Sie sind auf Seite 1von 42

Reference section

Contents
Grammar reference
Unit 1

Present tenses

page 114

Unit 2

Past tenses

page 117

Unit 3

Modal verbs

page 120

Unit 4

Future forms

page 122

Unit 5

Conditionals

page 124

Unit 6

The passive

page 125

Unit 7

Relative clauses

page 126

Unit 8

Reported speech

page 128

Unit 9

Gerund and infinitive

page 130

Writing reference
General points

page 131

An informal letter

page 132

A description of a place

page 133

An opinion essay

page 134

A formal letter

page 135

A description of a person

page 136

A summary

page 137

A discussion essay

page 138

A narrative

page 139

Speaking reference

page 140

Word building reference


Suffixes

page 141

Prefixes

page 143

Vocabulary reference

page 144

Phrasal and prepositional verbs

page 150

Irregular verbs

page 151

REFERENCE SECTION

113

Grammar reference
Unit 1 Present tenses
Present simple

acabats en vocal + -y  +
-s
enjoy
enjoys
pay
pays

Estructura
afirmativa
I/you/we/they
he/she/it

know
knows

s
El present simple sutilitza:

I live in Barcelona. Visc a Barcelona.


He lives in Majorca. Ell viu a Mallorca.

negativa
I/you/we/
they
he/she/it

+ do not (= dont)

+ infinitiu

+ does not (= doesnt)

+ infinitiu

I dont live in Barcelona. No visc a Barcelona.


He doesnt live in Barcelona. Ell no viu a Barcelona.

interrogativa
Do
+ I/you/we/they
Does
+ he/she/it

+ infinitiu
+ infinitiu

Do you live in Barcelona? Vius a Barcelona?


Does he live in Barcelona? Viu ell a Barcelona?

RECORDA!
La negativa i la interrogativa del present simple es
forma utilitzant el verb auxiliar do / does.
She doesnt have much time. No t gaire temps.
Do you have a cat? Tens un gat?
Per amb els verbs be, have got i els modals no
utilitzem do / does.
She hasnt got much time. No t gaire temps.
Are you ready? No, Im not. Ests llest? No.
Can they swim? No, they cant. Saben nedar? No.

Regles ortogrfiques
tercera persona del singular afirmativa

la majoria dels verbs


 + -s
live
lives
take
takes
114

GRAMMAR REFERENCE

acabats en consonant
+ -y  y + -ies
study
studies
fly
flies

acabats en -o, -s, -ss, -sh,


-ch, -x  + -es
do does
push pushes
fax faxes catch catches

per parlar de fets generals i descriure estats.


9,000 people live in Buol. A Bunyol viuen 9.000
persones.
I hate cabbage. Odio la col.

per parlar de costums i activitats.


20,000 visitors arrive in Buol every summer. Cada
estiu arriben 20.000 turistes a Bunyol.
We never go to the cinema. No anem mai al cinema.

Present continuous
Estructura
afirmativa
I
he/she/it
you/we/they

am (= m)
is (= s)
are (= re)

+ -ing

I am (Im) working. Estic treballant.


He is (hes) having a shower. Ell sest dutxant.

negativa
I
he/she/it
you/we/they

am not (= m not)
is not (= isnt)
are not (= arent)

+ -ing

I am not (Im not) listening to you. No testic escoltant.


Louise is not (isnt) watching TV. La Louise no est veient
la televisi.

interrogativa
Am
Is
Are

I
he/she/it
you/we/they

+ -ing

Are you learning German? Ests aprenent alemany?


Is he working hard? Est treballant de valent?

Grammar reference
RECORDA!
En general sutilitzen les formes contretes del verb
be, sobretot en el registre informal.
Theyre eating. Estan menjant.
Hes dreaming. Est somiant.

Stative verbs
Hay verbos que nunca se utilizan en la forma continua.
Son los llamados verbos de estado. Estos son los ms
habituales:

Regles ortogrfiques
la majoria dels verbs + ing
pay
paying
enjoy
enjoying

acabats en consonant -e  e + -ing


hide
hiding
shine
shining

acabats en -ie  ie + -ying


die
dying
lie
lying
acabats en -l  -ll + -ing
travel
travelling
duplicar la consonant final
Si el verb t una sola sllaba i acaba en vocal ms consonant,
es duplica la consonant final abans dafegir -ing.
get
getting
plan
planning
Si el verb t dues o ms sllabes i acaba en una vocal
accentuada ms una consonant, es duplica la consonant
final abans dafegir -ing.
forget
forgetting
admit
admitting

s
El present continuous sutilitza:

per parlar daccions i processos que sestan


produint mentre es parla.
Right now, people are throwing tomatoes at each
other. En aquest moment, la gent sest llenant
tomquets.
Im doing a degree in anthropology. Estic fent la
carrera dantropologia.
per referir-se a situacions transitries.
Im staying in Buol this summer. Estic passant lestiu
a Bunyol.
They arent living in London at the moment. En aquest
moment no viuen a Londres.

verbs que expressen pensaments i opinions: know,


understand, remember, believe, forget, think
(= believe).
I understand what youre saying. Entenc el que dius.
We think its a good idea. Ens sembla una bona idea.
verbs que expressen gustos i preferncies: like,
love, prefer, hate.
He doesnt like spaghetti. No li agraden els espaguetis.
She loves classical music. Li encanta la msica clssica.
verbs que expressen estat o possessi: be, have
(got), own.
She isnt very happy. No est gaire contenta.
He hasnt got any money. No t diners.

RECORDA!
Es pot utilitzar el verb think en la forma contnua
quan expressa la idea dun pensament en progrs.
What are you thinking about? En qu ests
pensant?

Present perfect simple


Estructura
afirmativa
I/you/we/they
he/she/it

+ have (ve)
+ has (s)

+ participi
passat

Hes bought a lot of new clothes. Ha comprat molta roba


nova.
Jonathan has climbed Mount Everest. El Jonathan ha pujat
a lEverest.

negativa
I/you/we/
they
he/she/it

+ have not (havent)


+ has not (hasnt)

+ participi
passat

We havent been to Cuba. No hem estat a Cuba.


I havent seen her new trainers. No he vist les seves
sabatilles noves.

interrogativa
Have
Has

I/you/we/they
he/she/it

+ participi passat

Have you been to a show? Has anat a una desfilada?


Has he asked you for help? Tha demanat ajuda?

GRAMMAR REFERENCE

115

Grammar reference
s

RECORDA!
El present perfect simple sutilitza:

per parlar de situacions que van comenar en el


passat i continuen en el present.
Liz has worked as a designer for several years. La Liz
ha treballat durant anys com a dissenyadora.
How long have you lived here? Quant de temps fa que
viviu aqu?
per referir-se a fets del passat que tenen un efecte
en el present.
Ive lost my towel, so I cant go to the beach! He
perdut la meva tovallola, aix que no puc anar a la platja.
Hes finished his homework, so he can go to the party
now. Ha acabat els deures, aix que ja pot anar a la
festa.
per descriure experincies del passat, sense
especificar exactament quan es van produir.
Ive been to a lot of different festivals. He anat a
molts festivals diferents.
Have you ever worn a suit? Thas posat alguna vegada
un vestit?

Les frases amb for i since duen el verb en present


perfect, no en present simple.
Ive had these boots for two years.  Tinc aquestes
botes des de fa dos anys.
NO I have these boots for two years.
Ive been here since March.  5 Sc aqu des del mar.
NO I am here since March.

already / yet
Estructura
yet sempre es colloca al final de la frase.
Have you seen Tom yet? (Ja) has vist al Tom?
She hasnt left yet. Encara no ha marxat.
already sempre va entre lauxiliar have i el participi
passat del verb principal.
No, but Ive already looked at his pictures. No, per ja he
vist les seves fotos.
Shes already left. Ja ha marxat.

RECORDA!
Per parlar de fets que ja shan completat, utilitzem
been (en comptes de gone) com a participi passat de
go.
John has been to Bilbao. (He went and came back.) El
John ha estat a Bilbao. (Ja ha tornat.)
John has gone to Bilbao. (Hes still there.) El John se nha
anat a Bilbao. (Encara hi s.)

for i since
for i since sutilitzen amb el present perfect per
especificar la durada duna acci o estat que es va
iniciar en el passat i encara no ha acabat. Solen
respondre a la pregunta How long ?
How long have you been here? Ive been here for three
days / since Tuesday. Quant de temps fa que ets aqu?
Fa tres dies que sc aqu / Sc aqu des de dimarts.
for fa referncia a la durada duna acci o un estat.
Weve known them for years. Les coneixem des de fa anys.
since descriu el moment en qu es va iniciar una acci o
un estat.
Shes worked here since last summer. Treballa aqu des de
lestiu passat.

116

GRAMMAR REFERENCE

s
yet ( ja) sutilitza en la forma interrogativa per
preguntar si una acci sha completat o no.
Have you bought those new trainers yet? Ja thas comprat
les vambes noves?
yet (encara) sutilitza en la forma negativa per referirse a una acci que no sha completat en el present,
per que esperem completar en el futur.
I havent saved enough money yet. Encara no he estalviat
prou diners.
already ( ja) sutilitza per destacar que una acci ja sha
produt.
Petes already been on holiday. El Pete ja ha estat de
vacances.
Theyve already made a million dollars. Ja han guanyat un
mili de dlars.

RECORDA!
Already i yet yet tamb es poden utilitzar amb altres
temps verbals.
He told me that he had already finished reading the
book. (past perfect simple)
Em va dir que ja havia acabat de llegir el llibre.
I dont want to tell her yet. (present simple)
Encara no li ho vull dir.

Grammar reference
Unit 2 Past tenses

know  knew

go  went

take  took

make  made

do  did

see  saw

Past simple

He took the exam last year. Es va examinar lany passat.

Estructura

We saw him on a bus. El vam veure en un autobs.

afirmativa
I/he/she/it/we/you/they

+ forma de passat simple

He started work at the age of seventeen. Va comenar a


treballar als disset anys.

El past simple sutilitza:

He really liked it. Li va agradar molt.

negativa
I/he/she/it/we/you/
they

+ did not (didnt)

+ infinitiu

I didnt enjoy the film. No em va agradar la pellcula.

Steve didnt apply for the job. LSteve no va sollicitar la feina.

interrogativa
Did
+ I/he/she/it/we/you/they

+ infinitiu

Did he go to university? Va anar a la universitat?


When did they leave home? Quan van marxar de casa?

Regles ortogrfiques

Past simple de verbs regulars

la majoria dels verbs


+ -ed
play
played
work
worked

acabats en -e  + -d
notice
decide

noticed
decided

acabats en consonant + -y  y + -ied


apply
applied
study
studied
duplicar la consonant final
Si el verb t una sola sllaba i acaba en vocal ms
consonant, es duplica la consonant final abans dafegir -ed.
plan
planned
spot
spotted
Si el verb t dues o ms sllabes i acaba en una vocal
accentuada, es duplica la consonant final abans dafegir
-ed.
admit
admitted
deter
deterred
Si el verb acaba en -l, dupliquem aquesta consonant abans
dafegir -ed.
travel
travelled
Past simple de verbs irregulars
Molts dels verbs ms freqents tenen una forma
irregular de past simple que cal aprendre de memria.
Consulta la taula de les pgines 151152.

per parlar de fets o accions que es van completar en


el passat.
We arrived at twelve oclock. Vam arribar a les dotze.
Mozart started to write music at the age of five.
Mozart va comenar a compondre als cinc anys.
What time did you finish your homework? A quina
hora vas acabar de fer els deures?
per referir-se a coses que van succeir repetidament en
el passat.
We went to France every summer in the 1990s. Als
anys 90 anvem cada estiu a Frana.
She told me that story three times yesterday! Ahir em
va explicar aquesta histria tres vegades!
Our maths teacher shouted at us if we were late.
El nostre professor de matemtiques ens cridava si
arribvem tard.
per descriure estats del passat.
I lived in London for five years. Durant cinc anys vaig
viure a Londres.
I was very unhappy at school. Ho vaig passar molt
malament a escola.
After the walk, they felt very tired. Desprs del
passeig estaven molt cansats.

Past continuous
Estructura
afirmativa
I/he/she/it
we/you/they

was
were

+ -ing

A woman was watching her son. Una dona estava mirant


el seu fill.
We were travelling to the South Pacific. Viatjvem cap al
Pacfic sud.

negativa
I/he/she/it
we/you/they

was not (= wasnt)


were not (= werent)

+ -ing

I wasnt looking at the people. No estava mirant a la gent.


They werent paying attention. No estaven posant atenci.

GRAMMAR REFERENCE

117

Grammar reference
interrogativa
Was
Were

Past simple i present perfect simple


I/he/she/it
we/you/they

+ -ing

Were they wearing jeans? Portaven texans?


Was she helping you? Testava ajudant?

RECORDA!
Per repassar les regles ortogrfiques de les formes -ing,
vs a la secci Present continuous a la pgina 115.

s
El past continuous sutilitza:

per parlar daccions que estaven succeint en un


moment determinat del passat.
I was still sitting on the plane at twenty past twelve.
A un quart i cinc duna continuava asseguda a lavi.
per referir-se a una acci del passat que es va
interrompre per algun motiu.
I was walking home when I saw them. Anava caminant
cap a casa quan els vaig veure.

Past simple i past continuous


Utilitzem el past simple per expressar una acci que ja
est acabada. El past continuous sutilitza per
expressar una acci en progrs en un moment
determinat del passat. Compara aquestes frases:
I made dinner last night. I started at quarter to seven and
finished at ten past seven. (past simple) Anit vaig
preparar el sopar. Vaig comenar a tres quarts de set i vaig
acabar a un quart menys cinc de vuit.
What were you doing at seven oclock? I was making
dinner. (past continuous) Qu estaves fent a les set?
Estava preparant el sopar.
Tots dos temps verbals es poden combinar utilitzant
when i while. Es pot escollir lordre en qu apareixeran
tots dos temps verbals a la frase.
While I was having a shower, the phone rang. = The
phone rang while I was having a shower. Mentre em
dutxava, va sonar el telfon.
When we went out, it was snowing. = It was snowing
when we went out. Quan vam sortir, estava nevant.

El past simple sutilitza per referir-se a estats, accions o


fets que es van completar en el passat.
I lived in Huelva between 1997 and 1999. (I dont live in
Huelva now.) Vaig viure a Huelva entre el 1997 i el 1999.
(Ara no visc a Huelva.)
I lived in that house for two years. (I dont live there now.)
Vaig viure dos anys en aquella casa. (Ja no hi visc.)
El present perfect simple sutilitza per parlar destats,
accions o fets que van comenar en el passat i
continuen en el present.
Ive lived in Huelva since 1999. (I still live in Huelva.) Visc a
Huelva des del 1999. (Encara visc a Huelva.)
Ive lived in this house for two years. (I still live in this
house.) Fa dos anys que visc en aquesta casa. (Encara visc en
aquesta casa.)
El past simple sutilitza quan es vol especificar el
moment en el qual va tenir lloc el fet. Sol anar
acompanyat duna expressi de temps.
He went yesterday. Sen va anar ahir.
I finished it last night. Ho vaig acabar anit.
El present perfect simple sutilitza quan no es vol
especificar el moment en el qual ha tingut lloc un fet.
Hes gone. (It doesnt matter when.) Se nha anat. (No
importa quan sen va anar) (No importa quan.)
Have you written your essay? (It doesnt matter when.)
Has fet la redacci? (No importa quan.)

