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Final report

Turku Sustainable City Districts


Skanssi and Castle Town
turku.fi/siemens
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Content 1 / 3

Content

Page

Content 1

Introduction, case for action and objectives

Content 2

Skanssi and Castle Town


Cornerstones of a sustainable development concept

57 - 210

Content 3

Content III: Toolbox and Outlook

211 214

City of Turku & Siemens AG 2013. All rights reserved.


Page 2

September 2013

1 - 56

Content 1
Chapter

Content

Management summary

Page

1 - 10

The Urban Planning Challenge in midsize European cities


2

Key development challenges


Examples of current eco-district projects in Europe

11 - 32

City of Turku Pathway towards a sustainable urban development


3

Current situation and future vision of Turku


Renewal of existing districts & development of new eco-districts
Sustainable city districts in Turku a major lever of sustainable growth

33 40

Case for action Sustainable living and working environments


4

The planning and management challenge


The technology and innovation challenge

City of Turku & Siemens AG 2013. All rights reserved.


Page 3

September 2013

41 - 56

Management Summary

Future way of City development and design will differ from traditional development
strategies: Polycentric structures of cities and increasing autonomy of city districts imply
new ways of developing the districts spatial design as well as their infrastructures.

II

Cities need to implement available sustainable solutions starting with day1 and need to
establish a continuous improvement cycle.

III

The report describes and partly evaluates 14 Infrastructure solutions, 1 platform solution
for smart mobility and citizen services and several solutions as enabler/supporter for a
social approach to sustainability in the districts.

IV

First evaluation of 5 district specific transport levers show preliminary CO2 reduction
potential of more than 50% for transport. 3 evaluated levers for Energy &Buildings show a
CO2 abatement potential of more than 40%.
Cities all over the globe consider themselves as living labs with a specific mandate:
learning from and for other Cities. Skanssi and Castle Town strive for an exemplary
sustainability position in Turku and Finland. The toolbox can act as a learning framework.

City of Turku & Siemens AG 2013. All rights reserved.


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September 2013

Collaboration of two partners with strong track


record for sustainable development
City of Turku

Siemens

Strong commitment to Sustainable


Development part of city vision, values,
strategy and programs since 1990s

Largest environmental portfolio in


energy, infrastructure, industry and
healthcare technologies

Ambitious Program for Climate and


Environment 30% GHG reduction by 2020
Successful implementation of key actions
and reduction of GHG emissions by 16%

Strong commitment developing


sustainable cities sustainable urban
infrastructure studies, participation in
WBCSD & dedicated business vertical

Combining economic growth and


ecological sustainability

Dow-Jones Sustainability Index in


diversified industries

Sustainable infrastructure projects


regional cooperation, town-planning, housing,
mobility, energy, water,
Vivid economy and proactive region
building a sustainable and attractive city
Networking and cooperation learning from
others and being an example and reference
City of Turku & Siemens AG 2013. All rights reserved.
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September 2013

Using technological expertise to develop


benchmark in sustainable mid-sized cities
Sustainability is our strength, technologies
are needed to solve climate issues
Developing Turku is a business opportunity

New topics for the partnership will be


jointly defined every 6 month

Target

Light rail and district


concept as cornerstones
for city development

Ensure realization with


financing concepts and
make Turku future ready

Comprehensive
sustainability roadmap
in all infrastructure areas

Year I (2012)

Year II (2013)

Year III (2014)

Impact study for light rail


Project
Comprehensive concept
ideas
for Skanssi district (Smart
grid, buildings, transport,
water)
Traffic management
concept for city incl.
connection to intermodal
hubs
Focus

Smart grid city concept


E-Mobility impact
assessment
Light rail technology study
Financing concept for
complex infrastructure
projects

Main development areas Financing and new


in the city
technologies

City of Turku & Siemens AG 2013. All rights reserved.


