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The solid bed depth at the discharge end of rotary kilns was experimentally investigated for different massflow
rates, rotational speeds, inclination angles and materials using two lab kilns with sizes of 0.4 m (ID)⁎5m(L)and
0.25 m (ID)⁎6.7 m (L), respectively. The solid depth at the discharge was found to be several more times higher
than the particle diameter. All parameters according to Saeman's model were combined in a newly developed
dimensionless‘Bed depth number’ designated as‘Bd’.Thefilling degree of a solid bed at the discharge can be
correlated withF0=1.75⁎Bd
0.5
(for an inclination angle between 1° and 4°). The range of the researchedBed
depth number(Bd) is suitable for all industrial kilns. These values should be used as the initial condition, which
was still unknown before, to solve the differential equation for the profile of the solid bed depth through the
cylinder

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Powder Technology

j o u r n a l h o m e p a g e : w w w. e l s ev i e r. c o m / l o c a t e / p ow t e c

Experimental investigation of solid bed depth at the discharge end of rotary kilns

Eckehard Specht a,, Yi-Chun Shi a, Herrmann Woche a, Joern Knabbe b, Uwe Sprinz b

a

b

Institute of Fluid Dynamics and Thermodynamics, Otto von Guericke University of Magdeburg, Universitaetsplatz 2, 39106 Magdeburg, Germany

Claudius Peters Technologies GmbH, Schanzenstrae 40, D-21614 Buxtehude, Germany

a r t i c l e

i n f o

Article history:

Received 7 March 2009

Received in revised form 15 June 2009

Accepted 14 August 2009

Available online 6 September 2009

Keywords:

Rotary kiln

Solid depth

Solid end depth

Initial condition

Out-owing

Particle movement

a b s t r a c t

The solid bed depth at the discharge end of rotary kilns was experimentally investigated for different mass ow

rates, rotational speeds, inclination angles and materials using two lab kilns with sizes of 0.4 m (ID) 5 m (L) and

0.25 m (ID) 6.7 m (L), respectively. The solid depth at the discharge was found to be several more times higher

than the particle diameter. All parameters according to Saeman's model were combined in a newly developed

dimensionless Bed depth number designated as Bd. The lling degree of a solid bed at the discharge can be

correlated with F0 = 1.75Bd0.5 (for an inclination angle between 1 and 4). The range of the researched Bed

depth number (Bd) is suitable for all industrial kilns. These values should be used as the initial condition, which

was still unknown before, to solve the differential equation for the prole of the solid bed depth through the

cylinder.

2009 Published by Elsevier B.V.

1. Introduction

Rotary kilns are widely used in chemical industries, cement

industry, metallurgical industry, waste treatment, drying process,

incineration process etc. For process modeling and simulation the

solid bed depth in the axial direction of the kiln must be known. The

solid bed depth inuences the heat penetration into the bed and the

contact area to the internal wall. These areas are necessary to calculate

the heat transfer among gas, solid and internal wall in rotary kilns. The

solid motion in the transverse view has been deeply investigated by

Mellmann [1]. Different forms of solid motions, such as sliding,

slumping, rolling, and the transition behavior between these motions

are well described. The solid transverse motions are found to

inuence the solid axial motion in the kiln. Furthermore, it is also

found that the change of the bed depth in axial direction inversely

inuences the solid transverse motion [2], as well as the residence

time of the particles in the active layer [3] and the hold-up of solids in

kilns [4]. For the axial bed depth some models exist. These models

require the bed depth at the discharge end as initial condition to solve

the differential equations. However, this actual depth is still unknown

for different operational conditions.

Sullivan et al. [5] rstly carried out experimental work on solid axial

transport and hold-up in kilns in the manufacture of Portland cement

clinker. A model for the steady state transport of a granular solid through

Corresponding author. Tel.: +49 391 6718765; fax: +49 391 6712762.

E-mail address: eckehard.specht@ovgu.de (E. Specht).