Past perfect simple


Estructura
afirmativa
I/he/she/it/we/you/
they

+ had (d)

I had finished. Havia acabat.


Theyd eaten. Ja havien menjat.

negativa
I/he/she/it/
we/you/they

+ had not (hadnt)

+ participi passat

I hadnt forgotten. No ho havia oblidat.


They hadnt arrived. No havien arribat.

interrogativa
+ I/he/she/it/we/you/
Had
they
Had you seen her? Lhavies vist?
Had they left? Havien marxat?
118 GRAMMAR REFERENCE

+ participi passat

+ participi passat

Grammar reference
s

RECORDA!
El past perfect sutilitza:

per parlar daccions o situacions que es van produir


en el passat, amb anterioritat a daltres tamb
passades.
When I got a call from Canada, Id almost forgotten
about my application! ! Quan em van telefonar des del
Canad, gaireb me nhavia oblidat, de la sollicitud.
Id already left the office before she arrived. Quan
ella va arribar, jo ja havia marxat de loficina.
per referir-se a accions o situacions que es van
produir amb anterioritat a un moment concret del
passat.
By the time he was twelve, Mozart had composed
a symphony. Quan va complir dotze anys, Mozart ja
havia compost una simfonia.
My dad had rented the limousine a month before my
birthday. El meu pare havia llogat la limusina un mes
abans del meu aniversari.
con la expresin it was the first / second time.
It was the first time that Id visited Cuba. Era la
primera vegada que visitava Cuba.
for i since

Utilitzem for i since amb el past perfect per indicar la


durada duna acci o dun estat en el passat.
Id been there for three days when James arrived. Feia tres
dies que hi era quan va arribar el James.
Shed worked there since the previous summer.
Hi treballava des de lestiu passat.

Estructura

+ used to

+ infinitiu

I used to be single but now Ive got a girlfriend. Abans


estava sol, per ara tinc promesa.

negativa
I/he/she/it/you/we/
they

s
used to sutilitza per comparar costums o situacions del
passat amb les del moment actual.
Ls de used to implica que aquests costums i
situacions ja no hi sn.
I used to think Canada was really quiet. (But now I dont)
Abans pensava que el Canad era molt tranquil. (Ja no ho
penso).
We used to go to France for our holidays. (But now we
dont) Abans solem anar de vacances a Frana. (Ara ja no
hi anem.)
Els adverbis for i since no sutilitzen amb used to.
I used to live in Granada. Abans vivia a Granada.
NO I used to live in Granada for ten years.

would
La frmula would + infinitiu sutilitza per descriure
hbits del passat. El past simple i used to tamb es
poden utilitzar per parlar daquests hbits.
When she was a child, she would spend her holidays in
the country. Quan era petita, passava les vacances al camp.
would sutilitza menys per descriure hbits del passat
que el past simple o used to; would s ms freqent en
contextos literaris o formals.

used to
afirmativa
I/he/she/it/you/we/
they

En negativa i en interrogativa, used to es converteix


en use to.
He didnt use to drink coffee. Abans no prenia caf.
Did you use to go out much? Sorties gaire?

+ didnt use to

+ infinitiu

We didnt use to have a DVD player. (But now we do)


Abans no tenem un reproductor de DVD. (Ara s que el
tenim).

When she was a child, she used to spend her holidays in


the country. Quan era petita, solia passar les vacances al
camp.
When she was a child, she always spent her holidays in
the country. Quan era petita, sempre passava les vacances
al camp.
would would no sutilitza per descriure estats. Si es vol
descriure un estat del passat, sha dutilitzar used to o
el past simple.
I used to have a dog. O I had a dog. Abans tenia un gos.
NO I would have a dog.
We used to be very happy here.
O We were very happy here. Vam ser molt felios aqu.

interrogativa
+ I/he/she/it/you/we/
Did
they

+ use to

+ infinitiu

Where did you use to live? On vivies abans?


GRAMMAR REFERENCE

119

Grammar reference
Unit 3 Modal verbs
Modal verbs: general points
Els modals sn verbs que mostren unes
caracterstiques especials. Acompanyen el verb
principal per afegir determinats matisos a la frase,
per exemple, obligaci o consell.

Estructura
Els verbs modals tenen les caracterstiques segents:

A gaireb tots els verbs modals els segueix un


infinitiu sense to. Lexcepci s ought to.
We must get there before seven oclock. Hem
darribar abans de les set.
She should study harder. Hauria destudiar ms.
PER I ought to go home now. Me nhauria danar a
casa ara.
Els verbs modals no afegeixen una -s a la tercera
persona del singular.
He can swim. Sap nedar.
Els verbs modals no utilitzen lauxiliar do / does per
formar la negativa i la interrogativa,
i tampoc en les respostes breus.
She shouldnt eat salt. No hauria de prendre sal.
May I help you? Yes, you may. Et puc ajudar?
S, si us plau.
I can invite her, cant I? La puc convidar, oi?
Els verbs modals poden formar contraccions en les
frases negatives.
He should not work too hard.  He shouldnt work
too hard. No hauria de treballar gaire.
Els verbs modals tenen una nica forma. Per aix,
quan es vol expressar un temps verbal en concret,
sha de recrrer a altres verbs de significat
semblant.
He might study physics next year.  They thought he
was probably going to study physics.
Pot ser que estudi fsica lany vinent.  Pensaven que
probablement estudiaria fsica.

Modals of ability
can, could, be able to
El verb modal can sutilitza per parlar dhabilitats en el
present.
Danny can climb mountains and run marathons. El Danny
pot escalar muntanyes i crrer maratons.
Two of my friends can play the guitar. Dues de les meves
amigues saben tocar la guitarra.
I cant hear you. NO I dont hear you. No tescolto.
El verb modal could sutilitza per descriure habilitats en
el passat.
When he was a child, he could ski really well. De petit,
esquiava molt b.
I couldnt see anything. No veia res.
NO I didnt see anything.
Com que can i could no es poden utilitzar en tots els
temps verbals, be able to (que no s un verb modal)
sutilitza per descriure habilitats en aquests altres
temps.
Next week, all the contestants will be able to vote.
La setmana vinent tots els concursants podran votar.
We havent been able to go on holiday this year. No hem
pogut anar de vacances enguany.

Modals of advice, necessity and


obligation
must, have to, need, should, ought to
must (i have to, que no s un verb modal) sutilitzen per
expressar obligaci.
Applicants must answer the questions honestly. Els
sollicitants han de respondre les preguntes amb sinceritat.
I must finish this essay by Monday. Dilluns he dacabar
aquest treball.
Utilitzem mustnt per expressar una prohibici.
You mustnt eat too many sweets. No has de menjar massa
llaminadures.
They mustnt try too hard. No shi han descarrassar massa.

Molts verbs modals varien el seu significat tot


depenent del context.

El verb modal need noms sutilitza en les formes


negativa i interrogativa. En la forma afirmativa, need to
(que no s un verb modal) expressa necessitat.
You need to send off for an application form if you want
to appear on Housemates. Per participar a Housemates,
has de demanar que tenvin un full de sollicitud.

120 GRAMMAR REFERENCE

Grammar reference
He needs to work harder if he wants to pass his exams.
Shi haur desforar ms si vol aprovar els exmens.
neednt (i dont have to, que no s un verb modal)
sutilitzen per aclarir que no hi ha obligaci de fer una
cosa.
Contestants dont have to be great actors. Els concursants
no han de ser bons actors.
You neednt get here before eleven oclock. No s
necessari que arribis abans de les onze.
ought to, should y shouldnt sutilitzen per donar
consells i fer recomanacions.
Candidates should be friendly and outgoing. Els candidats
haurien de ser simptics i extravertits.
You shouldnt worry so much about your marks. No
thauries de preocupar tant per les notes.

Modals of possibility and certainty


may, might, can, could, must
may, may not, might, might not i could sutilitzen per
expressar possibilitat en el present o en el futur.
It may be time for Linda to go. Pot ser que hagi arribat el
moment que la Linda se nhagi danar.
They might choose Danny. Potser escolliran el Danny.
They could be on the train. Pot ser que siguin al tren.
must i cant sutilitzen per expressar deduccions
lgiques. Must sutilitza quan estem segurs que alguna
cosa s certa i cant quan estem segurs que alguna cosa
s impossible.
That must be your mother she said shed phone. Deu ser
la teva mare, ja que va dir que telefonaria.
It must be quite late, because its getting dark. Ha de ser
bastant tard, perqu ja sest fent fosc.
That cant be true, I saw her with my own eyes. Aix no
pot ser veritat, la vaig veure amb els meus propis ulls.

Modals + perfect infinitives


Alguns verbs modals sutilitzen amb have + participi
passat per donar opinions sobre fets passats.

must have + participi passat


must have + participi passat sutilitza per expressar
una certesa o una conclusi lgica sobre el passat.
Danny must have felt disappointed when he didnt win
Housemates. El Danny es devia sentir desillusionat al no
guanyar Housemates.

cant have + participi passat


cant have + participi passat sutilitza per expressar que
un fet passat sembla prcticament impossible.
She cant have passed the exam she didnt study at all!
No s possible que hagi aprovat lexamen; per si no va
estudiar gens!
It cant have been Felipe he was at home all evening.
No pot haver estat el Felipe; va ser a casa tota la tarda.

might / may / could have + participi passat


might, may i could have + participi passat sutilitzen per
expressar possibilitat en el passat.
He might have gone / may have gone / could have gone
to the cinema. Potser ha anat al cinema.
They might not have received / may not have received
our message about the party. Pot ser que no hagin rebut el
nostre missatge sobre la festa.

could have + participi passat


could have + participi passat sutilitza tamb per
suggerir que una acci podria haver tingut lloc en el
passat, tot i que ja s impossible que succeeixi.
You could have told me about last nights concert you
know I love jazz. Em podies haver explicat aix del concert
danit. Ja saps que mencanta el jazz.
The government could have acted more quickly. El govern
podria haver actuat amb ms rapidesa.

should have + participi passat


should have + participi passat sutilitza per dir que
alguna cosa hauria dhaver ocorregut en el passat, per
no ha succet.
Linda should have made more friends. La Linda hauria
dhaver fet ms amics.
We should have gone to see that film while it was still on
at the local cinema. Haurem dhaver anat a veure la
pellcula mentre la feien al cinema del barri.

shouldnt have + participi passat


shouldnt have + participi passat sutilitza per expressar
penediment o crtica respecte daccions passades.
Linda shouldnt have talked so much. La Linda no hauria
dhaver parlat tant!
I shouldnt have stayed out so late last night. No mhauria
dhaver quedat fins tan tard anit.

GRAMMAR REFERENCE

121

Grammar reference
Unit 4 Future forms

negativa
I
he/she/it
we/you/they

will
Estructura
afirmativa
I/he/she/it/we/you/
they

+ will (= ll)

+ infinitiu

+ will not (= wont)

interrogativa
Will
+ I/he/she/it/we/you/they

interrogativa
Am
I
Is
he/she/it
Are
we/you/they

+ infinitiu

James will not (wont) be here next year. El James no ser


aqu lany vinent.

+ infinitiu

+ going to

+ infinitiu

Is she going to visit your friends in New York? Visitar els


teus amics a Nova York?

s
going to sutilitza:

+ infinitiu

Will Holly pass her last exam? Aprovar la Holly el seu


ltim examen?

per descriure plans i intencions.


Im going to be an astronaut. Ive already passed my
exams! Ser astronauta, ja he passat els exmens!
Hes going to see Jeff tonight. Aquesta nit anir a veure
el Jeff.

per expressar prediccions basades en levidncia


que hi ha en el moment en qu es parla.
Its going to be a hard exam. Ser un examen dur.
Listen to the wind. Theres going to be a storm.
Escolta el vent. Hi haur tempesta.

s
will sutilitza:

per fer prediccions de futur.


Hell probably go to Australia this summer.
Probablement marxar a Austrlia aquest estiu.
You wont like it there. Aquell lloc no tagradar.

per descriure decisions espontnies que es prenen


mentre es parla.
I think Ill leave the towel. I can use a T-shirt if
necessary. Crec que deixar la tovallola. Puc utilitzar
una samarreta si em fa falta.
The window is open. Dont worry, Ill close it. La
finestra s oberta. No et preocupis, jo la tanco.

Present continuous
Estructura
Consulta la pgina 114.

s
El present continuous sutilitza per descriure alguna
cosa ja planificada. Sovint es concreta un moment i un
lloc.

going to
Estructura
afirmativa
I
he/she/it
we/you/they

+ going to

They arent going to pass their exams. No aprovaran els


seus exmens.

Ill come back tomorrow. Tornar dem.

negativa
I/he/she/it/we/you/
they

m not
isnt
arent

Were celebrating my mums birthday this weekend. Aquest


cap de setmana celebrarem laniversari de la meva mare.
m
s
re

+ going to

+ infinitiu

Holly is going to live on a space station. La Holly se nanir


a viure a una estaci espacial.

122 GRAMMAR REFERENCE

Im visiting my grandparents tomorrow. Dem visitar els


meus avis.

Grammar reference
Future continuous

Future perfect simple

Estructura

Estructura

afirmativa
I/he/she/it/we/you/
they

+ will

+ be

+ -ing

afirmativa
I/he/she/it/we/
you/they

Holly will be living on a space station for a month. La Holly


estar un mes vivint en una estaci espacial.

negativa
I/he/she/it/we/you/
they

+ will

+ have

+ participi passat

Ill have finished lunch by three oclock. Haur acabat


desmorzar a les tres.

negativa
+ wont

+ be

+ -ing

I/he/she/it/we/
you/they

I wont be studying tomorrow night so lets go out!


Dem a la nit no he destudiar; aix doncs, per qu no
sortim?

interrogativa
I/he/she/it/we/you/
Will
they

+ be

+ -ing

+ will
not
(wont)

+ have

+ participi passat

I wont have finished my homework by eight oclock. No


haur acabat els deures a les vuit.

interrogativa
+ I/he/she/it/we/
Will
you/they

+
have

+ participi passat

Will they have arrived by the time I get there? Hauran


arribat quan arribi jo?

Will she be living with you all summer? Estar vivint amb
tu tot lestiu?

s
El future continuous sutilitza:

per referir-se a accions futures que es


desenvoluparan durant un perode de temps,
coincidint a ms amb una altra acci.
I cant go out at seven Ill be finishing my
homework. No puc sortir a les set, ja que estar
acabant els deures.
per fer referncia a accions futures que ja shan
planificat.
This time next week, Ill be taking my exams. La
setmana vinent, a aquesta hora, estar fent exmens.

El future perfect sutilitza amb by per parlar de coses


que shauran completat en un moment determinat del
futur.
By the end of next year, Holly will have made three space
flights. Daqu a final dany, la Holly haur fet tres viatges a
lespai.
Will you have finished your studies by 2015? Haurs
acabat els estudis cap a lany 2015?
Ill have mended my moped by the end of the day. Abans
que sacabi el dia haur arreglat la motocicleta.

Compara les frases que estan en past continuous i en


future continuous.
James has been around the world. This time last week, he
was sunbathing on the beach. El James ha fet la volta al
mn. La setmana passada, a aquestes hores, estava
prenent el sol a la platja.
James is going around the world. This time next week,
hell be sunbathing on the beach. . El James far la volta al
mn. La setmana vinent, a aquestes hores, estar prenent
el sol a la platja.