Page 6

September 2013

White paper for


sustainable city districts
Strategies for energy
efficiency improvements in
existing infrastructure
E-Mobility implementation
roadmap and piloting

Holistic sustainable city


concept

Turku has set ambitious targets to reduce


environmental impacts and to increase quality of life
Turku Sustainability Objectives
Sustainable development
To financially, socially and ecologically protect
future generations life opportunities through
balanced and continuous change
Reduction of greenhouse gas emissions by 30% per inhabitant until 2020 (from 1990 levels)
and at least -20% in total
Improve energy efficiency by 9% from 2005
until 2016
50% or more of district heating from
renewables by 2020
Electricity purchased by the city 100% from
renewables by 2013
Consideration of sustainability criteria in all
public tenders from 2013 on
Sustainable development in daycare centers
and educational institutions

City of Turku & Siemens AG 2013. All rights reserved.


Page 7

September 2013

The objective of this study is to support sustainable


district development in Turku
09.00 11.00 a.m.
Study objectives
To gain an understanding of the
Skanssi
impacts of diverse new technologies
on the urban image, planning and
properties
Skanssi
Castle Town

To support the construction of


sustainable city districts in Skanssi
and Castle Town by developing a
toolbox which outlines relevant
technologies, policies and best practices
and thus positioning Turku as a pioneer
of sustainable district development in
Europe
City of Turku & Siemens AG 2013. All rights reserved.
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September 2013

Deliverables
Joint Turku & Siemens concept paper as a
guideline for development of sustainable
districts outlining general planning challenge,
the pathway to sustainable districts, the
specific case for action in Skanssi & Castle
Town, a description and evaluation of the
chosen solutions

Fact book with detailed description of the


used methodology, sources and calculations

Summary Content I
The Urban Planning Challenge for
Sustainable living & working environments

Cities need to transform from a


traditional configuration to a
configuration which better allows
adaption to current and prospective
challenges and trends
Successful development strategies and
implementation projects are based on
an analysis of the sustainability themes
and infrastructure areas to be
addressed
Sustainable city districts are a major
lever of sustainable growth and Skanssi
and Castle Town are developed as
Lighthouse projects
City of Turku & Siemens AG 2013. All rights reserved.
Page 9

September 2013

Reference study to verify critical success


factors in city district development

Ten European eco-district projects were


studied in order to support the process in
Turku
Aspects of the planning process to be
considered throughout the project
Profiling, stakeholder engagement
and ensuring commitment
Applicability of future ready
sustainable technologies
Financial risk awareness
Aspects to be considered after the
construction of the district

Summary Content II and III


Summary Content II
The identified & proposed 16 Solutions
show a potential of:
7.1 tons CO2 per year in mobility (incl.
IMP)
6.7 tons CO2 per year in energy (only
solar panels)
3.7 tons CO2 per year in mobility (only
Smart Buildings)

City of Turku & Siemens AG 2013. All rights reserved.


Page 10

September 2013

Summary Content III

We defined several steps for sustainable


city development from setup to
realization and a continuous
improvement process after the
construction of the district
As an outlook, we expect Turku to
continue developing the districts as ecodistricts and scale the evaluated and
applied green technologies to the
remaining districts.

Content 1
Chapter

Content

Management summary

Page

1 - 10

The Urban Planning Challenge in midsize European cities


2

Key development challenges


Examples of current eco-district projects in Europe

11 - 32

City of Turku Pathway towards a sustainable urban development


3

Current situation and future vision of Turku


Renewal of existing districts & development of new eco-districts
Sustainable city districts in Turku a major lever of sustainable growth

33 40

Case for action Sustainable living and working environments


4

The planning and management challenge


The technology and innovation challenge

City of Turku & Siemens AG 2013. All rights reserved.


Page 11

September 2013

41 - 56

The Urban Planning Challenge in Midsize European Cities


Demand and Opportunities for Green Growth

Cities are high drivers of national GDP and centres of innovation and culture. They now host half of
humankind, consume the majority of resources and energy and are responsible for the majority of
GHG emissions.

Global and regional megatrends impact cities all over the world and pose major challenges for their
development. At the same time, successful cities can provide many of the best solutions to
these challenges and enable good life for generations to come.

In order to survive and prosper, cities need to combine economic viability, high environmental
performance and social cohesion.