0032-5910/$ see front matter 2009 Published by Elsevier B.V.

doi:10.1016/j.powtec.2009.08.024

a kiln drum which was slowly rotated was rst developed by Saeman

[6]. His model is often used to calculate the local depth change h shown

in Fig. 1. This gure also depicts the solid depth variation from the

feeding end till the discharge end of the cylinder. The differential

equation to solve the solid depth variation along the cylinder is given in

Eq. (1)

dh

0:75 tan M

tan

2

2 3 = 2

=

R h R

dx

n

cos ;

s

radius of cylinder; is the inclination angle; s is the solid bulk

density and is the dynamic angle of repose, see Fig. 1. To solve this

differential equation an initial condition or boundary condition is

needed. Because of a lack of experimental data, Saeman set h = 0 at

discharge end x = 0 of the kiln as the initial condition to numerically

solve the equation.

Hogg et al. [7] continued to study axial transport of dry particles

through horizontal rotary drums of both the constricted-end and the

open-end based on the physical model of Saeman [6]. He rstly

considered particles owing out of the kiln. In this case the differential

equation was built up with the change of the lling angle in Eq. (2)

d

3 M tan

=

;

4

dx

4 s n R4 sin

where is the half of the lling angle and B is the fraction of time

spent in bed to total time. For a dynamic angle of repose of 38 and a

18

Fig. 1. (a) Solid bed depth in the transverse view and relevant parameters in the kiln; (b) the bed depth change along the cylinder (x = 0 to x = L).

simple initial condition for open discharge end = 0 at x = 0 was

used, which is similar to h = 0 at x = 0. For this case he got the

analytical solution

sin 4 8 sin 2 + 12 =

24M x tan

:

s n R4

can be calculated from the lling angle

F=

2 sin2

:

2

the term sin4 8sin 2 + 12 from Eq. (3) with

0:64

which is valid in the range of 0.04 F 0.40. The lling degree changes

with the axial position then results in

M x tan

F = 0:56

s n R4

!0:64

:

d = arccosRd = R

Afacan and Masliyah [10] studied the ow of granular solid in a

horizontal drum with and without lifters and end constrictions. Their

experimental results were compared with equations from different

authors [6,8,9]. Based on numerical solutions of Saeman's equation,

they estimated the solid end depth to be twice the particle diameter

h0 = 2dp in the drum without end constriction.

Austin et al. [11] developed a comprehensive model to derive the

solid depth prole along the kiln. They recommended an initial

condition, which depends on all variables, such as geometrical and

operational parameters as well as material properties. However, this

condition is still assumed that the bed depth at the discharge end

approaches a minimal value. The actual values of the bed depth at kiln

end are still unknown.

Recently Spurling [12] carried out experimental and theoretical

studies on hold-up of solids based on the theory of Saeman's model in

cylinders with different types of dams and without dam. He solved the

equation with h0 = dp for kilns without a discharge dam. For kilns

with discharge dam h(x = 0) = dp + hdam was used.

On the other hand, for a cylinder without dam Spurling [12] also

explained another alternative boundary condition to solve the Eq. (1),

which was recommended by Saeman [6]. Physically the highest slope

of a solid bed at a boundary axial position xbc near the discharge end

equation

"

F = F0 1 +

0:406 tan M x

s n R4 F01:56

#0:64

7

was recommended which is based on the Eq. (6). Here F0 is the lling

degree at the discharge end. Based on experiments this lling degree

was correlated with the mass ow rate

2

F0 = 41 +

!1 = 4 3

M

5Fmin :

3:65

the geometry

Fmin =

d 0:5 sin2d

;

10

Fig. 2. The boundary condition solving the solid bed depth in kilns.

19

considering the inclination of the cylinder,

2. Experiments

2.1. Rotary kilns

dh

dx

x = xbc

tan

11

tan =

h

i

0:75 tan M

tan

2

2 3 = 2

R hbc R

n

cos:

s

12

From Eq. (12) the depth hbc is shown in Fig. 2. Assuming a constant

gradient between xbc and the discharge end, we get the axial position

from Eq. (11)

xbc =

hbc

:

tan

13

However, with this boundary condition the solid depth at x = 0 is still

regarded as zero.