GRAMMAR REFERENCE

123

Grammar reference
Unit 5 Conditionals
Les oracions condicionals estan formades per dues
proposicions: la proposici condicional (encapalada
per if) i la proposici principal, que explica la
conseqncia de lanterior.

Second conditional
Estructura
<if + past simple>, <would + infinitiu>
O
<would + infinitiu> <if + past simple>

If I had lots of money, Id travel around the world. Si


tingus molts diners, faria la volta al mn.
Lordre de les proposicions s flexible, per cal recordar
que quan la proposici condicional va davant de la
principal, totes dues shan de separar per mitj duna
coma.

If I were rich, I would buy a helicopter. =


I would buy a helicopter if I were rich.
Si fos rica, em compraria un helicpter.

s
Les condicionals de segon grau sutilitzen per parlar de
situacions presents i futures que sn imaginries i
improbables.

If we dont save them some animals wont survive. Si no els


salvem, alguns animals no sobreviuran. =
Some animals wont survive if we dont save them. Alguns
animals no sobreviuran si no els salvem.

If I had a yacht, Id travel around the world. (I havent got


a yacht.) Si tingus un iot, faria la volta al mn. (No tinc
cap iot.)

Depenent del nivell de probabilitat que expressin, es


parla de condicionals de primer grau, de segon grau i
de tercer grau.

First conditional
Estructura
<if / unless + present simple>, <will + infinitiu >
O
<will + infinitiu > <if / unless + present simple>
If Pierce Brosnan retires, Ill become a postman. =
Ill become a postman if Pierce Brosnan retires.
Si Pierce Brosnan es juvila, em far carter.

RECORDA!
En el llenguatge formal, quan la proposici condicional
cont el verb be, no sutilitza el past simple de la
primera i la tercera persona del singular
(I was, he/she/it was), sin were.
If I were you, Id ask her out tonight. Si jo fos tu, la
convidaria a sortir aquesta nit.
If she were taller, she could reach the top shelf. Si fos
ms alta, arribaria al prestatge de dalt.

Third conditional
s

Estructura
Les condicionals de primer grau sutilitzen per parlar de
fets futurs que sn possibles o probables.

<if + past perfect>, <would have + participi passat>


O
<would have + participi passat> <if + past perfect>

If rich countries dont share their wealth, the worlds


problems will get worse. No em far carter, tret que Pierce
Brosnan es retiri.

If youd seen us, you wouldnt have known who was who.
Si ens haguessis vist, no ens hauries pogut distingir.
If Id known, I would have brought a camera. Si ho hagus
sabut, hauria portat una cmera.

First conditional + unless


La condici es pot expressar en termes negatius
utilitzant if not o unless.
I wont become a postman unless Pierce Brosnan retires.
= Unless Pierce Brosnan retires, I wont become a
postman. No em far carter, tret que Pierce Brosnan es
retiri.

124 GRAMMAR REFERENCE

s
Les condicionals de tercer grau sutilitzen per referir-se
a fets hipottics del passat, s a dir, per parlar de coses
que no van passar.
If theyd gone by bus, they would have arrived much later.
(They didnt go by bus.) Si haguessin anat amb autobs,
haurien arribat molt ms tard. (No van anar amb autobs.)
If Kevin hadnt helped us, wed never have finished in
time. (He did help us.) Si el Kevin no ens hagus ajudat, no
haurem acabat a temps. (S que ens va ajudar.)

Grammar reference
El sintagama by + complement agent somet quan no es
coneix, no interessa o no es vol citar qui realitza lacci.

Unit 6 The passive


The passive

My bag has been stolen. (I dont know who stole it.)


Mhan robat la bossa. (No s qui lha robada.)

Estructura
La veu passiva es forma amb el verb be + el participi
passat. El verb be apareixer en el mateix temps que el
verb de la veu activa.
veu activa

veu passiva

The police have arrested a man. (present perfect) 


A man has been arrested by the police. (present perfect)
La policia ha arrestat un home. Un home ha estat arrestat
per la policia.

A new programme is being tested. (It is not important to


know exactly who is testing the programme. / I dont want
to name all the people involved in the testing.) Estan
provant un nou programa. (No importa qui lest provant. /
No vull nomenar les persones que lestan provant.)
No sempre es pot ometre by + el complement agent, ja
que en algunes frases aquesta informaci pot resultar
important.

The balloons lifted him up. (past simple)  He was lifted


up by the balloons. (past simple) Els globus el van elevar.

That film was directed.  That film was directed by


Fernando Len. Aquesta pellcula fou dirigida.  Aquesta
pellcula fou dirigida per Fernando Len.

Reporters will question him. (future)  He will be


questioned by reporters. (future) Els reporters
lentrevistaran.

Was Ronaldhino signed in 2003?  Was Ronaldhino signed


by Barcelona in 2003? Ronaldhino va ser fitxat el 2003? 
Ronaldhino va ser fitxat pel Barcelona el 2003?

Al posar una oraci en passiva, lobjecte directe de la


veu activa es converteix en el subjecte de la veu passiva.
Picasso
Picasso
sujeto

painted
va pintar
verbo

El Guernica.
El Guernica.
objeto directo

sujeto
El Guernica
El Guernica

verbo
was painted
va ser pintat

complemento agente
by Picasso.
per Picasso.

s
La veu passiva sutilitza:

per subratllar lacci (s a dir, el verb) per sobre de


qu o qui realitza lacci.
per posar al comenament de la frase lelement
ms important daquesta.
The TV company broadcast a new show.  A new show
was broadcast (by the TV company). La cadena de
televisi va estrenar un nou programa.
They have made huge progress.  Huge progress has
been made. Han fet un progrs enorme.  Sha fet un
progrs enorme.

The passive + by
By sutilitza quan volem esmentar la persona o cosa que
realitza lacci. Es colloca davant del complement
agent.
The director will choose the candidates.  The candidates
will be chosen by the director. El director seleccionar els
concursants.  Els concursants seran seleccionats pel
director.

Active  passive  active


Per passar una oraci de la veu activa a la veu passiva
cal seguir els passos segents:
Veu activa: Liz won the prize. La Liz va ser la guanyadora
del premi.
1 Identifica lobjecte directe de la frase en la veu
activa: the prize el premi
2 Colloca lobjecte directe al comenament de la
frase en la veu passiva, a mode de subjecte: The
prize
El premi
3 Identifica el temps verbal de la frase en la veu
activa: won = past simple
4 Posa el verb be en el mateix temps verbal que
loraci activa i afegeix el participi del verb
principal: was won
5 Decide si necesitas incluir by + el complemento
agente (Liz): The prize was won El premi el va
guanyar
Veu passiva: The prize was won by Liz. El premi el va
guanyar la Liz.
Per passar una oraci de la veu passiva a la veu activa,
segueix els passos anteriors, per inverteix lordre. s
possible que thagis dinventar un subjecte: pensa qui
va poder realitzar lacci.
Veu passiva: The door was opened. (Who opened the
door?) La porta es va obrir. (Qui va obrir la porta?)
Veu activa: Someone opened the door. Alg va obrir la
porta.
GRAMMAR REFERENCE 125

Grammar reference
have / get something done
Estructura
have / get (en qualsevol temps verbal) + objecte directe
+ participi passat
Im having my computer repaired. Marreglaran
lordinador.
Ive got my hair cut. Mhe tallat els cabells. / Mhan tallat
els cabells.

s
El causatiu (have something done / get something done)
sutilitza per parlar de coses que un no pot fer per si
mateix (o prefereix no fer-les), per la qual cosa recorre
a una altra persona o a un professional. Aquesta
estructura es pot utilitzar en qualsevol temps verbal.
Were having the office decorated. Ens decoraran
loficina.
They havent had their flat painted yet. Encara no els han
pintat el pis.
Are you going to get your bike repaired? Tarreglaran la
bici?
Les dues expressions signifiquen el mateix, per get
something done s ms informal que have something
done.
De la mateixa manera que amb la veu passiva, amb
aquest tipus destructures no sempre s necessari
especificar qui va realitzar lacci.
Were having our house painted. Ens pintaran la casa. (s
evident que ho far un pintor, per aix somet lexplicaci.)
Compara la frase con: Were painting our house. Pintarem
la casa.

Unit 7 Relative clauses

Els pronoms who i that sutilitzen per referir-se a


persones.
The girl who / that works at the library is very friendly.
La noia que treballa a la biblioteca s molt amable.
Tot i que tamb es pot utilitzar el pronom whom, aquest
pertany al registre formal, i noms sutilitza quan la
persona a la qual fa referncia s lobjecte directe de la
frase.
The young lady whom I met at the library was most
helpful. (formal) La jove que vaig conixer a la biblioteca
va ser molt servicial.
The girl (who / that) I met at the library was really helpful.
(informal) La noia que vaig conixer a la biblioteca va ser
molt amable.
which i that sutilitzen per referir-se a objectes.
Im returning some of the clothes (which / that) I bought
last week. Tornar a tornar algunes de les peces de roba
que vaig comprar la setmana passada.
Im only keeping the clothes which / that fit me. Noms
em quedar les peces de roba que em van b.
where fa referncia a espais i llocs.
This is the area where theyre building the new school.
Aquesta s la zona on construiran la nova escola.
Norwich is the place (where) I was born. Norwich s el lloc
on vaig nixer.
when sutilitza per fer referncies temporals.
Do you remember that time (when) we all went to the
river? Recordeu aquell dia en qu tots vam anar al riu?
Fridays the day (when) Im usually free. Divendres s el dia
que solo tenir lliure.

who i whose
El pronom relatiu whose sutilitza per expressar
possessi.

Relative pronouns

Whose bag is this? NOT Of who is this bag? De qui s


aquesta bossa?

who, whose, which, where, when, that

Thats the boy whose mobile was stolen yesterday. Aquell


s el noi a qui li van robar el mbil ahir.

Els pronoms relatius sutilitzen per afegir una


proposici (la de relatiu) a loraci principal. Aquests
pronoms fan referncia al substantiu que precedeix
loraci de relatiu.
Thats the man!  Thats the man who stole my bike!
s aquell home!  Aquell s lhome que em va robar la
bici!

126 GRAMMAR REFERENCE

whos s la forma contreta de who is o who has.


Whos that boy? (= Who is that boy?) Qui s aquell noi?
Thats the boy whos just bought my MP3 player. (= who
has) Aquell s el noi que acaba de comprar el meu
reproductor dMP3.

Grammar reference
Defining relative clauses

Non-defining relative clauses

Oraciones especificativas

Oracions explicatives

Les oracions de relatiu especificatives aporten


informaci essencial sobre el substantiu al qual
segueixen. Sense loraci de relatiu, la frase quedaria
incompleta i no tindria sentit.

Les oracions de relatiu explicatives aporten informaci


addicional, no essencial, sobre el substantiu al qual
segueixen. Sense loraci de relatiu, la frase continuaria
tenint sentit.

Its a sport. s un esport.

Zain Hasan is entering the competition. Zain Hasan


participa a la carrera.

Aquesta frase est incompleta, necessita ser


completada per una oraci de relatiu.
Its a sport.  Its a sport which many people are
interested in. s un esport que li interessa a molta gent.
Thats the boy.  Thats the boy who Bea doesnt like.
Aquell s el noi que no li agrada a la Bea.
There are many students.  There are many students who
cant write in English. Hi ha molts alumnes que no saben
escriure en angls.

Omission of relative pronouns

Aquesta frase est completa, t sentit, per shi pot


afegir informaci mitjanant una oraci de relatiu
explicativa.
Zain Hasan, who was last years winner, is entering the
competition. Zain Hasan, que va ser guanyador lany
passat, participa a la carrera.
I went with Al, whos always good company. Hi vaig anar
amb lAl, que sempre s bona companyia.
En les oracions de relatiu explicatives no es pot ometre
el pronom relatiu.

El pronom relatiu es pot ometre si no s el subjecte de


loraci de relatiu especificativa.

Xavi, whos a vegetarian, couldnt eat anything. El Xavi, que


s vegetari, no va poder menjar res.

Thats the car (that / which) Sonia bought. Aquell s el


cotxe que es va comprar la Sonia.

Madrid, where I was born, is a huge city. Madrid, el lloc on


vaig nixer, s una ciutat enorme.

Shes the woman (that / who) I was telling you about.


Aquella s la dona de qui testava parlant.

Les oracions de relatiu explicatives sempre van


separades de la resta de la frase per mitj de comes.

En el vessant oral de la llengua se solen ometre les


partcules de relatiu who, which, that, when. Mai no es
pot ometre el pronom relatiu whose.

David, whose brother lives near me, works in the Odeon. El


David, el germ del qual viu a prop meu, treballa a lOdeon.
David works in the Odeon, which is next to the ABC Bank.
El David treballa a lOdeon, que s prop de lABC Bank.
Dues oracions simples es poden combinar per mitj
duna oraci de relatiu explicativa.
Hugos sister is called Ana. Shes a nurse.  Hugos sister,
whos a nurse, is called Ana.
O Hugos sister, whos called Ana, is a nurse. La germana
de lHugo es diu Ann. s infermera.  La germana de
lHugo, que s infermera, es diu Ann. O La germana de
lHugo, que es diu Ann, s infermera.
El pronom that, mai no va al principi daquest tipus
doracions.
My car, which I bought second-hand, has never broken
down. El meu cotxe, que vaig comprar de segona m, no
sha avariat mai. NO My car, that I bought second-hand has
never broken down.

GRAMMAR REFERENCE

127

Grammar reference
Unit 8 Reported speech
Lestil indirecte sutilitza per explicar-li a alg el que
una altra persona ha dit, sense utilitzar les seves
paraules de forma literal.
estil directe

Reported statements: other changes


Al posar una frase en estil indirecte:

estil indirecte

I have never carried such a heavy box before.  He said


hed never carried such a heavy box before. Mai abans he
transportat una caixa tan pesada.  Va dir que mai abans
havia transportat una caixa tan pesada.
En el registre formal, that encapala la proposici que
est en estil indirecte. En el registre informal, es pot
ometre.
Im going to call the police, said the driver.  The driver
said (that) he was going to call the police. Trucar a la
policia, va dir el conductor.  El conductor va dir que
trucaria a la policia.

Observa que en lestil indirecte no sutilitzen les


cometes.

Reported statements: tense changes

Estil directe
here aqu
this aquest, aquesta,
aix
these aquests,
aquestes
now ara
next week la
setmana que ve
today avui
tonight aquesta nit
tomorrow dem
yesterday ahir
last week la setmana
passada

Observa que en lestil indirecte no sutilitzen les


cometes.
I packed myself inside a box.  He said he had packed
himself inside a box. Em vaig ficar dins una caixa.  Va
dir que shavia ficat dins una caixa.

Estil directe
present simple
I take Jo agafo
present continuous
I am taking Jo estic agafant

past simple
I took Jo vaig agafar
present perfect simple
I have taken Jo he agafat
will
I will take Jo agafar
can
I can take Jo puc agafar
must
I must take Jo he dagafar

128 GRAMMAR REFERENCE

Estil indirecte
past simple
I took Jo vaig agafar
past continuous
I was taking Jo estava
agafant
past perfect simple
I had taken Jo havia agafat
past perfect simple
I had taken Jo havia agafat
would
I would take Jo agafaria
could
I could take Jo podia agafar
had to
I had to take Jo havia
dagafar

els pronoms solen canviar.


