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Space

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Page semi-protected

This article is about the general framework of distance and direction. For the s

pace beyond Earth's atmosphere, see Outer space. For the keyboard key, see Space

bar. For other uses, see Space (disambiguation).

A right-handed three-dimensional Cartesian coordinate system used to indicate po

sitions in space.

(See diagram description for needed correction.)

Space is the boundless three-dimensional extent in which objects and events have

relative position and direction.[1] Physical space is often conceived in three

linear dimensions, although modern physicists usually consider it, with time, to

be part of a boundless four-dimensional continuum known as spacetime. In mathem

atics, "spaces" are examined with different numbers of dimensions and with diffe

rent underlying structures. The concept of space is considered to be of fundamen

tal importance to an understanding of the physical universe. However, disagreeme

nt continues between philosophers over whether it is itself an entity, a relatio

nship between entities, or part of a conceptual framework.

Debates concerning the nature, essence and the mode of existence of space date b

ack to antiquity; namely, to treatises like the Timaeus of Plato, or Socrates in

his reflections on what the Greeks called khora (i.e. "space"), or in the Physi

cs of Aristotle (Book IV, Delta) in the definition of topos (i.e. place), or eve

n in the later "geometrical conception of place" as "space qua extension" in the

Discourse on Place (Qawl fi al-Makan) of the 11th-century Arab polymath Alhazen

.[2] Many of these classical philosophical questions were discussed in the Renai

ssance and then reformulated in the 17th century, particularly during the early

development of classical mechanics. In Isaac Newton's view, space was absolute in

the sense that it existed permanently and independently of whether there were an

y matter in the space.[3] Other natural philosophers, notably Gottfried Leibniz,

thought instead that space was in fact a collection of relations between object

s, given by their distance and direction from one another. In the 18th century,

the philosopher and theologian George Berkeley attempted to refute the "visibili

ty of spatial depth" in his Essay Towards a New Theory of Vision. Later, the met

aphysician Immanuel Kant said neither space nor time can be empirically perceive

d, they are elements of a systematic framework that humans use to structure all

experiences. Kant referred to "space" in his Critique of Pure Reason as being: a

subjective "pure a priori form of intuition", hence it is an unavoidable contri

bution of our human faculties.

In the 19th and 20th centuries mathematicians began to examine geometries that a

re not Euclidean, in which space can be said to be curved, rather than flat. Acc

ording to Albert Einstein's theory of general relativity, space around gravitati

onal fields deviates from Euclidean space.[4] Experimental tests of general rela

tivity have confirmed that non-Euclidean space provides a better model for the s

hape of space.

Contents

1 Philosophy of space

1.1 Leibniz and Newton

1.2 Kant

1.3 Non-Euclidean geometry

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

9

1.5 Einstein

Mathematics

Physics

3.1 Classical mechanics

3.2 Relativity

3.3 Cosmology

Spatial measurement

Geographical space

In psychology

See also

References

External links

Philosophy of space

Leibniz and Newton

Gottfried Leibniz

In the seventeenth century, the philosophy of space and time emerged as a centra

l issue in epistemology and metaphysics. At its heart, Gottfried Leibniz, the Ge

rman philosopher-mathematician, and Isaac Newton, the English physicist-mathemat

ician, set out two opposing theories of what space is. Rather than being an enti

ty that independently exists over and above other matter, Leibniz held that spac

e is no more than the collection of spatial relations between objects in the wor

ld: "space is that which results from places taken together".[5] Unoccupied regi

ons are those that could have objects in them, and thus spatial relations with o

ther places. For Leibniz, then, space was an idealised abstraction from the rela

tions between individual entities or their possible locations and therefore coul

d not be continuous but must be discrete.[6] Space could be thought of in a simi

lar way to the relations between family members. Although people in the family a

re related to one another, the relations do not exist independently of the peopl

e.[7] Leibniz argued that space could not exist independently of objects in the

world because that implies a difference between two universes exactly alike exce

pt for the location of the material world in each universe. But since there woul

d be no observational way of telling these universes apart then, according to th

e identity of indiscernibles, there would be no real difference between them. Ac

cording to the principle of sufficient reason, any theory of space that implied

that there could be these two possible universes, must therefore be wrong.[8]

Isaac Newton

Newton took space to be more than relations between material objects and based h

is position on observation and experimentation. For a relationist there can be n

o real difference between inertial motion, in which the object travels with cons

tant velocity, and non-inertial motion, in which the velocity changes with time,

since all spatial measurements are relative to other objects and their motions.