These authors calculated the axial prole of the solid bed depth

with a xed or assumed values for the bed depth the discharge end.

However, this end depth varies with the operational conditions of

rotary kilns. Therefore, in this study the bed depth at the discharge

end was experimentally investigated in details.

Two laboratory kilns were used to carry out the experiments. Kiln1

had an internal diameter of 400 mm and the length of 5 m. The discharge of the kiln1 was designed with a conical dam as shown in Fig. 3.

Although the length of the discharge dam of 90 mm was relatively short,

the diameter of 350 mm was applied for the analysis. The inclination

angle of the kiln was adjusted at 1, 2, 3, 4 and 5 for measurements.

Kiln2 had a uniform internal diameter of 0.25 m without installation

of a dam at discharge end, see Fig. 4. This kiln was inclined at 1 and 2 to

perform experiments.

2.2. Experimental method

All experiments and measurements were carried out under steady

state of solid ow, i.e. M out = M in. No gas ow passed through the

cylinder and a heating process did not exist. The solid depth at

discharge end is so small that accurate and direct measurements were

too difcult. An easy and relatively accurate way was to measure the

bed surface width which could be done with normal measuring tools.

A photo of the measuring area at kiln discharge end is shown in Fig. 5.

Then the solid end depth was calculated with Eq. (14)

h0 = R

s

2

L

R2 0 :

2

14

carried out always under dynamic conditions. The bed surface width

20

Table 2

Physical property of experimental materials.

Materials

Quartz sand

Clinker

Glass bead

Mean diameter dp [mm]

Bulk density s [kg/m3]

Dynamic angle of repose []

(Measured in kilns)

0.10.4

0.25

1570

32 (at kiln1)

112

4.5

1410

31 (at kiln1)

0.40.84

0.72

1560

21 (at kiln1)

28 (at kiln2)

3.1. Dimensionless description

Fig. 5. Dynamic measuring the bed surface width at discharge end of kiln.

Table 1

Overview of experimental parameters.

Parameters

Kiln1

Kiln2

Mass ow [kg/h]

Rotational speed [rpm]

Kiln inclination angle []

45440

18

1, 2, 3, 4, 5

2590

3.5

1, 2

was measured without stopping the rotation of the kiln and solids

kept owing out. At discharge end the kiln wall was scaled by grids in

order to clearly recognise the width of the out-owing solid bed. Due

to the sensitive uctuation of the bed surface width at the discharge

end during rotation, measurements were performed 45 times. The

mean value was recorded nally.

In the practical operation of rotary kilns, the end depth of the solid

bed must be greater than zero as long as there is a solid ow out of the

rotary kiln. Furthermore, the end depth is also not a xed value

because it must depend on the different conditions. We assume that

the parameters inuencing the end depth are the same as those

inuencing the solid depth prole inside the kilns. Saeman's model [6]

has been proved applicable for a different load in kilns by a lot of

researchers [5,7,8,10,11]. From Eq. (1), it can be seen that a) the

operational parameters: mass ow, rotational speed and cylinder

inclination angle; b) the kiln geometry: radius of kiln; c) the particle

properties: particle size, bulk density and dynamic angle of repose,

determine the solid bed depth h(x) in axial direction

n; ; R; d ; ; :

hx = f M;

p

s

15

rewritten in the form of Eq. (16)

3 = 2

dh

h 2

= Bd 1 1

B;

dx

R

16

with

In order to nd out the end depth of the solid bed, a wide range of

mass ow, rotational speed and kiln inclination angle have been

chosen according to the capability of both rotary kilns and other

equipments. Rotational speed and inclination angle chosen in

experiments were identical with practical industrial situations. An

overview of experimental parameters is listed in Table 1.

More than 100 measurements have been performed in both rotary

kilns with different kinds of materials. The images of particles are shown

in Fig. 6. The physical properties concerned here were practically

measured by us, see Table 2. A glass bead was employed in both kilns.