Reference
The City of Freiburg, located in southwestern Germany, is famous around the world for its
sustainable approach especially regarding the use of renewable energy sources such as
solar energy. Freiburg has incorporated environmental thinking in the fields of
transportation, energy, waste management, land conservation and green economics. In
the 1990s, the city started the development of the two sustainable residential districts,
Vauban and Rieselfeld, which have become pioneering examples of green communities
and sustainable urban development. These districts are also good models of how to use
a participatory way of planning and to involve the local residents in the decision making
regarding their living environment.
Source: Study on European Eco-districts by the City of Turku, 2013

City of Turku & Siemens AG 2013. All rights reserved.


Page 12

September 2013

Photo credit: Stadt Freiburg i.Br .

As synergy between different policies and solutions


can be efficiently created and utilized at city level
Cities have a powerful advantage to deliver sustainable development and green economy in practice.
Cities provide the right scale for markets of eco-products and for large-scale green infrastructure
investment.
Short-term costs of urban environmental policies are lower than at the national level because of the
effects of stronger synergies. Local policies and projects to reduce pollution increase attractiveness
a main factor of city competitiveness, especially in economies that are higher up the value chain.
Many cities already have decoupled economic growth and the expansion of GHG thus demonstrating
a key aspect of green growth in practice.

Reference
Stockholm, the capital city of Sweden with some 850 000 residents, is one of the fastest
growing metropolitan areas in Europe. At the same time, the city has managed to develop
into a sustainable city offering a versatile and attractive environment for the people living
and working there. Stockholm was the first European Green Capital a title awarded to
the city by the EU Commission in 2010. The city aims to be carbon-neutral by 2050 and
has already reduced GHG emissions by over 25 per cent/inhabitant since the year 1990.
In social terms Stockholm is one of the most equal cities in the world.

Source: Study on European Eco-districts by the City of Turku, 2013

City of Turku & Siemens AG 2013. All rights reserved.


Page 13

September 2013

Photo credit: Lennart Johansson, City of Stockholm

The urban form matters: the lower the urban density, the
more energy is consumed for electricity and transportation

In large-scale comparison, GHG emissions per capita drop significantly as urban areas densify.

Compared to monocentric, polycentric development focusing on city districts can provide


further advantages.

Successful urban planning and infrastructure projects can have a major impact on sustainable
urban development and branding thereby creating basis for successful economic development.
The best eco-district projects have turned the city around.

Reference
Malm, a mid-sized city in the resund Region in southern Sweden, has today a
prosperous economy and is almost synonymous with sustainable urban development.
After more than a decade of harsh economic crisis, the transformation of the city into a
leading example of sustainable development started in the 1990s fuelled by the decision
to build a bridge to Copenhagen and the redevelopment of the formerly industrial harbor
area in Vstra Hamnen. Today, Vstra Hamnen and other successful large scale projects
undertaken in Malm have piloted new technologies and innovation promoting new
knowledge and markets and have contributed to reaching many of the overall
sustainability targets set for the city.
Source: Study on European Eco-districts by the City of Turku, 2013
Photo credit: Flickr: Sampo Siki 2007

City of Turku & Siemens AG 2013. All rights reserved.


Page 14

September 2013

In order to create successful urban strategies and


development projects
we at first must understand the powers impacting on our ecosystems called
cities
Both global megatrends & European specifics are influencing our city
Increasing energy
consumption

Increasing
population density

Demographic
change

Urbanization

Resource
scarceness

Climate
change

Increasing
resource prices

Innovation &
technology
dynamics

Impact on
Urban needs
of biz &
people

Mobility

Energy

Source: Siemens Mobility consulting

City of Turku & Siemens AG 2013. All rights reserved.


Page 15

September 2013

Buildings

Water &
waste

City admin

Successful cities transform from a traditional to a


modern configuration
To face these challenges appropriately the cities of today must change & transform from a traditional
configuration to a configuration which allows for adaption to current & prospective challenges & trends

City of today

City of tomorrow
Monocentric structure
Centralised steering
and control

Morphological and functional poly centrism


Viable and sovereign
city districts
Smart transport
Inter-device communication
Integration of modes

Individual mobility culture


Centralized power plants

Industrialisation
Linear InfoComm;
one-to-on comm.
Individualistic behaviour

Congestion
High energy consumption
Highly centralized physical services
Materialistic culture

Source: Siemens Mobility consulting

City of Turku & Siemens AG 2013. All rights reserved.