Im watching you.  He said that he was watching
me. Testic observant.  Va dir que mestava
observant.
Weve brought you a present.  She said that they
had brought me a present. Them portat un regal. 
Va dir que mhavien portat un regal.
Ive lost my keys.  He said that hed lost his keys.
He perdut les claus.  Va dir que havia perdut les
claus.
les expressions de lloc i de temps tamb solen
canviar.
Well stay here tonight.  He said that they would
stay there that night. Nosaltres ens quedarem
aqu aquesta nit.  Va dir que ells es quedarien all
aquella nit.
Ill take these jeans.  She said that she would take
those jeans. Memporto aquests texans.  Va dir
que semportaria aquells texans.

Estil indirecte
there all
that all, aquell, aquella
those aquells, aquelles
then aleshores
the following week week la
setmana segent
that day aquell dia
that night aquella nit
the following day lendem
the day before el dia anterior
the week before before la
setmana anterior

la majoria dels verbs modals (should, could, would,


might, ought to, etc.) no canvien.
We might come.  She said that they might come.
Potser vindrem.  Va dir que potser vindrien.
I could be home by eight.  He said that he could be
home by eight. Potser arribar a casa cap a les vuit.
 Va dir que potser arribaria a casa cap a les vuit.
PER I can be home by eight.  He said that he
could be home by eight. Puc arribar a casa cap a
les vuit.  Va dir que podia arribar a casa cap a les
vuit.

Grammar reference
Reported questions
Lordre de les preguntes en lestil indirecte s diferent al
de lestil directe i el mateix que en una frase afirmativa.
verb + subjecte

 subjecte + verb

How old are you? she asked.  She asked (me) how old I
was. NO She asked me how old was I. . Quants anys tens?,
va preguntar.  Em va preguntar quants anys tenia.
Si la pregunta en estil directe inclou les partcules
interrogatives (who, why, when, how, what), la partcula
interrogativa es repeteix en la pregunta destil
indirecte.
Why are you laughing?  He asked her why she was
laughing. Per qu rius?  Li va preguntar per qu reia.
How tall is she?  He asked me how tall she was. Quina
alada fa?  Em va preguntar quina alada feia.
Si la pregunta en estil directe no inclou who, why, when,
how, what, etc., safegeix if o whether en lestil indirecte.
Are you Spanish? he asked us.  He asked us if /
whether we were Spanish. Sou espanyols?  Ens va
preguntar si rem espanyols.

Reported commands and suggestions


En lestil directe sutilitza limperatiu per donar ordres.
Al passar a lestil indirecte, es fa servir lestructura
segent:
subjecte + forma correcta del verb + objecte directe +
infinitiu amb to.


Dont forget to do your homework.  She reminded him


to do his homework. No toblidis de fer els deures.  Li
va recordar que havia de fer els deures.
Be quiet!  He told us to be quiet. Calleu!  Ens va dir
que callssim.
Per passar suggeriments a estil indirecte, se sol fer
servir el verb suggest:
Lets go for a walk.  Joe suggested that we went for a
walk. Anem a fer un passeig.  El Joe va suggerir que
anssim a fer un passeig.
Why dont we listen to the radio?  Lena suggested that
they listened to the radio. Per qu no escoltem la rdio?
 La Lena va suggerir que escoltessin la rdio.

Reporting verbs

Do you like being famous?  She asked him if / whether


he liked being famous. Tagrada ser fams?  Li va
preguntar si li agradava ser fams.

Sit down!  He ordered them to sit down. Seieu!


va ordenar que seguessin.

Correct the mistakes!  The editor advised me to correct


the mistakes. Corregeix els errors.  Leditora em va
aconsellar que corregs els errors.

Els

Tell the reporter!  She told him to tell the reporter.


Explica-li al periodista.  Li va dir que li expliqus al
periodista.
Per donar una ordre negativa en estil indirecte, es
colloca not davant de linfinitiu:
subjecte + verb + objecte directe + not + infinitiu amb to.
Dont forget your coat!  She reminded him not to forget
his coat. No toblidis labric!  Li va recordar que no
oblids labric.
Aquests sn alguns dels verbs que introdueixen lestil
indirecte: advise, ask, encourage, order, remind, tell, warn
(aconsellar, demanar, animar, ordenar, recordar, dir,
avisar).

Podem utilitzar diferents verbs per introduir lestil


indirecte.
Alguns verbs sempre porten un complement indirecte.
Aquests sn els verbs que se solen utilitzar en les
ordres i peticions destil indirecte, s a dir, quan una
persona li demana a una altra que faci alguna cosa:
ask, advise, invite, order, remind i tell. (demanar,
aconsellar, invitar, ordenar, recordar, dir, etc.).
Whatever you do, dont go by train!  He advised me not
to go by train. Hagas lo que hagas, no vayas en tren. Me
aconsej que no fuera en tren.
Please contribute some ideas.  We invited them to
contribute some ideas. Facis el que facis, no vagis amb
tren. Em va aconsellar que no ans amb tren.
Altres verbs no sempre porten objecte indirecte. En
aquests casos sutilitza la frmula that + subjecte. Es
tracta de verbs com admit, declare, explain, insist,
promise, recommend, reply, reveal, say i suggest
(reconixer, declarar, explicar, insistir, prometre,
recomanar, respondre, revelar, dir, suggerir). En el
registre informal se sol ometre that.
I promise not to go by train.  She promised (that) she
wouldnt go by train. Prometo que no anir amb tren. 
Va prometre que no aniria amb tren.
You need to press the button.  He explained (to me)
(that) I needed to press the button.
NO He explained me Has de prmer el bot.
explicar que havia de prmer el bot.

Em va

GRAMMAR REFERENCE 129

Grammar reference
Unit 9 The gerund and the
infinitive
be used to / get used to
The gerund
El gerundi sutilitza:

despus de ciertos verbos.


I dont mind waiting. No em fa res esperar.
She took up horse riding. Va comenar a anar a classes
dequitaci.
desprs duna preposici.
Im not very good at skiing. No sc gaire bo esquiant.
com a substantiu, sobretot quan s el subjecte duna
frase.
Smoking is bad for you. Fumar s dolent.

The infinitive:
Linfinitiu sutilitza:

desprs de certs verbs.


I want to meet her. La vull conixer.
We managed to get a better offer. Vam aconseguir
que ens fessin una oferta ms bona.
desprs de substantius.
We have homework to do tonight. Tenim deures per
fer aquest vespre.
desprs dadjectius.
Its good to see you. Malegro de veuret.

Verb + gerund / infinitive (con to)


Quan utilitzem dos verbs, lun rere laltre, el segon sol
ser la forma -ing o un infinitiu (amb to).
She finished telling me the story. (verb + forma en -ing)
Ella va acabar dexplicar-me la histria.
I hope to see you soon. (verb + infinitivo) Espero veuret
aviat.
Cada vegada que aprenguis un verb nou et resultar
molt til comprovar si regeix la forma en -ing o en
infinitiu.

Verbo + forma -ing


Aquests sn alguns dels verbs que regeixen la forma -ing:
admit avoid cant stand consider dont mind
enjoy finish give up hate imagine like love
mention miss practise resist risk start stop
suggest try

130 GRAMMAR REFERENCE

I cant stand running. No suporto crrer.


We love speaking English. Ens encanta parlar en angls.
La negativa es forma posant not davant de la forma -ing.
Imagine not having books! Imagina que no hi hagus llibres!

Verb + infinitiu
Aquests sn alguns dels verbs que regeixen el verb en
infinitiu (amb to):
afford agree arrange ask attempt beg
choose dare decide expect hope intend learn
like manage pretend promise refuse seem want

Would you like to go out tonight? Tagradaria sortir aquesta nit?


I refuse to accept your apology. Em nego a acceptar les
teves disculpes.
Jos promised to help me. El Jos em va prometre que
majudaria.
La negativa es forma posant not davant de linfinitiu.
Susan pretended not to know how to dance. La Susan va
fingir que no sabia ballar.

be used to / get used to


Used to es forma amb el verb be + used to + -ing. El verb
be pot anar en qualsevol temps, per used to no varia
mai. Be used to significa estar acostumat a.
Andy was used to waking up late. LAndy estava acostumat
a llevar-se tard.
He wasnt used to playing to such big audiences. No estava
acostumat a tocar per a un pblic tan gran.
NO he wasnt used to play to such big audiences.
Get + used to + -ing significa acostumar-se a. Get pot
anar en qualsevol temps verbal per used to no varia.
Andy had to get used to waking up early. LAndy es va haver
dacostumar a matinar.
Now hes got used to performing live. Ara sha acostumat a
tocar en directe.

RECORDA!
Intenta no confondre used to i be used to. Tenen
significats i estructures diferents.
Sandra used to live in Madrid (but now she lives in
Valencia). La Sandra abans vivia a Madrid (per ara viu a
Valncia).
Sandra was used to living in Madrid (= she had adapted
to life in Madrid). La Sandra estava acostumada a viure
a Madrid.

Writing reference
Consells generals
Divideix el text de la redacci en
pargrafs.

Dedica cada un dels pargrafs a un tema o argument


diferent.
Comena cada pargraf amb una frase introductria a
la qual daltres amb informaci ms detallada haurien
de seguir.
Dedica un pargraf a la introducci, un o dos al cos del
tema de la redacci i un altre al desenlla.
Cap dels pargrafs hauria de ser ni molt curt ni molt
llarg. La introducci i la conclusi sn normalment els
pargrafs ms curts de la redacci.

Estructura el teu treball de manera que el lector pugui


conduir-se a travs de la redacci duna manera lgica i
natural.

Pensa qu escriurs abans de


comenar.

Llegeix la pregunta amb molta cura.


Subratlla el ms important.
No oblidis el que set demana mentre planeges qu
escriurs i mentre ho ests escrivint. Repassa amb
freqncia el que ja has escrit.
Anota les teves idees.
Agrupa les teves idees per tema i desenvolupa-les en
distints pargrafs.
Escriu un esquema per a la redacci.
Redacta un primer esborrany.
Assegurat que has contestat la pregunta.
Repassa lestructura, les oracions i el llenguatge
emprat en la redacci.
Redactan lltima versi.

Assegurat que la redacci sigui clara i


fcil de llegir.

Revisa les regles de puntuaci.


Revisa les regles ortogrfiques.

Si la teva redacci s fcil de llegir, crea bona impressi.

Converteix la teva redacci en una


composici interessant.

Guanyat linters del lector amb un comenament i un


final atractiu o sorprenent.
No repeteixis les mateixes paraules tota lestona; recorre
a una varietat dadjectius, substantius, verbs, etc.
Utilitza exemples interessants.

Fent servir un vocabulari variat i comentaris dinters,


aconseguirs mantenir linters del lector.

Enllaa les oracions.


Utilitza connectors per enllaar oracions curtes. La
redacci no shauria de basar simplement en una
seqncia doracions curtes.

Sempre s una bona idea donar-se una mica de temps per


planejar efectivament la tasca que es realitzar, ja que aix
tajudar a aconseguir que lltima versi de la redacci
sigui millor i ms precisa.

WRITING REFERENCE

131

Una carta colloquial


Una carta de carcter colloquial va dirigida als amics
o a la famlia.
En una carta daquest tipus el tema principal sn
qestions personals.

Utilitza un llenguatge de carcter informal.


Utilitza contraccions: Im / hes / youre
Fes preguntes: Do you like Italian food?
Utilitza un llenguatge colloquial: Its fantastic! Hes cool!

Vocabulari dutilitat

Recorda!
1 Esquema

2 Estil

Escriu la teva adrea a la part dreta superior de la


pgina. No escriguis el teu nom.
Escriu la data sota ladrea.
Escriu una salutaci a lesquerra de la pgina.
Deixa una lnia en blanc entre cada un dels pargrafs.
Escriu una conclusi breu.
No toblidis de signar amb el teu nom al final de la
pgina.

Salutacions: Dear
Acomiadaments: Love from / Best wishes, /
Write soon!
Agraments: Thanks for your letter. It was good to hear
from you.
Disculpes: Im sorry I havent written.
Preguntes: How are you? What are you doing?
Respostes: You asked about
Donar informaci personal: Im fine. Im working hard.
Enviar salutacions: I hope your family are all well. Say hello
to your mum for me.

Pregunta model
Write to your American friend and tell him or her about what you usually do at the weekends.
Escriu una carta a un amic/ga americ/ana explicant-li el que tagrada fer els caps de setmana.

Resposta model
23 Barn Road
Downton
Hangford
17th September

adrea

data

Dear Mark,
How are you? I hope youre enjoying life
in the USA! Whats the weather like at the moment?
Here its terrible. It rains all the time!

salutaci
pregunta

Thanks for your letter. It was good to hear from you.


You asked me about my weekends. Well, I like sports
a lot so I often play tennis. Sometimes in the winter I
play football. (I know, girls like football too!) I also like
watching sport on TV at the weekends. My favourite
sports star is David Beckham. Hes so cool! Who do
you like?

agrament
resposta

Do you go to many parties? At the weekends I often


go to parties at my friends houses. In the summer we
have barbeques on the beach. Not at the moment
theres too much rain!!

contracci

I hope your family are all well.

enviament de salutacions

Write soon!

acomiadament

Laura

132 WRITING REFERENCE

informal i colloquial

La descripci dun lloc


La descripci dun lloc pot ser la dun edifici, una
habitaci, una ciutat, una rea o la duna vista; i en ella
podrem parlar de coses com laspecte del lloc o les
coses que hi succeeixen i per qu ens agrada o disgusta
aquest lloc.

Recorda!
1 Estructura

En la introducci cita el nom del lloc i la seva situaci


geogrfica.
En els pargrafs segents descriu el lloc i explica
el motiu pel qual a tu o a altres persones us agrada
el lloc.
En lltim pargraf torna a explicar per qu s un bon
lloc per visitar.

2 Contingut

Escull un lloc que coneguis b.


Utilitza adjectius per descriure laspecte i latmosfera
del lloc.

Vocabulari dutilitat
Ubicaci: ten minutes from where I live / on the coast / in
the town centre / opposite / next to / near
Superlatius: the oldest / the most beautiful / the best
Emetre lopini personal: What I like about is / I love
Donar raons: because / The main reason is
Adjectius: old / new / traditional / beautiful / small / big
/ quiet / busy
Donar consells: I think everyone should visit

Pregunta model
Describe a place that tourists like to visit in your area. Do you like to go there?
Descriu un lloc de la teva regi que els agradi visitar als turistes. s un lloc al qual tagradaria anar a tu?
Resposta model
Ten minutes from my house is the most beautiful
area in the south of England. It is called The New
Forest and people from different parts of England
and different countries often come here on holiday.

on s?; superlatiu
nom del lloc

The New Forest is a very large area of natural forest


and there are a lot of animals that live there. Horses
and donkeys walk everywhere and sometimes you
can even see pigs, cows and ducks crossing the road.

qu s?

What I like about the New Forest is that the colours


of the forest change during the year. In autumn the
leaves are red and gold and in the spring everything
is purple and different shades of green. The trees are
always colourful and different.

opini personal

Tourists often prefer to go to the small villages in


the New Forest with pretty houses and traditional
restaurants. I love to walk along the rivers and
through the trees because there you can see the true
heart of the forest.

adjectius

raons

WRITING REFERENCE

133

Una redacci dopini


La descripci dun lloc pot ser la dun edifici, una
habitaci, una ciutat, una rea o la duna vista; i en ella
podrem parlar de coses com laspecte del lloc o les
coses que hi succeeixen i per qu ens agrada o disgusta
aquest lloc.