Remarkably, it was found that it had different dynamic angles in both

kilns. This was caused by different friction factors of the internal wall

materials in both kilns as well as different value of dp/D [13]. Quartz sand

and clinker have no measurement in the kiln2.

B=

tan

:

cos

17

and

Bd =

0:75 M tan

:

n s R 3

18

All expressions dh/dx, Bd, h/R and B are dimensionless. Each unit

has a great advantage to transfer the deduced results into any other

application. B contains both angles of kiln inclination and solid repose

so that it is named as the Angle constant. Bd includes mass ow,

rotational speed, kiln diameters, and particle properties. It dominates

21

the bed depth change in kilns so that it is designated here as Bed depth

number. Meanwhile, Bd can be physically interpreted as the ratio of

two velocities

Bd = 1:5 tan

va

;

vk

19

where

va =

M

;

s R2

20

vk = 2Rn

21

tangential velocity of the solid near the internal wall. Therefore, the

formulation in Eq. (19) can be also interpreted as the ratio of inertial

force to the centrifugal force for a certain material.

3.2. Correlation with the end depth of the solid bed

Fig. 8. Variation of the ratio of the experimental end depth to the particle diameter for

glass beads with the bed depth number in kiln1 and kiln2.

and 4 in kiln1. Only for 5 the values are again a little bit smaller. In

kiln2 measurements were performed at inclinations 1 and 2, mass

ows between 25 kg/h and 185 kg/h and a rotational speed of

3.5 rpm. The values depend on Bd with the same tendency. However,

the values are signicantly lower than those measured in kiln1. For

the glass beads the end depth is 38 times larger than the particle

diameter. This is caused by its smaller particle diameter.

The sand has the smallest size (see Table 2) among the three

materials. The end depth of the sand was measured at mass ows

between 100 kg/h and 250 kg/h and rotational speeds between 1 rpm

and 8 rpm at 3 inclination angle in kiln1. The values are shown in Fig. 9.

In this case the end depth was found to be 1025 particles.

The initial condition in all existing models was assumed to be one or

two particle diameters, as explained in the beginning. This assumption is

not suitable for very ne materials and especially for industrial big kilns,

where the ratio of the kiln diameter to the particle diameter is much

larger than that in the laboratory kilns. As a consequence, also for clinker

the end depth must be much higher than the particle diameter in

industrial kilns.

conditions, as explained in the beginning. For the purpose of

comparison, the solid end depth from our measurements is scaled

by the particle diameter as h0/dp. This also represents the number of

particles heaped at mid-chord of the kiln discharge end (at the

position of the line EF in Fig. 1). Fig. 7 shows the variation of the

number of clinker particles with respect to Bd in kiln1. The data were

measured in the range of mass ows between 45 and 440 kg/h and

rotational speeds between 1.5 rpm and 7 rpm, and were sorted by the

inclination angle. It can be seen that all data lie closely together. The

inclination angles at 14 didn't strongly inuence the correlation

between h0/dp and Bd, however at 5 h0/dp was a little bit smaller. The

bed depth of clinker varies in the range about 0.62 particle diameter

depending on Bd. For low Bd the end depth was found to be smaller

than one particle diameter. In this case an out-ow of a single particle

occurs. This results in a very low bulk density of the particle ow.

However, the bulk density of the material in the kiln is used in the Bed

depth number. Therefore, the average value of the bed height can be

smaller than one particle diameter. This problem can always occur for

the particles with big size.

The end depth of glass beads was measured in both kilns, see Fig. 8.

In kiln1 the mass ow and rotational speed were adjusted between

60 kg/h and 400 kg/h and 1.5 rpm and 2 rpm, respectively. The ratio

h0/dp sorted by inclination angles increases with Bd as before. An

The end depth is not a proper parameter for the initial condition

because it depends on the particle size and on the kiln diameter.

Therefore, the lling degree will be used as a parameter. The lling

degree is a commonly used parameter for rotary kilns. It can be easily

Fig. 7. Variation of the ratio of the experimental end depth to the particle diameter for

clinker with the bed depth number in kiln1.