Page 16

September 2013

Highly mobile know-ledgebased society


Community, integrated

Reduced traffic
Decreasing dependency on energy supply
Proximity of community and smart services
Virtualized society

The challenge for cities is to create a unique,


coherent district configuration
A polycentric city is a multinuclei urban system
Disentangling the formerly
grown, traditional structures
Reducing complexity and
"making big issues smaller"

Building blocks and determinants


Residential
Buildings

For a district this means


a strengthened position
within the city
Being a sovereign entity
amongst others meaning
to be required
To provide an autonomously
viable ecosystem to its
citizens

Smart
mobility

Economy

City
logistics

Smart Grid

Urban process org.

Change

Safety &
security

Business
buildings

I&C

City district
integr.

Ecology

Community

Quality
of Life

Energy
supply

Community
buildings

Needs / demands as influencing factors


Infrastructures
Organization & city services

City vision

District
vision

Profile,
Needs,
KPI

Source: Siemens Mobility consulting

City of Turku & Siemens AG 2013. All rights reserved.


Page 17

September 2013

Infrastructure Plg.

Realization

Monitor &
Control

The typical characteristics of a future city district


pose major challenges on urban district planning
Typical characteristics
of a modern City district
Quality of life

Inter- and intraconnectedness

Key urban district planning challenges

Urban image
Technologies

Viable
infrastructure

"Mini-city"
Planning
Policies

Vital social
structure

Minimization and
de-clustering

Operating models

When defining the each of the district properties each of the


planning areas must be taken into account.
Source: Siemens Mobility consulting

City of Turku & Siemens AG 2013. All rights reserved.


Page 18

September 2013

Successful development strategies and implementation


projects require a multi-dimensional planning framework
Urban Planning Framework

Mobility

Energy

Buildings

Water &
waste

City
admin

Urban stakeholder

citizens, travelers, businesses, community, environment

Design & aesthetics

city landscape & urban heritage

Management

operational, financial & business model

Technologies

systems, solutions, components

Economy

growth impact, cost-benefit analyses

Ecology & environment

nature, landscape, resources, air quality

Safety & security

secure societies, emergency & catastrophe management

Analysis of
current status

Urban future
scenarios &
strategies

Gaps &
challenges

Implementation &
pathways

Communication & participation


Source: Siemens Mobility Consulting

City of Turku & Siemens AG 2013. All rights reserved.


Page 19

September 2013

Policies

Monitoring
Controlling

The following parameters must be aligned with city


strategy & vision, & the district vision respectively
1

1 Coherent planning of the districts


strategy and cornerstones is necessary.
2 Addressing and integrating all urban
infrastructures and sources
3 Considering a procedural perspective
with a focus on the strategic planning
process of the city

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Page 20

September 2013

The infrastructures must meet the


demands of the stakeholders and follow
the citizens interests.
Integrate an economical and ecological
perspective as well as safety topics.
Involve the urban stakeholders, i.e.
residents, travelers, businesses from the
very start.
Pay attention to environmental and
community issues.
The stakeholders needs ought to be
considered when planning the solutions of
the infrastructure areas.
Integrate the new solutions into the given
city district design.
Define set-up of the operational model
and the financial model have to be
answered.
When identifying the best matching
solutions not only technological
considerations shall be made, but also
considerations from an economic and
ecological point of view.

Ten European eco-district projects were studied in


order to support the process in Turku
1.

Eco-Viikki
Helsinki, Finland

2.

Vuores
Tampere, Finland

3.

Skaftkrr
Porvoo, Finland

4.

Hammarby Sjstad
Stockholm, Sweden

5.

Stockholm Royal
Seaport
Stockholm, Sweden

The criteria used in choosing the districts for the study


were derived based on the planned eco-themes of
Skanssi & Castle Town districts of Turku.

6.

Bo01
Malm, Sweden

7.

Hyllie
Malm, Sweden

The Nordic district projects were the most comparable to


the projects in Turku especially due to the similar climatic
conditions & legislation. Vauban & Rieselfeld in Freiburg &
Aspern in Vienna were included for their inspiring content
& similarities with the districts in Turku.