1 Estructura

Dna exemples i parla desdeveniments que no et


resultin complicats de narrar.
Utilitza adverbis de temps i connectors per enllaar
pargrafs i oracions.
No parlis davantatges ni desavantatges.

Vocabulari dutilitat

Recorda!

2 Contingut

Divideix larticle en pargrafs.


En el pargraf 1 introdueix el tema de larticle i dna la
teva opini.
En el pargraf 2 (i 3) escriu per qu tagrada el tema de
larticle.
En lltim pargraf escriu una breu conclusi. Aquesta
conclusi s normalment un resum del que has dit fins
ara.

Donar opinions: In my opinion I think that I feel very


strongly that It is clear that I (completely) agree/
disagree with
Enllaar: Because However Also Therefore
Although
Adverbis de temps: Firstly Secondly Finally
Donar raons: My main reason is Another reason is
Conclusi: To conclude To finish I think is clear that

Pregunta model
It is better to travel around your own country instead of going abroad on holiday. Do you agree?
s millor viatjar pel teu pas que anar de vacances a lestranger. Hi ests dacord, amb aquesta afirmaci?

Resposta model

134 WRITING REFERENCE

I think that it is wonderful to travel to different


countries and therefore I completely disagree with
the idea that it is better to stay in your own country.

donar lopini
enllaar

I feel very strongly that we should visit as many


countries as possible. If we visit another
country we can learn a lot. We can learn about the
culture, we can meet the people and we can find out
about different ways of life. We can eat new food,
listen to a variety of music and learn about customs. We
can also practise a foreign language.

donar lopini

Another reason for visiting other countries is that it


is good for relations between countries. When we
know about peoples customs and culture we can
understand the people better. If people travel more
to other countries perhaps there will be less fighting
in the world.

donar raons

I think it is clear that going abroad on holiday can


only be good for us and although I love my own country
I would like to visit as many different countries as I can.

donar lopini
enllaar

enllaar

donar lopini

Una carta formal


La descripci dun lloc pot ser la dun edifici, una
habitaci, una ciutat, una rea o la duna vista; i en ella
podrem parlar de coses com laspecte del lloc o les
coses que hi succeeixen i per qu ens agrada o disgusta
aquest lloc.

3 Estructura i contingut

Explica sempre el motiu pel qual escrius la carta.


Enllaa les oracions amb and / but / because.
Divideix la carta en pargrafs que destaquin per
la seva claredat.

Vocabulari dutilitat
Recorda!
1 Esquema

Escriu la teva adrea a la part superior dreta de la pgina.


Escriu la data sota ladrea.
Sota la data i en la part superior esquerra de la pgina
escriu el nom i ladrea de la persona o companyia a la qual
va adreada la carta.
Al final de la carta, escriu el teu nom sota la signatura.

2 Estil

Utilitza un llenguatge formal, no colloquial.


No facis servir contraccions.
Utilitza verbs modals com would, should, could.

Salutacions: Dear Mr / Ms Harkness (si saps el nom)


/ Dear Sir or Madam per MAI Dear Manager (si
no saps el nom).
Raons per escriure la carta: I am writing to apply / to
ask you / to complain about
Expressions de tipus formal: I would like Could you
send me I am afraid
Documents adjunts: I enclose my CV.
Persona de contacte: Please contact me if you need
any more information.
Acomiadament: I look forward to hearing from you.
Yours faithfully, (si no saps el nom de la persona) /
Yours sincerely, (si saps el nom de la persona).

Pregunta model
You see an advertisement for assistant photographer in the newspaper. Write a letter applying for the job.
Imaginat que veus una oferta de treball com a assistent de fotgraf anunciada al diari. Escriu una carta sollicitant
aquesta feina.

Resposta model

15 Runnymede Close
Hythe
Kent
18 July 2008
Mr Parker
Perky Photos
High Street
Hythe
Dear Mr Parker,

Adrea

data
nom
adrea

salutaci

With reference to your advertisement for an assistant photographer


in last weeks Echo, I am writing to apply for the position. I am
studying fashion photography at Hythe College and I won the year
prize in 2007.

expressi formal
ra per la qual
sescriu la carta

I enclose my CV and some of my recent photos. I also enclose my


application form. Please contact me if you need any more information.

documents adjunts
contacte

I would be happy to attend an interview and if I am successful


I could start work at the beginning of September.

formal

I look forward to hearing from you.


Yours sincerely,

final de la carta
acomiadament

Ron Gates
Ron Gates
WRITING REFERENCE
W

135

La descripci duna persona


Quan es fa la descripci duna persona sinforma el
lector de laparena fsica i el carcter de la persona;
i es pot tractar duna persona que es coneix en el
moment de fer la descripci, duna persona que es
va conixer en el passat o dalg fams.

Acaba donant lopini que altres persones tenen


daquesta persona.
Utilitza diferents adjectius i superlatius perqu la
descripci resulti interessant.

Vocabulari dutilitat
Recorda!

Utilitza temps verbals en pretrit si vols descriure una


persona que vas conixer en el passat.
Utilitza temps verbals en present si vols descriure una
persona que encara coneixes.
Comena la descripci dient A QUI descriurs i PER
QU has escollit descriure aquesta persona.
Descriu-ne laparena fsica (nhi haur prou amb una
o dues oracions).
Descriu-ne el carcter i, si tens loportunitat, cita un
exemple que mostri b el carcter daquesta persona.
Utilitza el present per a la descripci del seu carcter.

Aparena fsica: tall / short / slim / old / young / pretty /


good-looking / dark hair / fair hair/ blue eyes /
she looks / looked like
Edat: ten years old / about ten
Roba: she wore / wears smart clothes / jeans / T-shirts
/ dresses
Carcter: kind / intelligent / shy / outgoing / honest /
hard-working / lazy
Modificadors: very / quite / extremely / a little
Memries: I remember that I still remember his / her
Coses de tipus general: everyone loves / loved him / her
I shall always remember / never forget

Pregunta model
Write a description of one of your first teachers. Why do you remember him or her?
Escriu la descripci dun dels primers professors que vas tenir. Per qu recordes aquesta persona?

Resposta model
My first teacher was very tall and quite old. Perhaps
I thought that because I was very short and quite
young! I was five years old. My teachers name was
Miss Dunn and I adored her.

modificador
adjectius
edat

I remember that Miss Dunn had long, dark hair and


a big smile. She was always kind to the children.
Her voice was soft and she never shouted. She was slim,
like a model, and she wore long skirts and pretty blouses.
We all thought she was like a queen.

memries
aparena
exemple
roba

Miss Dunn was an extremely kind person and everyone


loved her but she was also a very good teacher. She taught
us all how to read and write.
I still remember the things she said and I would really like
to meet her now and say Thank you for everything you
taught me.

136 WRITING REFERENCE

exemple
memries

Un resum
Sescriu un resum per transmetre en termes breus i
concisos les idees principals dun text.

Recorda!

Transmet les idees principals.


No incloguis exemples ni donis gaires detalls.
No copis molt del text a resumir; intenta utilitzar les
teves paraules sempre que puguis.
No hi afegeixis res i no donis la teva opini.

Preparaci

Llegeix el text que has de resumir una primera vegada.


Fes-te la pregunta segent: De qu tracta el text?
Anota algunes paraules que podrien ser tils.
Torna a llegir el text i subratlla les paraules o
conceptes ms importants.

Sense tornar a llegir el text, escriu quatre oracions


curtes que parlin del text.
Enllaa aquestes oracions amb connectors.
Torna a llegir el text, revisa el nombre de paraules que
has utilitzat per construir les oracions i escriu una
ltima versi en net del teu resum.

Vocabulari dutilitat
Connectors (que mostren contrast): Although /
However, / In spite of
Connectors (que afegeixen ms informaci): Both /
Also / In addition to this
Connectors (que indiquen causa i resultat): Because /
So
Oracions de relatiu: The programme, which was watched
by millions of people,

Pregunta model
Summarize the following text in no more than 50 words.
Resumeix el text segent sense excedir les 50 paraules.

Text model
Cosmetic surgery is an enormously successful business
today. Millions of pounds are spent in the UK and the
amount is increasing every year.
Many years ago it was only the rich and famous who
had enough money to pay for such operations. Today,
however, ordinary people are spending their money
on looking younger and on becoming more beautiful.
If a young man or woman doesnt like his or her chin
or nose they can change them.
There are some worrying trends. The age of the people
paying for cosmetic surgery is getting younger and
younger and TV programmes show us the terrible
mistakes that can happen. In spite of the dangers many
teenagers no longer want a new car for their birthday
they want a new nose.

Popular
cara

tant homes com dones


parts del cos
cada cop ms s gent jove la que
pot ser perillosa

Resposta model
Cosmetic surgery is becoming more popular with
younger men and women who do not need the
operations to look younger. They want to improve parts
of themselves that they do not like. These operations
can be both very expensive and sometimes dangerous
but the number is continuing to grow.

WRITING REFERENCE

137

Una redacci de debat


Sescriu una redacci de debat per expressar opinions
a favor i en contra dun assumpte; per exemple, es pot
discutir sobre els avantatges o desavantatges
dalguna cosa o les raons per les quals hem fer o no
alguna cosa.

Recorda!

Escriu sobre les postures que es prenen respecte de


largument que cal debatre.

1 Estructura

Introdueix lassumpte a debatre en el primer pargraf.


Continua donant arguments a favor o parlant dels
avantatges en el pargraf segent.
Ara introdueix els arguments en contra o els
desavantatges.
Expressa la teva opini personal en lltim pargraf.

2 Context

Preparat abans de posar-te a escriure creant una breu


llista de punts a favor i en contra. Escull els arguments
que et resultin ms fcils de desenvolupar.
Illustra els arguments amb exemples sempre que
puguis.
Utilitza locucions i conjuncions que et permetin
introduir els arguments a favor i en contra.

Vocabulari dutilitat
Per comenar: Many people think / say that
Per fer comentaris sobre el tema: This is a very difficult
question. We must consider many things.
Adverbis i frases introductries: Firstly, / Secondly, /
Finally, / One advantage is
Conjuncions I frases per expressar contrast: However /
But / On the other hand
Per afegir ms informaci: Another point is / Also
Conjuncions I frases que expressen causalitat: Because /
This is because / So / Therefore

Pregunta model
Should children under ten use mobile phones?
s bo que els nens ms petits de deu anys utilitzin telfons mbils?

Resposta model
Most people have mobile phones and use them
every day. However, many people think that children,
in particular, use mobile phones too much. We must
consider several points.

138 WRITING REFERENCE

Contrast
comentari

On the one hand, it is good for children to have mobile


phones because their parents can contact them. If
the children have a problem they can phone someone
for help.

contrast
causa

On the other hand, many doctors believe that mobile


phones are bad for our health. This is worse if we start
to use phones when we are very young. Another point
is that children use phones for texting their friends and
some teachers say that writing skills, like spelling, are
getting worse.

contrast

In my opinion, mobile phones are useful for children


to have but they must learn not to use them too often.

opini personal

afegir ms informaci

Una narraci
Sescriu una narraci per explicar un esdeveniment real o
imaginari. Aquest esdeveniment pot ser emocionant,
divertit o aterrador; i, amb freqncia, ha tingut lloc en
el passat.

Recorda!

Utilitza temps verbals en pretrit.


Utilitza expressions de temps.
Utilitza adverbis de temps per unir oracions.
Aconsegueix que el comenament del relat sigui interessant.
Comena amb una oraci curta, inusual, una pregunta retrica,
etc.
Utilitza adjectius i expressa els teus sentiments.
Divideix el relat en pargrafs clarament separats els uns dels
altres.
Dna per ben acabada la histria que expliquis al final del relat.

Vocabulari dutilitat
Expressions de temps: last week, ago, at ten
oclock, suddenly, since, for
Locucions adverbials: at first, later, after that,
then
Conjuncions de temps: when, while, as soon as
Oracions per comenar la redacci: It was the
best day of my life. One of my worst memories
is It was raining.
Adjectius per expressar sentiments: happy /
surprised / frightened / cold / excited
Per acabar la redacci: In the end It had been
an interesting day. What a day! Never again!

Pregunta model
Write about a good concert that you have been to.
Escriu sobre un bon concert al qual hagis assistit.

Resposta model
Last summer I went to an open air concert in Hyde Park
and it was probably the best night of my life!

expressions de temps
comenament interessant

I went with three friends from college. We all love


Madonna so the 200-mile journey was not a problem
for us. It took hours and we ate and slept on the
coach too.

temps verbals en pretrit

When we finally got to Hyde Park a lot of people


had already arrived. Everyone was talking, listening
to music and waiting for the concert to begin. It was
very noisy and I was very excited.

conjuncions i expressions de temps


temps verbals en pretrit

After about an hour it got dark and suddenly different


coloured flashing lights came on and very loud music
started playing. Then Madonna appeared. The
atmosphere was electric and everyone shouted her
name. She sang for two hours and we were thrilled.

expressions de temps

We went home on the coach again. We were very tired,


but very, very happy!

final definit

adjectius que expressen sentiments

adjectius que expressen sentiments

WRITING REFERENCE

139

Speaking reference
Describing something

Discussing a topic

Functional language

Describing photos

Talking about likes and dislikes

Making suggestions

The photo shows

I love / (really) like + verb + -ing

We could

There is / are

I hate / cant stand + verb + -ing

We dont we

You can see

I dont mind + verb + -ing

How about + verb + -ing ?

On the left / right


In the foreground / background

Talking about new experiences


Have you ever been to ?

Lets
Would you like to + infinitive?
Do you fancy + verb + -ing ?

Describing places

What did you think of ?

This place is

Did you see / her / go ?

Responding to suggestions

Its a good place for + verb + -ing

I saw / heard / went to ?

No, thanks.

There was / were

Sorry, but

Describing objects
It looks

Asking for opinions

Its a thing for + verb + -ing

What about you?

Its a thing you use to + infinitive

Do you agree?

Its a kind of
Its made of

Giving opinions
I (dont) agree (with you).

Explaining what you mean

Im not sure.

Im not sure what its called in English,


but

In my opinion, .

I dont know what its called in English,


but

Id say that

First impressions

Expressing surprise and


disbelief

I think hes / shes / its


He / She / It looks (a bit / very)

I think / believe that

Thats amazing / incredible /


unbelievable!

Id rather + infinitive
Id love to.
That would be great.

Asking for advice


Can you give me some advice?
What would you do?
What should I do?
Should(nt) I ?

Giving advice
If I were you, Id
Couldnt you ?
Why dont you ?

Making requests

You must be kidding / joking!

Do you mind if ?

Are you serious?

Do you think you could ?

Its the best / worst

That cant be true!

Could(nt) I / you ?

It is(nt) as as

I dont believe a word of it.

Would that be alright?

Comparing places, things or


people

Its than

Responding to requests

Its too

No, Im afraid not.

It isnt enough.

That depends.
Sure.
No problem.
Yes, of course.

140 SPEAKING REFERENCE

Word building reference


adjectiu adverbi

Sufixos
Podem afegir sufixos a verbs, adjectius i substantius per
canviar la funci gramatical duna paraula. Aix, per
exemple:

Verb
enjoy

Adjectiu
enjoyable

Adverbi
enjoyably

Ortografia
Quan safegeixen sufixos a certes paraules cal fer algunes
petites modificacions ortogrfiques.