But Newton argued that since non-inertial motion generates forces, it must be a

bsolute.[9] He used the example of water in a spinning bucket to demonstrate his

argument. Water in a bucket is hung from a rope and set to spin, starts with a

flat surface. After a while, as the bucket continues to spin, the surface of the

water becomes concave. If the bucket's spinning is stopped then the surface of

the water remains concave as it continues to spin. The concave surface is theref

ore apparently not the result of relative motion between the bucket and the wate

r.[10] Instead, Newton argued, it must be a result of non-inertial motion relati

ve to space itself. For several centuries the bucket argument was decisive in sh

owing that space must exist independently of matter.

Kant

Immanuel Kant

In the eighteenth century the German philosopher Immanuel Kant developed a theor

y of knowledge in which knowledge about space can be both a priori and synthetic

.[11] According to Kant, knowledge about space is synthetic, in that statements

about space are not simply true by virtue of the meaning of the words in the sta

tement. In his work, Kant rejected the view that space must be either a substanc

e or relation. Instead he came to the conclusion that space and time are not dis

covered by humans to be objective features of the world, but are part of an unav

oidable systematic framework for organizing our experiences.[12]

Non-Euclidean geometry

Main article: Non-Euclidean geometry

Spherical geometry is similar to elliptical geometry. On the surface of a sphere

there are no parallel lines.

Euclid's Elements contained five postulates that form the basis for Euclidean ge

ometry. One of these, the parallel postulate has been the subject of debate amon

g mathematicians for many centuries. It states that on any plane on which there

is a straight line L1 and a point P not on L1, there is only one straight line L

2 on the plane that passes through the point P and is parallel to the straight l

ine L1. Until the 19th century, few doubted the truth of the postulate; instead

debate centered over whether it was necessary as an axiom, or whether it was a t

heory that could be derived from the other axioms.[13] Around 1830 though, the H

ungarian Jnos Bolyai and the Russian Nikolai Ivanovich Lobachevsky separately pub

lished treatises on a type of geometry that does not include the parallel postul

ate, called hyperbolic geometry. In this geometry, an infinite number of paralle

l lines pass through the point P. Consequently the sum of angles in a triangle i

s less than 180 and the ratio of a circle's circumference to its diameter is grea

ter than pi. In the 1850s, Bernhard Riemann developed an equivalent theory of el

liptical geometry, in which no parallel lines pass through P. In this geometry,

triangles have more than 180 and circles have a ratio of circumference-to-diamete

r that is less than pi.

Type of geometry

Number of parallels

Sum of angles in a triangle

Ratio of circumference to diameter of circle

Measure of curvature

Hyperbolic

Infinite

< 180 > p

< 0

Euclidean

1

180

p

0

Elliptical

0

> 180 < p

> 0

Gauss and Poincar

Carl Friedrich Gauss

Henri Poincar

Although there was a prevailing Kantian consensus at the time, once non-Euclidea

n geometries had been formalised, some began to wonder whether or not physical s

pace is curved. Carl Friedrich Gauss, a German mathematician, was the first to c

onsider an empirical investigation of the geometrical structure of space. He tho

ught of making a test of the sum of the angles of an enormous stellar triangle a

nd there are reports he actually carried out a test, on a small scale, by triang

ulating mountain tops in Germany.[14]

Henri Poincar, a French mathematician and physicist of the late 19th century intr

oduced an important insight in which he attempted to demonstrate the futility of

any attempt to discover which geometry applies to space by experiment.[15] He c

onsidered the predicament that would face scientists if they were confined to th

e surface of an imaginary large sphere with particular properties, known as a sp

here-world. In this world, the temperature is taken to vary in such a way that a

ll objects expand and contract in similar proportions in different places on the

sphere. With a suitable falloff in temperature, if the scientists try to use me

asuring rods to determine the sum of the angles in a triangle, they can be decei

ved into thinking that they inhabit a plane, rather than a spherical surface.[16

] In fact, the scientists cannot in principle determine whether they inhabit a p

lane or sphere and, Poincar argued, the same is true for the debate over whether

real space is Euclidean or not. For him, which geometry was used to describe spa

ce, was a matter of convention.[17] Since Euclidean geometry is simpler than non

-Euclidean geometry, he assumed the former would always be used to describe the

'true' geometry of the world.[18]

Einstein

Albert Einstein

In 1905, Albert Einstein published a paper on a special theory of relativity, in

which he proposed that space and time be combined into a single construct known

as spacetime. In this theory, the speed of light in a vacuum is the same for al

l observers which has the result that two events that appear simultaneous to one p

articular observer will not be simultaneous to another observer if the observers

are moving with respect to one another. Moreover, an observer will measure a mo

ving clock to tick more slowly than one that is stationary with respect to them;

and objects are measured to be shortened in the direction that they are moving

with respect to the observer.