8.

Rieselfeld
Freiburg, Germany

9.

Vauban
Freiburg, Germany

10.

Aspern Viennas
Urban Lakeside
Vienna, Austria

11.

Skanssi & Castle


Town
Turku, Finland

Methodology
The objective was to benchmark sustainable districts &
find well-performing cost-efficient practices. The districts
were chosen based on their match with the planning aims
of Turku.
The analysis focused only on European city districts due
to similarities regarding climate, legislation & other factors
such as location & size of the district.

The most relevant districts for the study including two


Finnish districts as well as two districts from each of the
cities of Stockholm, Malm & Freiburg are presented in
this chapter.
City of Turku & Siemens AG 2013. All rights reserved.
Page 21

September 2013

Examples of current eco-districts: Eco-Viikki


(Helsinki, Finland)
Objectives
A pilot project and an experimental model for testing the implementation of new sustainable solutions.
Ecological goals of reduction of non-renewable resource and material usage.
Protection of ecosystems and avoiding the formation of waste, emissions and noise.
Main targets: to cut CO2 emissions by 20% compared to traditional building and reduce the amount of waste produced by 20%.

Facts

Mobility

Construction area:
Timeframe:
Population:
Residential apt.:
Distance to CBD:

Public transport consists of a


bus line. The plots have
050% less parking spaces
than usual.

23 ha
19992004
2,000
750
8 km

People

Organization

Buildings

Common areas and services


include green spaces, parks,
gardening lots, shared saunas
and common laundries, a kinder
garden, schools and
commercial centres.

City of Helsinki, the National


Technology Agency of Finland,
the European Commission, the
Ministry of the Environment and
the Finnish Association of
Architects.

A finger-like structure
penetrates between the built
areas and connects every
building plot directly to green
areas. Planning of the district
was accomplished by using
the PIMWAG criteria.

Energy
The largest solar energy system
in Finland with a total area of
around 1,400 m of panels.

Key learnings
Need for a concrete monitoring and feedback system for achieving strict ecological goals set for sustainable building projects
A project as ambitious and laborious as the Eco-Viikki project requires adequate knowledge as well as long-term commitment
in terms of financial and practical resources.
City of Turku & Siemens AG 2013. All rights reserved.
Page 22

September 2013

Image credits: City of Helsinki 2005 & 2008

Examples of current eco-districts: Vuores


(Tampere, Finland)
Objectives
Eco-efficiency is taken into account in all phases of the planning and implementation of the project.
Sustainability of energy supply, energy efficiency of buildings, well developed transport system, ecological building
materials and the reduction of greenhouse gas emissions
Main target: to create a small town in the midst of nature.

Facts

Construction area: 1,260 ha


Timeframe:
20082020
Expected population: 13,000
Residential apt.:
6,000
Distance to CBD:
7 km

Organization

People
Vuores is planned to be an
active arena providing good
services, attractive business
facilities and diverse residential
options that meet high quality
standards.

Tampere and Lempl have


made a joint master plan for the
district. In addition to the City of
Tampere, other partners of the
project include developers and
construction companies.

Mobility

Energy

Public transport network will


be based on a light rail system
and buses, and there will be a
comprehensive footpath and
cycle network.

Goals: promoting the use of


renewable energy sources such
as wind and solar power and
geothermal heat as well as
testing new ways of timber
construction.

Buildings
Key elements include
incorporating the natural
environment into the area and
concentrating the built
structure around one main
centre and four subcenters.

Key learnings
There have been new innovations in Vuores, such as an underground waste collection system and the largest and most
efficient storm water management system in Finland.
There is going to be Finlands largest wooden town area, Isokuusi, in Vuores.
Image credits: Tanja Konstari, City of Turku 2012

City of Turku & Siemens AG 2013. All rights reserved.