Paraules que acaben en -e


La major part de les paraules perden la -e final quan sels
afegeix un sufix
educate
education
imagine
imagination
mature
maturity
style
stylish
Paraules que acaben en -y
Se substitueix la -y final per -i quan sels afegeix un sufix
comedy
comedian
happy
happily / happiness
history

historian / historical

mystery

mysterious

No obstant, hi ha altres tipus de modificacions


ortogrfiques que no segueixen regles fixes. Les haurs
daprendre de memria. Exemples:
able

ability

Spain

Spanish

Adjectiu + -ly
slow
quick

slowly
quickly

Hi ha modificacions ortogrfiques i formes irregulars que


thas daprendre de memria, com per exemple:

-y -ily
angry
angrily
lucky
luckily
-ic -ically
basic
basically
enthusiastic
enthusiastically
No es produeix cap modificaci
fast
fast
straight
straight

adjectiu verb
Adjectiu -e + -ify
pure
simple
Adjectiu + -ize
modern
social

purify
simplify
modernize
socialize

adjectiu substantiu
Adjectiu -ant + -ance
tolerant
important
Adjectiu -ent + -ence
different
violent
Adjectiu + -y / -ty / -ity
honest
loyal
mature

tolerance
importance
difference
violence
honesty
loyalty
maturity

WORD BUILDING

141

Word building reference


substantiu adjectiu
Substantiu + -able
fashion
misery
Substantiu + -al
nation
nature
Substantiu + -ful
joy
pain
Substantiu + -ive
effect
expense
Substantiu + -ous
fame
glamour

verb adjectiu
fashionable
miserable
national
natural
joyful
painful
effective
expensive
famous
glamourous

substantiu substantiu
Substantiu + -ian
Australia
history
Substantiu + -ist
art
tour

Australian
historian
artist
tourist

substantiu substantiu
Substantiu -ism
critic
race
Substantiu -hood
boy
child
Substantiu + -ship
citizen
champion

142 WORD BUILDING

criticism
racism
boyhood
childhood
citizenship
championship

Verb + -able
enjoy
rely
Verb + -ive
attract
compete

enjoyable
reliable
attractive
competitive

verb substantiu
Verb + -ance
appear
attend
Verb + -ation
adore
explain
Verb + -ion
create
predict
Verb + -ment
argue
improve

appearance
attendance
adoration
explanation
creation
prediction
argument
improvement

verb substantiu
Verb + -ant
emigrate
inhabit
Verb + -ent
reside
study
Verb + -er
drive
explore
Verb + -or
direct
visit

emigrant
inhabitant
resident
student
driver
explorer
director
visitor

Word building reference


Prefixos

Prefixos negatius

Podem afegir prefixos a verbs, adjectius i substantius per


canviar el significat de la paraula. De vegades, cal introduir
un gui quan safegeix un prefix a una paraula.

Prefixos adverbials, nominatius i verbals


Prefix
ex-boyfriend
international
microwave
non-smoking
overreact
rebuild
underestimate

Significat
anterior, antic
que connecta
molt petit
no
massa, sobrede nou
massa poc, sub-

Podem afegir prefixos negatius com dis-, il-, im-, in-,


ir-, non- y un- a adjectius positius per formar adjectius
negatius. Aix, per exemple:
dishonest illogical impatient independent
irrational non-smoking unkind

Adjectius que comencen per p-i mMolts dels adjectius que comencen per p- i m- prenen el
prefix negatiu immature
immature
possible

impossible

Paraules que comencen per lMolts dels adjectius que comencen per l- prenen el prefix
negatiu illegal
illegal
logical

illogical

Paraules que comencen per rMolts dels adjectius que comencen per r- prenen el prefix
negatiu irrational
irrational
responsible

irresponsible

Hi ha moltes excepcions a aquestes regles que haurs de


memoritzar, com per exemple:
unpredictable

unlovable

unreasonable

WORD BUILDING

143

Vocabulary
Unit 1 Time out
Special occasions: nouns
birthday /"b3;TdeI/ aniversari
celebration /selI"breISn/ celebraci
Christmas /22"krIsm@s/ Nadal
decoration /dek@"reiSn/ decoraci
Diwali /di;"wA;li/ Diwali (festa hind)
Easter /"I;st@/ Setmana Santa
Eid ul-Adha /I;d Ul "A;d@/ Eid ul-Adha (festa musulmana)
festival /"festIvl/ festival, festa
fireworks /"faI@w3;ks/ focs dartifici
Halloween /h&l@U"i;n/ viglia de Tots els Sants
Mothers Day /"mVD@z deI/ dia de la Mare
New Years Day /nju; j3;z "deI/ dia dAny Nou
New Years Eve /nju; j3;z "I;v/ Nit de Nadal
party /"pA;ti/ festa
Valentines Day /"v&l@ntaInz deI/ dia dels enamorats
Special occasions: verbs
celebrate /"selIbreIt/ celebrar
go out (for dinner) /g@U "aUt (f@ dIn@)/ sortir (a sopar)
invite somebody round /In"vaIt sVmb@di "raUnd/
invitar alg a casa
pray /preI/ resar
put up /pUt "Vp / penjar
set off /set "Qf / encendre, prendre
Adverbs of frequency
always /"O;lweIz/ sempre
never /"nev@/ mai
often /"Qft@n/ sovint
sometimes /"sVmtaImz/ a vegades
usually /"ju;Zu@li/ normalment
Adjectives + prepositions
afraid of: be afraid of /@"freId @v/ tenir por de
depressed about /dI"prest @baUt/ deprimit per
disappointed with /dIs@"pOIntId wID/ decebut amb
excited about /Ik"saItId @baUt/ emocionat per
furious with /"fjU@ri@s wID/ furis amb
good at /"gUd @t/ bo en
interested in /"Intr@stId In/ interessat en
rude to: be rude to /"ru;d tu;/ tractar amb mala educaci
shocked by /"SQkt baI/ escandalitzat per
sorry for: be sorry for /"sQri f@/ compadir-se de
surprised by /s@"praIzd baI/ sorprs de
tired of /"taI@d @v/ cansat de
Time expressions
already /O;l"redi/ ja
eve /"ev@/ sempre/algun cop
for /fO;/ durant/per
lately /"leItlI/ ltimament, recentment
never /"nev@/ mai
144 VOCABULARY

since /sIns/ des de


yet /jet/ encara / ja
Phrasal verbs
clear up /klI@ sVmTIN "Vp / recollir, netejar
dress up /dres "Vp/ vestir-se
get together /get t@"geD@/ ajuntar-se, reunir-se
join in /dZOIn "In/ participar
share out /Se@ sVmTIN "aUt/ repartir
turn up /t3;n "Vp/ arribar, aparixer

Unit 2 Around the world


Places: adjectives
beautiful /"bju;tIfl/ precis
boring /"bO;rIN/ avorrit
crowded /"kraUdId/ abarrotat, concorregut
damp /d&mp/ humit
deserted /dI"z3;tId/ desert
dry /draI/ sec
exciting /Ik"saItIN/ emocionant
historical /hI"stQrIkl/ histric
humid /"hju;mId/ humit (noms atmosfera)
modern /"mQdn/ modern
noisy /"nOIzi/ sorolls
peaceful /"pi;sfl/ tranquil
picturesque /pIktS@"resk/ pintoresc
quiet /"kwaI@t/ silencis, tranquil
stressful /"stresfl/ estressant
ugly /"Vgli/ lleig
wild /waIld/ salvatge
Places: nouns
beach /bi;tS/ platja
city /"sIti/ ciutat
continent /"kQntIn@nt/ continent
countryside /"kVntrIsaId/ camp
gallery /"g&l@ri/ museu dart
market /"mA;kIt/ mercat
mountain /"maUnt@n/ muntanya
museum /mju"zi@m/ museu
town /taUn/ ciutat petita
village /"vIlIdZ/ poble
wildlife /"waIldlaIf/ fauna
youth hostel /"ju;T hQstl/ alberg de joventut
Easily confused words
achieve (v.) /@"tSi;v/ aconseguir, assolir, dur a terme
expect (v.) /Ik"spekt/ esperar, imaginar-se, suposar
foreigner (n.) /"fQrIn@/ estranger
hope (v.) /hQp/ esperar (tenir lesperana)
journey (n.) /"dZ3;nI/ viatge
look (v.) /lUk mirar, semblar
lose (v.) /lu;z/ perdre
manage (v.) /"m&nIdZ/ dirigir, aconseguir

Vocabulary
miss (v.) /mIs/ enyorar; (bus, etc.) perdre
reach (v.) /ri;tS/ arribar a, aconseguir, posar-se
en contacte amb alg
remember (v.) /rI"memb@/ recordar, recordar-se
remind (v.) /rI"maInd/ recordar (p.ex. to ~ sb that:
recordar a alg que)
see (v.) /si;/ veure, visitar, entendre
stranger (n.) /"streIndZe/ desconegut, foraster
travel (n.) /"tr&vl/ viatge (activitat en general;
p.ex. travel agency: agncia de viatges)
trip (n.) /trIp/ viatge (un en concret; inclou lestana en un
lloc; p.ex. a business trip: un viatge de negocis)
voyage (n.) /"vOIIdZ/ viatge (per mar, per lespai)
watch (v.) /wQtS/ veure, mirar, observar

Unit 3 Television
Television: nouns
cartoon /kA;"tu;n/ dibuixos animats
chat show /"tS&t S@U/ programa dentrevistes
contestant /k@n"test@nt/ concursant
detective series /dI"tektIv sI@ri;z/ srie policaca
documentary /dQkju"mentri/ documental
episode /"epIs@Ud/ episodi
game show /"geIm S@U/ concurs
programme /"pr@Ugr&m/ programa
reality show /ri"&l@ti S@U/ reality show
script /skrIpt/ gui
sitcom /"sItkQm/ telecomdia
station /"steISn/ emissora
the news /D@ "nju;z/ les notcies
Television: verbs
appear in /@"pI@ In/ aparixer a
ban /b&n/ prohibir
broadcast /"brO;dkA;st/ retransmetre
change the channel /tSeIndZ D@ "tS&nl/ canviar de canal
miss /mIs/ perdres
record /rI"kO;d/ gravar
turn off /t3;n "Qf/ apagar
Verbs + prepositions
agree with /@"gri; wID/ estar dacord amb
apply for /@"plaI f@/ demanar, sollicitar
approve of /@"pru;v @v/ estar dacord amb
argue about /"A:gju; @baUt/ discutir sobre
believe in /bI"li;v In/ creure en
depend on /dI"pend Qn/ dependre de
dream about /"dri;m @baUt/ somiar amb
laugh at /"lA;f &t/ riures de
participate in /pA;"tIsIpeIt In/ participar en
shout at /"SaUt &t/ cridar a
think about /"TINk @baUt/ pensar en
wait for /"weIt f@/ esperar a
worry about /"wVri @baUt/ preocupar-se de
Indefinite pronouns and adverbs
anybody /"enIbQdI/ alg
anyone /"enIwVn/ alg
anything /"enITIN/ alguna cosa; res
anywhere /"enIwe@/ en algun lloc, a cap lloc,
en qualsevol lloc
everyone /"evrIbQdI/ tots, -es/ tothom
everybody /"evrIwVn/ tots, -es/ tothom
everything /"evrITIN/ tot

everywhere /"evrIwe@/ a tot arreu


nobody /"n@UbQdI/ ning
no one /"n@UwVn/ ning
nothing /"n@UTIN/ res
nowhere /"n@Uwe@/ enlloc
somebody /"sVmbQdI/ alg
someone /"sVmwVn/ alg
something /"sVmTIN/ alguna cosa
do and make
do /Du;/ fer
exercise /"eks@saIz/ fer exercici
somebody a favour /sVmb@di @ "feIv@/ fer-li un favor
a alg
the shopping /De "SQpIN/ fer la compra
well /wel/ anar b, progressar b
your best /j@ "best/ fer-ho el millor possible
your homework /j@ "h@Umw3;k/ fer els deures
make /meIk/
a decision /@ dI"sIZn/ prendre una decisi
an effort /@n "ef@t/ fer un esfor
a mistake /@ mI"steIk/ cometre un error
a noise /@ "nOiz/ fer un soroll
friends /frendz/ fer amics
plans /pl&nz/ fer plans

Unit 4 Technology
Technology: nouns
computer /k@m"pju;t@/ ordinador
digital camera /dIdZItl "k&m@r@/ cmera digital
email /"i;meIl/ correu electrnic
gadget /"g&dZIt/ aparell
games console /"geImz k@n s@Ul/ consola de jocs
hair dryer /"he@draI@/ assecador de cabell
lawn-mower /"lO;n m@U@/ tallagespa
machine /m@"Si;n/ mquina
mobile phone /"m@UbaIl f@Un/ telfon mbil
MP3 player /empi;"Tri; pleI@/ reproductor dMP3
remote control /rIm@Ut k@n"tr@Ul/ comandament a distncia
robot /"r@UbQt/ robot
text message /tekst "mesIdZ/ missatge de text
vacuum cleaner /"v&kju@m kli;n@/ aspiradora
stereo /"steri@U/ equip de msica
technology /tek"nQl@dZi/ tecnologia
webcam /"webk&m/ cmera web
Technology: verbs
email /"i;meIl/ enviar un correu electrnic
log in /lQg "In/ entrar
log off /lQg "Qf/ sortir
plug in /plVg "In/ endollar
switch off /swItS "Qf/ apagar
switch on /swItS "Qn/ encendre
turn down /t3;n "daUn/ abaixar (volum)
turn up /t3;n "Vp/ apujar (volum)
unplug /Vn"plVg/ desendollar
Negative adjectives
dishonest /dIs"QnIst/ deshonest
disobedient /dIs@"bi;di@nt/ desobedient
dissatisfied /dIs"s&tIsfaId/ insatisfet
illegal /I"li;gl/ illegal
illogical /I"lQdZIkl/ illgic
impatient /Im"peISnt/ impacient
VOCABULARY 145

Vocabulary
impossible /Im"pQs@bl/ impossible
incomplete /Ink@m"pli;t/ incomplet
independent /IndI"pend@nt/ independent
irrational /I"r&S@nl/ irracional
irresponsible /IrI"spQns@bl/ irresponsable
unbelievable /VnbI"li;v@bl/ increble
unlucky /Vn"lVki/ desafortunat
Reflexive pronouns
herself /h@"self/ es
himself /hIm"self/ es
itself /It"self/ es
myself /maI"self/ em
ourselves /aU@"selvz/ ens
yourself /jO;"self/ et/es
yourselves /jO;"selvz/ us/es
Objects: adjectives
affordable /@"fO;d@bl/ assequible
battery-operated /b&tri "Qp@reItId/ que funciona amb piles
cheap /tSi;p/ barat
complicated /"kQmplIkeItId/ complicat
expensive /Ik"spensIv/ car
gold /g@Uld/ or
heavy /"hevi/ pesat
huge /hju;dZ/ enorme
light /laIt/ lleuger
metal /"metl/ metall
plastic /"pl&stIk/ plstic
pocket-sized /"pQkIt saIzd/ mida de butxaca
portable /"pO;t@bl/ porttil
practical /"pr&ktIkl/ prctic
rectangular /rek"t&Ngj@l@/ rectangular
round /raUnd/ rod
silver /"sIlv@/ plata
simple /"sImpl/ senzill
square /skwe@/ quadrat
stylish /"staIlIS/ amb estil
tiny /"taIni/ molt petit
useful /"ju;sfl/ til
valuable /"v&lju@bl/ valus
versatile /"v3;s@taIl/ verstil