Over the following ten years Einstein worked on a general theory of relativity,

which is a theory of how gravity interacts with spacetime. Instead of viewing gr

avity as a force field acting in spacetime, Einstein suggested that it modifies

the geometric structure of spacetime itself.[19] According to the general theory

, time goes more slowly at places with lower gravitational potentials and rays o

f light bend in the presence of a gravitational field. Scientists have studied t

he behaviour of binary pulsars, confirming the predictions of Einstein's theorie

s and non-Euclidean geometry is usually used to describe spacetime.

Mathematics

In modern mathematics spaces are defined as sets with some added structure. They

are frequently described as different types of manifolds, which are spaces that

locally approximate to Euclidean space, and where the properties are defined la

rgely on local connectedness of points that lie on the manifold. There are howev

er, many diverse mathematical objects that are called spaces. For example, vecto

r spaces such as function spaces may have infinite numbers of independent dimens

ions and a notion of distance very different from Euclidean space, and topologic

al spaces replace the concept of distance with a more abstract idea of nearness.

Physics

Classical mechanics

Main article: Classical mechanics

Classical mechanics

\vec{F} = m\vec{a}

Second law of motion

History

Timeline

Branches[show]

Fundamentals[show]

Formulations[show]

Core topics[show]

Rotation[show]

Scientists[show]

v

t

e

Space is one of the few fundamental quantities in physics, meaning that it canno

t be defined via other quantities because nothing more fundamental is known at t

he present. On the other hand, it can be related to other fundamental quantities

. Thus, similar to other fundamental quantities (like time and mass), space can

be explored via measurement and experiment.

Relativity

Main article: Theory of relativity

Before Einstein's work on relativistic physics, time and space were viewed as in

dependent dimensions. Einstein's discoveries showed that due to relativity of mo

tion our space and time can be mathematically combined into one object

spacetime

. It turns out that distances in space or in time separately are not invariant w

ith respect to Lorentz coordinate transformations, but distances in Minkowski sp

ace-time along space-time intervals are which justifies the name.

In addition, time and space dimensions should not be viewed as exactly equivalen

t in Minkowski space-time. One can freely move in space but not in time. Thus, t

ime and space coordinates are treated differently both in special relativity (wh

ere time is sometimes considered an imaginary coordinate) and in general relativ

ity (where different signs are assigned to time and space components of spacetim

e metric).

Furthermore, in Einstein's general theory of relativity, it is postulated that s

pace-time is geometrically distorted- curved -near to gravitationally significan

t masses.[20]

One consequence of this postulate, which follows from the equations of general r

elativity, is the prediction of moving ripples of space-time, called gravitation

al waves. While indirect evidence for these waves has been found (in the motions

of the Hulse Taylor binary system, for example) experiments attempting to directl

y measure these waves are ongoing.

Cosmology

Main article: Shape of the universe

Relativity theory leads to the cosmological question of what shape the universe

is, and where space came from. It appears that space was created in the Big Bang

, 13.8 billion years ago[21] and has been expanding ever since. The overall shap

e of space is not known, but space is known to be expanding very rapidly due to

the Cosmic Inflation.

Spatial measurement

Main article: Measurement

The measurement of physical space has long been important. Although earlier soci

eties had developed measuring systems, the International System of Units, (SI),

is now the most common system of units used in the measuring of space, and is al

most universally used.

Currently, the standard space interval, called a standard meter or simply meter,

is defined as the distance traveled by light in a vacuum during a time interval

of exactly 1/299,792,458 of a second. This definition coupled with present defi

nition of the second is based on the special theory of relativity in which the s

peed of light plays the role of a fundamental constant of nature.

Geographical space

See also: Spatial analysis

Geography is the branch of science concerned with identifying and describing the

Earth, utilizing spatial awareness to try to understand why things exist in spe

cific locations. Cartography is the mapping of spaces to allow better navigation

, for visualization purposes and to act as a locational device. Geostatistics ap

ply statistical concepts to collected spatial data to create an estimate for uno

bserved phenomena.