Fig. 9. Variation of the ratio of the experimental end depth to the particle diameter for

sand with the bed depth number in kiln1.

22

Fig. 10. Variation of the experimental end lling degree with the bed depth number for

clinker sorted by the inclination angle.

calculated directly from the measured surface bed width L0 and the

kiln radius R

L

0 = arcsin 0 ;

R

F0 =

20 sin20

:

2

22

23

The lling degree was correlated with the Bed depth number (Bd)

using the inclination angle as the parameter as before. The results for

clinker are shown in Fig. 10. It is obvious that the values can be tted

with only one curve for = 14. At 5 inclination the values are a

little bit lower designated with the dashed line.

Fig. 11 shows the results for glass beads. All values can be tted

with the same curve as before. For 5 inclination the values are again a

little bit smaller. The measured values in both kilns can be tted with

this curve. As a consequence, the inuence of the kiln radius can be

described with this Bed depth number (Bd).

3.4. Inuence of the materials

Fig. 12. Inuence of the particle property on the BdF0 correlation based on the

experimental results.

at = 1 for clinker in kiln1 and glass beads in both kilns where they

had a small deviation of the dynamic angle of repose because of a

different wall friction. Fig. 13 presents the values at = 3 for all three

materials in kiln1. Fig. 14 shows the values at = 4 for clinker and

glass beads in kiln1. It is obvious that for all cases the values can be

tted with the same curve in each gure. Consequently, the inuence

of the materials can be described also with the Bed depth number (Bd).

According to Eq. (16) the bed depth in the kiln is not only inuenced

by Bd but also by B which was named as the Angle constant. To check if

B inuences the end lling degree, the values of B are given in the

Figs. 1214, These values vary between 0.019 and 0.082. They are mainly

inuenced by tan . Because the dynamic angle of repose lies in the

range between 21 (glass beads) and 32 (sand), the cosines of this angle

changes only between 0.93 and 0.85. As could be seen before in the

gures, the inclination angle has no inuence for values lower than 4.

Therefore, also B has no inuence on the end lling degree.

3.5. Equations for BdF0 correlation

All values of the end lling degree for the three materials are

nally presented together in Fig. 15. For the inclination 14, the

values can be correlated with the power function

The inuence of the material on the end lling degree has not yet

been investigated in details. Therefore, the values of the lling degree

associated to three materials are compared. Fig. 12 presents the values

F0 = 1:75Bd

Fig. 11. Variation of the experimental end lling degree with the bed depth number for

glass beads sorted by the inclination angle.

Fig. 13. Inuence of the particle property on the BdF0 correlation based on the

experimental results.

0:5

= 1- 4-: in %

24

23

2 rpm and 4 rpm. The values of Bd for clinker lie therewith in the

range of about 0.0080.1. For rotary kilns in ceramic industry typical

value of mass ow is 26 t/d. The kiln diameter is between 0.5 and

1.5 m. Rotational speed varies between 2 and 3 rpm. The values of Bd

lie in the range of 0.0040.08. In metallurgical industry for reduction

treatment or recovery process, the mass ow of the metal oxide is

about 30 t/d in the rotary kilns. The typical kiln diameter and the

rotational speed are 0.44 m and 23 rpm, respectively. The corresponding value of Bd is about 0.080.1. The range of Bd investigated in

our laboratory conditions coincide with the industrial applications.

4. Conclusions

Fig. 14. Inuence of the particle property on the BdF0 correlation based on the

experimental results.

angle another tting function

0:58

F0 = 1:86Bd

= 5- in %

25

is recommended.

The fact, why the values for 5 inclination are signicantly lower

than those for 14 cannot be explained. Tests with inclination at 4.5

or large than 5 with our kilns were not possible. However, kiln

inclinations higher than 4 have no high industrial relevance.