Unit 5 Appearance
Appearance: adjectives
bald /bO;ld/ calb
beautiful /"bju;tIfl/ precis
blond /blQnd/ ros
clean-shaven /kli;n "SeIvn/ acabat dafaitar
curly /"k3;li/ arrissat
dark /dA;k/ fosc
fair /fe@/ clar
freckled /"frekld/ amb pigues
good-looking /gUd "lUkIN/ maco
handsome /"h&ns@m/ maco (un home)
scruffy /"skrVfi/ malgirbat
shoulder-length /"S@Uld@ leNT/ per les espatlles
slim /slim/ prim
spotty /"spQti/ amb grans
straight /streIt/ llis
well-built /Wwel "bIlt / fort
wrinkled /"riNkld/ arrugat
146 VOCABULARY

Appearance: nouns
beauty contest /"bju;ti kQntest/ concurs de bellesa
changing room /"tSeIndZIN ru;m/ emprovador
image /"ImidZ/ imatge
look-alike /"lUk @laIk/ doble
plastic surgery /pl&stIk "s3;dZ@ri/ cirurgia plstica
model /"mQdl/ model
outfit /"aUtfIt/ vestit
style /staIl/ estil
Personality: adjectives
caring /"ke@rIN/ afectus
cheerful /"tSI@fl/ alegre
deceitful /dI"si;tfl/ mentider
dull /dVl/ avorrit, insuls
extroverted /"ekstr@v3;tId/ extravertit
honest /"QnIst/ honest
interesting /"Intr@stIN/ interessant
modest /"mQdIst/ modest
moody /"mu;di/ malhumorat
patient /"peISnt/ pacient
polite /p@"laIt/ educat
rude /ru;d/ mal educat
selfish /"selfIS/ egoista
shy /SaI/ tmid
vain /veIn/ presumit
Compound adjectives
bad-tempered /b&d "temp@d/ malhumorat
big-headed /bIg "hedId/ cregut
broad-shouldered /brO;d "S@Uld@d/ ample despatlles
fair-skinned /fe@ "skInd/ clar de pell
good-natured /gUd "neItS@d/ amable, bondads
long-legged /lQN "legId/ amb les cames llargues
narrow-minded /n&r@U "maIndId / estret de mires
short-sighted /SO;t "saItId/ miop
thick-skinned /TIk "skInd/ fred, impassible
two-faced /tu; "feIsd/ fals, amb dues cares
Nouns: feelings
amusement /@"mju;zm@nt/ alegria, diversi
depression /dI"preS@n/ depressi, abatiment
embarrassment /Im"b&r@sm@nt/ vergonya
excitement /Ik"saItm@nt/ emoci, excitaci
frustration /frV"streIS@n/ frustraci, decepci
happiness /"h&pin@s/ felicitat, alegria
kindness /"kaIndn@s/ amabilitat
loneliness /"l@Unlin@s/ soledat
moodiness /"mu;din@s/ humor variable/mal humor
satisfaction /s&tIs"f&kS@n/ satisfacci
Clothes: adjectives
baggy /"b&gi/ folgat
checked /tSekt/ de quadres
comfortable /"kVmf@t@bl/ cmode
conservative /k@n"s3;v@tIv/ conservador
cotton /"kQtn/ de cot
daring /"de@rIN/ atrevit
denim /"denIm/ texans
embroidered /Im"brOId@d/ brodat
fashionable /"f&S@n@bl/ de moda
fitted /"fItId/ entallat
skin-tight /skIn "taIt/ molt ajustat
sophisticated /s@"fIstIkeItId/ sofisticat
sporty /"spO;ti/ esportiu

Vocabulary
stripy /"straIpi/ de ratlles
trendy /"trendi/ modern
woollen /"wUl@n/ de llana
Clothes: verbs
do up /du; "Vp/ corda
fit /fIt/ quedar b (de talla)
go with /"g@U wID/ anar b amb
look for /"lUk f@/ buscar
suit /sU;t/ caure b
try on /traI "Qn/ emprovar-se

Unit 6 In the news


News: nouns
article /"A;tIkl/ article
editor /"edit@/ redactor cap
headline /"hedlaIn/ titular
journalist /"dZ3;n@lIst/ periodista
newsagent /"nju;zeIdZent/ venedor de diaris
newspaper /"nju;zpeIp@/ diari
newsreader /"nju;zri;d@/ presentador de notcies
paparazzi /p&p@"r&tsi/ paparazzi
paper /"peIp@/ paper
press photographer /pres f@"tQgr@f@/ fotgraf de premsa
report /r@"pO;t/ informe
reporter /r@"pO;t@/ reporter
tabloid /"t&blOId/ diari sensacionalista
News: verbs
interview /"Int@vju;/ entrevista
print /prInt/ imprimir
publish /"pVblIS/ publicar
Adverbs of manner
angrily /"&NgrIli/ enfadat, amb enuig
carefully /"ke@fUli/ amb cura
emotionally /I"m@US@n@li/ emocionalment
enthusiastically /InTju;zi"&stIkli/ amb entusiasme
fast /fA;st/ rpidament
heavily /"hevIli/ pesadament
honestly /"QnIstli/ honestament
silently /"saIl@ntli/ silenciosament
straight /streIt/ recte
suddenly /"sVdnli/ de sobte
traditionally /tr@"dIS@n@li/ tradicionalment
truthfully /"tru;Tf@li/ sincerament
Agent nouns
actor /"&kt@/ actor
assistant /@"sIst@nt/ ajudant
cyclist /"saIklIst/ ciclista
inventor /In"vent@/ inventor
musician /mju;"zIS@n/ msic
photographer /"f@Ut@grA;f@/ fotgraf
politician /pQlI"tIS@n/ poltic
servant /"s3;vnt/ criat, servent
student /"stju;dnt/ alumne, estudiant universitari
traveller /"tr&vl@/ viatger
writer /"raIt@/ escriptor
False friends
actually /"&ktSu@li/ de fet, en realitat
discussion /dI"skVSn/ discussi, debat
educated /"edZukeItId/ culte

eventually /I"ventSu@li/ finalment


notice /"n@UtIs/ fixar-se, adonar-se
pretend /prI"tend/ fingir
rare /re@/ rar, poc freqent
record /rI"kO;d/ gravar
success /s@k"ses/ xit
sympathetic /sImp@"TetIk/ compassiu

Unit 7 Sport
Sports
do /du;/ fer
aerobics /e@"r@UbIks/ aerbic
gymnastics /dZIm"n&stIks/ gimnstica
judo /"dZu;d@U/ judo
kick-boxing /"kIk bQksIN/ kick-boxing
tae kwon do /taI kwQn "d@U/ tae kwon do
weightlifting /"weItlIftIN/ halteroflia
yoga /"j@Ug@/ ioga
go /g@U/ fer
abseiling /"&bseIlIN/ descens en rpel
climbing /"klaImIN/ escalada
ice-skating /"aIs skeItIN/ patinatge sobre gel
diving /"daIvIN/ busseig
mountain biking /"maUnt@n baIkIN/ ciclisme de muntanya
sailing /"seIlIN/ vela
skateboarding /"skeItbO;dIN/ patinatge de monopat
skiing /"ski:IN/ esqu
surfing /"s3;fIN/ surf
wake-boarding /"weIk bO;dIN/ esqu-surf
play /pleI/ jugar a
badminton /"b&dmInt@n/ bdminton
baseball /"beIsbO;l/ beisbol
basketball /"bA;skItbO;l/ bsquet
football /"fUtbO;l/ futbol
tennis /"tennis/ tennis
volleyball /"vQlibO;l/ voleibol
Sport: other nouns
bat /b&t/ bat
board /bO;d/ taula
boot /bu;t/ bota
captain /"k&ptIn/ capit
coach /k@UtS/ entrenador
court /kO;t/ pista, camp de joc
extreme sports /Ik"stri;m spO;tz/ esports de risc
goal /g@Ul/ gol
glove /glVv/ guant
helmet /"helmIt/ casc
ice-rink /"aIs rINk/ pista de patinatge
martial art /mA;Sl "A;t/ art marcial
medal /"medl/ medalla
motocross /"m@Ut@UkrQs/ motocrs
motorbike /"m@Ut@baIk/ motocicleta
pitch /pItS/ camp
race /reIs/ carrera
racket /"r&kIt/ raqueta
referee /ref@"ri;/ rbitre
team /ti;m/ equip
trophy /"tr@Ufi/ trofeu
wet suit /"wetsu;t/ vestit de neopr

VOCABULARY

147

Vocabulary
Adjective suffixes
anxious /"&NkS@s/ ansis
attractive /@"tr&ktIv/ atractiu
competitive /k@m"pet@tIv/ competitiu
dreadful /"dredfl/ espants
effective /I"fektIv/ efica
enjoyable /In"dZOI@bl/ divertit
expensive /Ik"spensIv/ car
famous /"feIm@s/ fams
furious /"fjU@ri@s/ furis
glamorous /"gl&m@r@s/ amb glamur
miserable /"mIzr@bl/ trist
national /"n&Sn@l/ nacional
natural /"n&tSr@l/ natural
painful /"peInfl/ dolors
reasonable /"ri;zn@bl/ raonable
reliable /rI"laI@bl/ de confiana, fiable
successful /s@k"sesfl/ amb xit

Unit 8 Strange stories

Noun collocations
at first /&t "f3;st/ al principi
at random /&t "r&nd@m/ a latzar
by chance /baI "tSA;ns/ per casualitat
by mistake /baI mI"steIk/ per error/equivocaci
for example /fO; Ig"zA;mpl/ per exemple
for fun /fO; "fVn/ en broma
from memory /frQm "mem@rI/ de memria
from now on /frQm "naU Qn/
a partir dara, dara endavant
in favour of /In "feIv@/ a favor de
in trouble /In "trVbl/ tenir problemes
on holiday /Qn "hQlIdeI/ de vacances
on the phone /Qn D@ "f@Un/ per telfon
out of control /aUt @v k@n"tr@Ul/ fora de control
out of order /aUt @v "O;d@/ no funciona

Doubt and belief: nouns


belief /bI"li;f/ creena
coincidence /k@U"InsId@ns/ coincidncia
doubt /daUt/ dubte
fact /f&kt/ fet
fiction /"fIkSn/ ficci
hoax /h@Uks/ broma pesada, engany
mystery /"mIstri/ misteri
nonsense /"nQnsns/ disbarats
story /"stO;ri/ histria
urban myth /3;b@n "mIT/ llegenda urbana

Sport: phrasal verbs


build up /bIld "Vp/ augmentar gradualment
end up /end "Vp/ acabar
give up /gIv "Vp/ deixar
go on /g@U "Qn/ seguir
keep up /k;p "Vp/ seguir el ritme
stick to /"stIk t@/ mantenir-se a
take up /teIk "Vp/ comenar

Prefixes
ex-boyfriend /eks "bOIfrend/ exproms
ex-president /eks "prezId@nt/ expresident
international /Int@"n&Sn@l/ internacional
internet /"int@net/ Internet
microgram /"maIkr@Ugr&m/ microgram
microwave /"maIkr@weIv/ microones
non-fiction /nQn "fIkSn/ que no s ficci
non-smoking /nQn "sm@UkIN/ no fumadors
over-cook /@Uv@ "kUk/ cuinar massa
overreact /@Uv@ri"&kt/ reaccionar desmesuradament
rebuild /ri;"bIld/ reconstruir
return /rI"t3;n/ tornar, retornar
underestimate /Vnd@r"estImeIt/ subestimar
underground /Vnd@"graUnd/ subterrani

Sport: other verbs


beat /bi;t/ vncer
drive /draIv/ conduir
earn /3;n/ guanyar
hit /hIt/ donar
ride /raid/ muntar
score /skO;/ marcar
throw /Tr@U/ tirar
win /wIn/ guanyar

148 VOCABULARY

Adverbs of probability
certainly /"s3;tnli/ sens dubte
definitely /"defIn@tli/ definitivament
maybe /"meIbi/ potser
perhaps /p@"h&ps/ potser
possibly /"pQs@bli/ possiblement
probably /"prQb@bli/ probablement
surely /"SO;li/ segurament
Doubt and belief: adjectives
authentic /O;"TentIk/ autntic
fake /feIk/ fals
genuine /"dZenjuIn/ genu
made-up /"meId Vp/ inventat
real /rI@l/ real
true /tru;/ vertader
weird /wI@d/ estrany

Doubt and belief: verbs


believe /bI"li;v/ creure
doubt /daUt/ dubtar
mislead /mIs"li;d/ confondre

Compound nouns
bus stop /"bVs stQp/ parada dautobs
bus ticket /"bVs tIkIt/ bitllet dautobs
computer game /k@m"pju;t@ geIm/ joc dordinador
computer screen /k@m"pju;t@ skri;n/
pantalla dordinador
photo frame /"f@Ut@U freIm/ marc per a fotos
photo album /"f@Ut@U &lb@m/ lbum de fotos
police car /p@"li;s kA;/ cotxe de policia
police station /p@"li;s steIS@n/ comissaria
school holidays /"sku;l hQlIdeIz/ vacances escolars
school term /"sku;l t3;m/ (escuela, etc.) trimestre
science fiction /"saI@ns fIkS@n/ cincia-ficci

Vocabulary
science lesson /"saI@ns lesn/ classe de cincies
traffic jam /"tr&fIk dZ&m/ embotellament, embs
traffic lights /"tr&fIk laIts/ semfor
TV programme /ti;"vi; pr@Ugr&m/ programa de televisi
TV set /ti;"vi; set/ aparell de televisi
Speech: verbs
chuckle /"tSVkl/ riures
mutter /"mVt@/ murmurar
shout /SaUt/ cridar
smile /smaIl/ somriure
sob /sQb/ sanglotar
wail /weIl/ gemir
whisper /"wIsp@/ parlar en veu baixa
yell /Jel/ xisclar
Reporting verbs
admit /@d"mIt/ admetre, reconixer
apologize (for) /@"pQl@dZaIz (f@)/ demanar disculpes
ask /A;sk/ demanar, preguntar
declare /dIk"le@/ declarar
explain /Ik"spleIn/ explicar
invite /In"vaIt/ invitar
order /"O;d@/ ordenar
say /seI/ dir
tell /tel/ dir, explicar

Unit 9 Music
Music: nouns
album /"&lb@m/ lbum
classical music /kl&sIkl "mju;zIk/ msica clssica
concert /"kQns@t/ concert
concerto /k@n"tS3;t@U/ concert (de msica clssica)
contract /"kQntr&kt/ contracte
cyber band /"saIb@ b&nd/ banda virtual
heavy metal /hevi "metl/ heavy metal
hip hop /"hIp hQp/ hip hop
instrument /"Instr@m@nt/ instrument
internet pirate /Int@net "pair@t/ pirata informtic
jazz /dZ&z/ jazz
lead singer /li;d "sIN@/ cantant principal
manufactured band /m&nju"f&ktS@d b&nd/ grup prefabricat
orchestra /"@;kIstr@/ orquestra
percussionist /p@"kVS@nIst/ percussionista
pop /pQp/ pop
punk /pVNk/ punk
record label /"rekO;d leIbl/ casa discogrfica
rehearsal /rI"h3;sl/ assaig
rock /rQk/ rock
single /"siNgl/ senzill
stage /steidZ/ escenari
studio /"stju;di@U/ estudi
Music: verbs
cancel /"k&nsl/ cancellar
compose /k@m"p@Uz/ compondre
go on tour /g@U Qn "tU@/ anar de gira
manage /"m&nIdZ/ dirigir
promote /pr@"m@Ut/ promocionar
release /rI"li;s/ treure
sign up /saIn "Vp/ contractar
tune /tju;n/ afinar