Geographical space is often considered as land, and can have a relation to owner

ship usage (in which space is seen as property or territory). While some culture

s assert the rights of the individual in terms of ownership, other cultures will

identify with a communal approach to land ownership, while still other cultures

such as Australian Aboriginals, rather than asserting ownership rights to land,

invert the relationship and consider that they are in fact owned by the land. S

patial planning is a method of regulating the use of space at land-level, with d

ecisions made at regional, national and international levels. Space can also imp

act on human and cultural behavior, being an important factor in architecture, w

here it will impact on the design of buildings and structures, and on farming.

Ownership of space is not restricted to land. Ownership of airspace and of water

s is decided internationally. Other forms of ownership have been recently assert

ed to other spaces for example to the radio bands of the electromagnetic spectrum

or to cyberspace.

Public space is a term used to define areas of land as collectively owned by the

community, and managed in their name by delegated bodies; such spaces are open

to all, while private property is the land culturally owned by an individual or

company, for their own use and pleasure.

Abstract space is a term used in geography to refer to a hypothetical space char

acterized by complete homogeneity. When modeling activity or behavior, it is a c

onceptual tool used to limit extraneous variables such as terrain.

In psychology

Psychologists first began to study the way space is perceived in the middle of t

he 19th century. Those now concerned with such studies regard it as a distinct b

ranch of psychology. Psychologists analyzing the perception of space are concern

ed with how recognition of an object's physical appearance or its interactions a

re perceived, see, for example, visual space.

Other, more specialized topics studied include amodal perception and object perm

anence. The perception of surroundings is important due to its necessary relevan

ce to survival, especially with regards to hunting and self preservation as well

as simply one's idea of personal space.

Several space-related phobias have been identified, including agoraphobia (the f

ear of open spaces), astrophobia (the fear of celestial space) and claustrophobi

a (the fear of enclosed spaces).

See also

Book icon

Book: Space

Absolute space and time

Aether theories

Cosmology

Effect of spaceflight on the human body

General relativity

Personal space

Shape of the universe

Space exploration

Spatial-temporal reasoning

Spatial analysis

Space propaganda

References

Britannica Online Encyclopedia: Space

Refer to Plato's Timaeus in the Loeb Classical Library, Harvard University,

and to his reflections on khora. See also Aristotle's Physics, Book IV, Chapter

5, on the definition of topos. Concerning Ibn al-Haytham's 11th century concepti

d Leibniz's 17th century notions of extensio and analysis situs, and his own mat

hematical refutation of Aristotle's definition of topos in natural philosophy, r

efer to: Nader El-Bizri, "In Defence of the Sovereignty of Philosophy: al-Baghda

di's Critique of Ibn al-Haytham's Geometrisation of Place", Arabic Sciences and

Philosophy: A Historical Journal (Cambridge University Press), Vol. 17 (2007), p

p. 57-80.

French and Ebison, Classical Mechanics, p. 1

Carnap, R. An introduction to the Philosophy of Science

Leibniz, Fifth letter to Samuel Clarke

Vailati, E, Leibniz & Clarke: A Study of Their Correspondence p. 115

Sklar, L, Philosophy of Physics, p. 20

Sklar, L, Philosophy of Physics, p. 21

Sklar, L, Philosophy of Physics, p. 22

Newton's bucket

Carnap, R, An introduction to the philosophy of science, p. 177-178

Lucas, John Randolph. Space, Time and Causality. p. 149. ISBN 0-19-875057-9.

Carnap, R, An introduction to the philosophy of science, p. 126

Carnap, R, An introduction to the philosophy of science, p. 134-136

Jammer, M, Concepts of Space, p. 165

A medium with a variable index of refraction could also be used to bend the

path of light and again deceive the scientists if they attempt to use light to m

ap out their geometry

Carnap, R, An introduction to the philosophy of science, p. 148

Sklar, L, Philosophy of Physics, p. 57

Sklar, L, Philosophy of Physics, p. 43

chapters 8 and 9- John A. Wheeler "A Journey Into Gravity and Spacetime" Sci

entific American ISBN 0-7167-6034-7

"Cosmic Detectives". The European Space Agency (ESA). 2013-04-02. Retrieved

2013-04-26.

External links

Wikiquote has quotations related to: Space

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