emissions reaching the Earth from the Sun

Solar wind consists of a stream of ionised particles, mostly protons and electrons that flow
from the sun in all directions at speeds of about 400 km.s-1.
The source of the wind is the suns hot corona the outer atmosphere of the sun extending
a distance of a few solar radii into space.

Most of the corona consists of vast arches of hot gas solar flares that are millions of
kilometres in length and are caused by the suns magnetic field.
The Solar wind comes from regions called coronal holes, regions of cooler, less dense gas. As
the sun rotates there is a periodic variation in Solar wind activity every 27 days.
The Solar wind is responsible for pushing the tail of comets away from the sun.

## Sunspot cycle is a pattern of increasing and decreasing sunspots.

Sun spots are a dark spot on the sun with lower temperatures and intense magnetic activity.
Cycle is between 7-13 years.
Two types of emission reaching Earth from the sun: electromagnetic radiation and solar
winds.
Earths atmosphere and magnetic field shelters as from theses emissions.
The sunspots themselves last for several days although larger ones may last up to a few
weeks.
The number of particles and their velocity increases following sunspot activity and solar
flares meaning that the solar wind is greater in the time of maximum sunspots.

## 8.5.4.5 describe sunspots as representing regions of strong magnetic activity and

lower temperature
Sunspots are relatively cool areas (~4500K), with magnetic field strengths some thousands of times
stronger than the Earths magnetic field, that appear as dark imperfections in the photosphere.
They result from the penetration of magnetic field lines through the photosphere and are ~8000km
across. Except for the smaller ones, all sunspots have a dark inner region the umbra where the
magnetic field is strongest surrounded by a less dark region the penumbra where the magnetic
field is weakest.