3.6. Transfer to industrial kilns

Both equations are derived from our experimental conditions in

the laboratory. However, some parameters are not comparable with

industrial situations, such as mass ow and kiln size. One purpose of

the dimensional description was to transfer the results into industrial

applications. Therefore we have to prove the availability of the range

of Bd which has been used in the laboratory conditions. For example,

in the cement industry the typical range of the mass ow for rotary

kilns is generally 1000 t/d4000 t/d (up to 12,000 t/d) with a kiln

on the mass ow, kiln diameter, rotational speed, angle of repose of

the material and the inclination angle lower than 5. It changes from

one to several particle diameters. The inuence of all these

parameters can be described using only a one dimensionless number,

the so called Bed depth number (Bd). This number was derived from

Saeman's model for the axial prole of the bed depth. The end bed

depth for different kiln diameters can be described using the end

lling degree by the correlation F0 = 1.75Bd 0.5. The accuracy of this

equation to the experimental values are within 10%. The range of

the investigated Bed depth number covers the range of all processes in

industrial rotary kilns.

Nomenclature

B

Angle factor in Eq. (17). []

Bd

Bed depth number in Eq. (18) []

dp

Particle diameter [L]

F

Filling degree [] or [%] in Eqs. (24) and (25)

F0

Filling degree at discharge end [%]

h

Solid depth in a cylinder [L]

Lbw

Surface width of a solid bed [L]

L0

Surface width of a solid bed at discharge end [L]

M

Mass ow rate [M/T]

n

Rotational speed [1/T]

R

Radius of cylinder [L]

Rd

Radius of discharge orice [L]

va

Nominal axial transport velocity of particles through cylinder

[L/T]

vk

circumferential velocity of cylinder [L/T]

x

Axial distance from discharge end [L]

Greek symbols

d

Half of lling angle at the kiln end with the central overow

discharge [rad.]

s

Bulk density of solids [M/L3]

References

Fig. 15. Derivation of the tting equation for the end lling degree F0 of all materials

based on Bd.

motion and transition behavior, Powder Technology 118 (2001) 251270.

[2] X.Y. Liu, E. Specht, J. Mellmann, Slumpingrolling transition of granular solids in

rotary kilns, Chemical Engineering Science 60 (2005) 36293636.

[3] X.Y. Liu, E. Specht, O.G. Gonzalez, P. Walzel, Analytical solution for the rolling-mode

granular motion in rotary kilns, Chemical Engineering and Process 45 (2006) 515521.

[4] X.Y. Liu, E. Specht, Mean residence time and holdup of solids in rotary kiln,

Chemical Engineering Science 61 (2006) 51765181.

[5] J.D. Sullivan, C.G. Maier, O.C. Ralson, Passage of solid particles through rotary

cylindrical kilns, U.S. Bureau of Mines Technical Paper, vol. 384, 1927.

24

[6] W.C. Saeman, Passage of solids through rotary kilns: factors affecting time of

passage, Chemical Engineering Progress 47 (1951) 508514.

[7] R. Hogg, K. Shoji, L.G. Austin, Axial transport of dry powders in horizontal rotating

cylinders, Powder Technology 9 (1974) 99106.

[8] M. Hehl, H. Kroeger, H. Helmrich, K. Schuegerl, Longitudinal mixing in horizontal

rotary drum reactors, Powder Technology 20 (1) (1978) 2937.

[9] A.Z.M. Abhouzeid, D.W. Fuerstenau, A study of the hold-up in rotary drums with

discharge end constrictions, Powder Technology 25 (1980) 2129.

[10] A. Afacan, J.H. Masliyah, Solids hold-up in rotary drums, Powder Technology 61 (1990)

179184.

[11] L.G. Austin, K. Shoji, R. Hogg, J. Carlson, R.L.C. Flemmer, Flow rates of dry powders

in inclinded rotating cylinders under open-ended discharge conditions, Powder

Technology 20 (1978) 219225.

[12] Spurling, R.J. Granular ow in an inclined rotating cylinder: steady state and transients.

Ph.D. Thesis, Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Cambridge (2000).

[13] X.Y. Liu, E. Specht, J. Mellmann, Experimental study of the lower and upper angles

of repose of granular materials in rotating drums, Powder Technology 154 (2005)

125131.

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