Adjective + -ed
amazed /@"meIzd/ sorprs
bored /bO;d/ avorrit
confused /k@n"fju;zd/ confs
disappointed /dIs@"pOIntId/ decebut
excited /Ik"saItId/ emocionat
frightened /"fraItnd/ espantat
interested /"Intr@stId/ interessat
tired /"taI@d/ cansat
Adjective + -ing
amazing /@"meIzIN/ sorprenent
boring /"bO;rIN/ avorrit
confusing /k@n"fju;zIN/ que confon
disappointing /dIs@"pOIntIN/ decebedor
exciting /Ik"saItIN/ /emocionant
frightening /"fraItnIN/ /que fa por
interesting /"Intr@stIN/ interessant
tiring /"taI@rIN/ cansat
Nouns from verbs
adoration /&d@"reISn/ adoraci
appearance /@"pI@r@ns/ aparena
argument /"A;gjum@nt/ discussi
attendance /@"tend@ns/ assistncia
communication /k@mju;nI"keISn/ comunicaci
creation /kri"eISn/ creaci
disappointment /dIs@"pOIntm@nt/ decepci
entertainment /ent@"teInm@nt/ entreteniment
explanation /ekspl@"neiSn/ explicaci
imagination /Im&dZI"neISn/ imaginaci
improvement /Im"pru;vm@nt/ millora
performance /p@"fO;m@ns/ actuaci
prediction /prI"dIkSn/ predicci
Artists and the arts
artist /"A;tIst/ artista
cartoonist /kA;"tu;nIst dibuixant de cmics, caricaturista
cast /kA;st/ repartiment
chapter /"tSA&pt@/ captol
director /dI"rekt@/ director
draw (v.) /drO;/ dibuixa
novel /"nQvl/ novella
play live (v.) /pleI "lIv/ tocar en directe
poem /"p@UIm/ poesia, poema
poet /"p@UIt/ poeta
poetry /"p@UItrI/ poesia
portrait /"pO;treIt/ retrat
sculpt (v.) /skVlpt/ esculpir
sculptor /"skVlpt@/ escultor
sculpture /"skVlptS@/ escultura
set /set/ decorat, plat
special effect /speS@l I"fekt/ efecte especial
stunt /stVnt/ escena/presa perillosa
track /tr&k/ (udio) pista; (msica) can, tema
tune /tju;n/ melodia, can

VOCABULARY 149

Phrasal and prepositional verbs


agree with
apologize for
appear on (TV)
apply for
approve of
argue about
ask for
believe in
break down
build up
carry on
clean up
come across
come from
come in
complain about
deal with
depend on
disagree with
do up
dream about
dress up
drive off
fill in
find out
fit in
forget about
get off
get on with
get out
get together
get up
give away
give up (+ -ing)
go across
go ahead
go back
go into
go on
go out
go up
go with
grow up
join in
jump up
keep up
knock over
laugh at
leave behind
lift out
log off
log on

estar dacord amb


demanar disculpes per
sortir a (la televisi)
sollicitar
aprovar, estar dacord amb
discutir sobre
demanar
creure en
espatllar-se
augmentar
continuar
netejar
trobar
ser de
entrar
queixar-se de
ocupar-se de
dependre de
no estar dacord amb
cordar
somiar amb
vestir-se elegantment
marxar (amb cotxe)
emplenar
esbrinar
trobar-se a gust
oblidar-se de
baixa
portar-se b amb
sortir; baixar
reunir-se
llevar-se
regalar
deixar de fer quelcom
creuar
seguir endavant
tornar
entrar a
continuar
apagar-se; sortir
pujar
anar b amb
crixer
participar
saltar
mantenir la posici; continuar
tirar dun cop
riures de
deixar enrere
treure, aixecar
sortir del sistema
entrar en el sistema

150 PHRASAL AND PREPOSITIONAL VERBS

look after
look at
look forward to
look up
make up
meet up with
participate in
pay for
pick up
plug in
put on
put up
rely on
run away
run out
run out of
save up
send off for
send out
set off
set up
share out
shout at sb.
sign up
sit down
sit up
sort out
stand out
stay behind
stay in
stay out
stick to
suffer from
switch off
switch on
take away
take off
take out
take up
think about
try on
turn down
turn off
turn on
turn out (to be)
turn round
turn to
turn up
wait for
wake up
worry about
write about

tenir cura de
mirar a
desitjar
buscar (en el diccionari)
inventar
quedar amb
participar en
pagar
aixecar; recollir
endollar
posar-se
penjar
dependre de
escapar
sortir corrent
quedar-se sense
estalviar
demanar per carta
enviar
sortir; fer explotar
muntar
repartir
cridar a alg
fitxar
seure
incorporar-se
solucionar; ordenar
destacar
quedar-se enrere
quedar-se a casa
quedar-se fora de casa
cenyir-se a
patir de
apagar
encendre
treure; emportar-se
enlairar-se (avi)
treure
comenar (un curs/hobby)
pensar en
emprovar-se
abaixar (volum)
apagar
encendre
resultar (ser)
girar-se
convertir-se en
apujar (volum)
esperar
despertar(-se)
preocupar-se de
escriure sobre

Irregular verbs
infinitive
be /bi;/
bear /be@/
beat /bi;t/
become /bIkVm/
begin /bIgIn/
bend /bend/
bet /bet/
bite /baIt/
bleed /bli;d/
blow /bl@U/
break /breIk/
bring /brIN/
build /bIld/
burn /b3;n/
buy /baI/
catch /k&tS/
choose /tSu;z/
come /kVm/
cost /kQst/
cut /kVt/
dig /dIg/
do /du;/
draw /drO;/
dream /dri;m/
drink /drINk/
drive /draIv/
eat /i;t/
fall /fO;l/
feed /fi;d/
feel /fi;l/
fight /faIt/
find /faInd/
fly /flaI/
forbid /f@bId/
forget /f@get/
forgive /f@gIv/
freeze /fri;z/
get /get/
give /gIv/
go /g@U/
grow /gr@U/
hang /h&N/
have /h&v/
hear /hI@/
hit /hIt/
hold /h@Uld/
hurt /h3;t/
keep /ki;p/
know /n@U/
lead /li;d/
learn /l3;n/
leave /li;v/
lend /lend/
let /let/

past simple
was / were /wQz/
bore /bO;/
beat /bi;t/
became /bIkeIm/
began /bIg&n/
bent /bent/
bet /bet/
bit /bIt/
bled /bled/
blew /blu;/
broke /br@Uk/
brought /brO;t/
built /bIlt/
burned, burnt /b3;nd, b3;nt/
bought /bO;t/
caught /kO;t/
chose /tS@Uz/
came /keIm/
cost /kQst/
cut /kVt/
dug /dVg/
did /dId/
drew /dru;/
dreamed, dreamt /dri;md, dremt/
drank /dr&Nk/
drove /dr@Uv/
ate /eIt/
fell /fel/
fed /fed/
felt /felt/
fought /fO;t/
found /faUnd/
flew /flu;/
forbade /f@beId/
forgot /f@gQt/
forgave /f@geIv/
froze /fr@Uz/
got /gQt/
gave /geIv/
went /went/
grew /gru;/
hung /hVN/
had /h&d/
heard /h3;d/
hit /hIt/
held /held/
hurt /h3;t/
kept /kept/
knew /nju;/
led /led/
learnt, learned /l3;nt, l3;nt/
left /left/
lent /lent/
let /let/

past participle
been /bi;n/
borne /bO;n/
beaten /bi;t@n/
become /bIkVm/
begun /bIgVn/
bent /bent/
bet /bet/
bitten /bItn/
bled /bled/
blown /bl@Un/
broken /br@Ukn/
brought /brO;t/
built /bIlt/
burned, burnt /b3;nd, b3;nt/
bought /bO;t/
caught /kO;t/
chosen /tS@Uzn/
come /kVm/
cost /kQst/
cut /kVt/
dug /dVg/
done /dVn/
drawn /drO;n/
dreamed, dreamt /dri;md, dremt/
drunk /drVNk/
driven /drIv@n/
eaten /i;t@n/
fallen /fO;l@n/
fed /fed/
felt /felt/
fought /fO;t/
found /faUnd/
flown /fl@Un/
forbidden /f@bIdn/
forgotten /f@gQtn/
forgiven /f@gIvn/
frozen /fr@Uz@n/
got /gQt/
given /gIvn/
been / gone /bi;n, gQn/
grown /gr@Un/
hung /hVN/
had /h&d/
heard /h3;d/
hit /hIt/
held /held/
hurt /h3;t/
kept /kept/
known /n@Un/
led /led/
learnt, learned /l3;nt, l3;nt/
left /left/
lent /lent/
let /let/

translation
ser, estar
aguantar
guanyar
esdevenir
comenar
doblegar
apostar
mossegar
sagnar
bufar
trencar
portar
construir
burned / cremar
comprar
agafar
escollir
venir
costar
cortar
cavar
fer
dibuixar
somiar
beure
conduir
menjar
caure
donar de
sentir(se)
barallar(se)
trobar
volar
prohibir
oblidar
perdonar
congelar(se)
obtenir, aconseguir
donar
anar
crixer
penjar
tenir
escoltar
pegar
tenir (a la m)
ferir, fer(-se) mal
mantenir
saber, conixer
dirigir
aprendre
deixar, abandonar
deixar prestat
permetre
IRREGULAR VERBS

151

infinitive
lie /laI/
light /laIt/
lose /lu;z/
make /meIk/
mean /mi;n/
meet /mi;t/
pay /peI/
put /pUt/
read /ri;d/
ride /raId/

past simple
lay /leI/
lit /lIt/
lost /lQst/
made /meId/
meant /ment/
met /met/
paid /peId/
put /pUt/
read /red/
rode /r@Ud/

past participle
lain /leIn/
lit /lIt/
lost /lQst/
made /meId/
meant /ment/
met /met/
paid /peId/
put /pUt/
read /red/
ridden /rIdn/

ring /rIN/
rise /raIz/
run /rVn/
say /seI/
see /si;/
sell /sel/
send /send/
shake /SeIk/
shine /SaIn/
shoot /Su;t/
show /S@U/
shut /SVt/
sing /sIN/
sink /sINk/
sit /sIt/
sleep /sli;p/
smell /smel/
speak /spi;k/
spell /spel/
spend /spend/
spill /spIl/
spin /spIn/
split /splIt/
spoil /spOIl/
spread /spred/
spring /sprIN/
stand /st&nd/
steal /sti;l/
stick /stIk/
sting /stIN/
sweep /swi;p/
swim /swIm/
swing /swIN/
take /teIk/
teach /ti;tS/
tear /te@/
tell /tel/
think /TINk/
throw /Tr@U/
understand /Vnd@st&nd/
wake /weIk/
wear /we@/
win /wIn/
write /raIt/

rang /r&N/
rose /r@Uz/
ran /r&n/
said /sed/
saw /sO;/
sold /s@Uld/
sent /sent/
shook /SUk/
shone /SQn/
shot /SQt/
showed /S@Ud/
shut /SVt/
sang /s&N/
sank /s&Nk/
sat /s&t/
slept /slept/
smelt /smelt/
spoke /sp@Uk/
spelt /spelt/
spent /spent/
spilt /spIlt/
spun /spVn/
split /splIt/
spoilt /spOIl/
spread /spred/
sprang /spr&N/
stood /stUd/
stole /st@Ul/
stuck /stVk/
stung /stVN/
swept /swept/
swam /sw&m/
swung /swVN/
took /tUk/
taught /tO;t/
tore /tO;/
told /t@Uld/
thought /TO;t/
threw /Tru;/
understood /Vnd@stUd/
woke /w@Uk/
wore /wO;/
won /wVn/
wrote /r@Ut/

rung /rVN/
risen /rIzn/
run /rVn/
said /sed/
seen /si;n/
sold /s@Uld/
sent /sent/
shaken /SeIkn/
shone /SQn/
shot /SQt/
shown /S@Un/
shut /SVt/
sung /sVN/
sunk /sVNk/
sat /s&t/
slept /slept/
smelt /smelt/
spoken /sp@Ukn/
spelt /spelt/
spent /spent/
spilt /spIlt/
spun /spVn/
split /splIt/
spoilt /spOIlt/
spread /spred/
sprung /sprVN/
stood /stUd/
stolen /st@Ul@n/
stuck /stVk/
stung /stVN/
swept /swept/
swum /swVm/
swung /swVN/
taken /teIkn/
taught /tO;t/
torn /tO;n/
told /t@Uld/
thought /TO;t/
thrown /Tr@Un/
understood /Vnd@stUd/
woken /w@Ukn/
worn /wO;n/
won /wVn/
written /rItn/

152 IRREGULAR VERBS

translation
jeure
encendre
perdre
fer
significar
trobar(se)
pagar
posar
llegir
muntar (a cavall),
anar (amb bicicleta)
sonar, trucar
pujar
crrer
dir
veure
vendre
enviar
sacsejar
brillar
disparar
ensenyar
tancar
cantar
enfonsar(se)
seure
dormir
olorar
parlar
lletrejar
gastar (diners), passar (temps)
vessar
girar
trencar (en dos)
arrunar, mimar
estendres
brotar
estar de peu, tolerar
robar
enganxar amb cola
picar
escombrar
nedar
balancejar
agafar, prendre, portar (temps)
ensenyar
esquinar
dir
pensar
llenar
entendre
despertar-se
dur posat
guanyar
escriure

Parque Empresarial San Fernando, Edicio Atenas


28830 San Fernando de Henares (Madrid)
Oxford University Press is a department of the University of Oxford.
It furthers the Universitys objective of excellence in research, scholarship,
and education by publishing worldwide in
Oxford New York
Auckland Cape Town Dar es Salaam Hong Kong Karachi Kuala
Lumpur Madrid Melbourne Mexico City Nairobi New
Delhi Shanghai Taipei Toronto
With ofces in
Argentina Austria Brazil Chile Czech Republic France Greece
Guatemala Hungary Italy Japan Poland Portugal Singapore South
Korea Switzerland Thailand Turkey Ukraine Vietnam
Oxford and Oxford English are registered trade marks of Oxford University
Press.
Oxford Educacin is a trade mark registered in Spain by Oxford University
Press Espaa, S.A.
Published in Spain by Oxford Universtiy Press Espaa, S.A.
Oxford University Press Espaa, S.A. 2008
All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored
in a retrieval system, or transmitted, in any form or by any means, without
the prior permission in writing of Oxford University Press, or as expressly
permitted by law, or under terms agreed with the appropriate reprographics
rights organization. Enquiries concerning reproduction outside the scope of
the above should be sent to the Publishing Department of Oxford Universtiy
Press Espaa, S.A., at the address above.
In no circumstances may any part of this book be photocopied for resale.
Any websites referred to in this publication are in the public domain and
their addresses are provided by Oxford University Press for information only.
Oxford University Press disclaims any responsibility for the content
Code: 01903061
Printed in Spain