Page 23

September 2013

Capital 2010

Stockholm, the capital city of Sweden with some 850 000 residents, is one of the fastest growing
metropolitan areas in Europe. At the same time, the city has managed to develop into a sustainable city
offering a versatile and attractive environment for the people living and working there. Furthermore,
Stockholm has already achieved impressive results regarding the reduction of green house gases.

urban projects

Sustainable

Green

Introduction

Stockholm The city of leading examples of urban


sustainability

Stockholm was the first European Green Capital a title awarded to the city by the EU Commission in
2010. Stockholm continues being a role model for other European cities in environmental standards. The
title has been awarded to Stockholm because it had approved the target of being fossil fuel free by 2050,
the success of the city in cutting carbon dioxide emissions by 25 per cent/inhabitant since the year 1990
and the integration of environmental issues into the citys general operations.

One of Swedens biggest urban development projects, Hammarby Sjstad, is world-known for being a
sustainable housing and working area and has played a major role in the citys plans for sustainable
growth. The previously industrial area has been converted into one of the worlds most recognized
sustainable urban areas.
Stockholm Royal Seaport will be another large-scale urban development area where environmentally
friendly ambitions and a variety of homes, services and businesses will be mixed in a unique way.
International collaboration is the key to making Stockholm Royal Seaport a leading example of a
sustainable and successful economic and environmental urban project.

City of Turku & Siemens AG 2013. All rights reserved.


Page 24

September 2013

Source: Study on European Eco-districts by the City of Turku, 2013.

Examples of current eco-districts: Hammarby Sjstad


(Stockholm, Sweden)
Objectives
The environmental impact of the district should be 50% lower than it would be with the technology level used in 1990s.
Residents would produce half of the energy that they consumed to achieve these objectives, the infrastructure systems
for water, sewage and waste management and energy and heating were designed as closed loop systems that would feed
each other and decrease the amount of energy needed for functioning.

Energy is produced by RES,


There are bus routes, ferry
biogas products and purified
Construction area:
200 ha
lines, a light rail link and 3 car
waste heat. District heating is
Timeframe:
19942018
pools in the district as well as
supplied to the entire district
Expected population: 26,000
a bike sharing program and
and it is produced from the
Residential apt.:
11,500
good cycle and pedestrian
reuse of waste and waste water
Distance to CBD:
3 km
paths.
treatment.

Facts

Mobility

Organization

People
Construction of student housing
and housing for mentally
disabled persons has
contributed to the balance of
social groups in the district.

The development has been


supervised by the City of
Stockholm, and there have
been a lot of partners involved
including architecture firms and
40 building contractors.

Energy

Buildings
A lot of work was done to
transform the old brownfield
sites into an attractive
residential area. Today there
are several green spaces,
walkaways and parks.

Key learnings
The importance of having a comprehensive view on the project as well as a clear vision and main goals set as early as possible.
The vision and goals should be clear, realistic and approved by all the project partners.
The importance of marketing the ecological technologies used in the area, which should be the newest ones available.
Image credits: Lennart Johansson, City of Stockholm

City of Turku & Siemens AG 2013. All rights reserved.


Page 25

September 2013

Examples of current eco-districts: Stockholm Royal


Seaport (Stockholm, Sweden)
Objectives
By 2020 CO2 emissions will be cut to 1.5 ton per person/year in the district and by 2030 there will be zero fossil fuel emissions.
The aim of the project is to achieve a modern and sustainable city district with a mixed variation of housing, services, commercial
activities, industrial activities, culture, sports and port operations.
The main focus will be in sustainability in areas of energy production and consumption, transport, recycling and lifestyles.

Facts
Construction area:
Timeframe:
Residential apt.:
Distance to CBD:

236 ha
20112030
12,000
3 km

Organization

People
A variety of housing,
workplaces, transport, public
services, education and
entertainment will be available
in the district when finished.

The most important partners of


the project are the Port
Authority, the energy company
Fortum, housing developers
and important public entities
such as the planning office.

Mobility

Energy

The PT network will consist of


subway, tram and bus linkages.
There will also be new lanes for
pedestrians and cyclists, bicycle
hire, 2.2 bicycle parking
places/household and car
sharing.

The intelligent power grid which


will be integrated to so called
active houses is planned to
reduce annual energy
consumption to a maximum of
55 kWh/m2.

Buildings
There will be e.g. passive and
plus houses which will
generate their own solar or
wind energy. There will also
be a smart electricity grid to
help the residents to use
electricity efficiently.

Key learnings
The development and implementation processes of the project are carried out in different stages in a way that the
experience gained can be utilised in the next phases.
An issue to be considered in new long-term projects is the rapid evolution of technological solutions and the availability of
new technologies.
Image credits: City of Stockholm

City of Turku & Siemens AG 2013. All rights reserved.


Page 26

September 2013

Malm Building new districts to drive sustainable


city development

Distinctions

ing city

Develop-

Introduction

Malm, a city in the resund Region in southern Sweden, has become an internationally known
flagship of sustainable urban development. The transformation of the city started with the
redevelopment of the formerly industrial harbor area in Vstra Hamnen. The European housing exhibition
Bo01, held in 2001, was the first development stage of Vstra Hamnen, which has later been followed by
the development of the Flagghus housing area. Bo01 is the first city district in Sweden that is climate
neutral and is supplied with 100% renewable energy. The city still continues to develop the Vstra Hamnen
district in the third part of the harbor area and the largest residential development with passive and lowenergy housing in Sweden, Fullriggaren. Today, Vstra Hamnen is an international model of incorporating
sustainability into an urban district.
After the success of Vstra Hamnen, Malm has extended environmental construction to the sustainable
districts of Augustenborg and Sege Park. The most recent sustainable city district project carried out in
the city is Hyllie. The successful large scale projects undertaken in Malm have also contributed to the
overall sustainability targets set for the city.
Malm has been making notable progress in other areas of sustainability as well, e.g. several projects
aiming at enhancing social sustainability in the city. Malm has received numerous prizes for its efforts
for achieving sustainable development. One of the recent awards was the election of Malm as a climatic
ideal Earth Hour Capital 2011 by the World Wildlife Fund WWF. The city has also received the World
Habitat Award for its contributions in the field of social sustainability especially in the eco-district of
Augustenborg, and has been selected as the best environmental municipality of Sweden in 2010 by
the publication Miljaktuellt.

Source: Study on European Eco-districts by the City of Turku, 2013.

City of Turku & Siemens AG 2013. All rights reserved.


Page 27

September 2013

Examples of current eco-districts: Bo01


(Malm, Sweden)
Objectives
Main target: to create an ecological district that uses 100% locally produced renewable energy.
To become a leading example of sustainable construction in an urban quarter
Other objectives included soil reclamation, a well-developed public transport system, use of ecological building materials,
creation of a sustainable society providing high quality of life and promotion of the areas rich biodiversity.

Facts
Construction area:
Timeframe:
Population:
Residential apt.:
Distance to CBD:

22 ha
19982007
2,300
1,450
2 km

Organization

People
There is a wide diversity of
residents in the district, since
about 70% of the housing in
Bo01 consists of rented
apartments and the remaining
30% of owner occupied houses.

The area was developed by the


City of Malm in cooperation
with the Swedish Energy
Agency, the European Union,
energy and construction
companies, Bo01AB and Lund
University.

Mobility

Energy

Priority in transportation is
given to PT. There is a carpool
in the area, and the use of
bicycles is very common.
There are only 0.7 parking
spaces per household.

A district heating system


powered only by RES covers
most of the houses, and is
complemented by solar
collectors and thermal heating.
A wind power station (2MW)
provides all of the electricity.

Buildings
There are low energy
standards of energy use of
105 kWh/m/year for each
building including household
electricity. The architecture of
Bo01 is very versatile.

Key learnings
Contradictory to the plans, a large parking garage had to be built because the new residents wanted to use cars The
city of Malm noticed the problem and made efforts for increasing the usage of PT and bicycles instead of private cars.
Sustainable habits of residents should be encouraged from the beginning of the planning process and supported all along.
Image credits: Malm stad 2013

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Page 28

September 2013

Examples of current eco-districts: Hyllie


(Malm, Sweden)
Objectives
Hyllie is planned to become a global model for sustainable city districts and more specifically the most climate-smart
district in the resund region.
By 2020, energy production in Hyllie will consist of 100% of renewable or recycled energy, most of which will be locally
produced.

Facts
Construction area:
Timeframe:
Residential apt.:
Distance to CBD:

200 ha
20122030
9,000
3 km

Organization

People
Hyllie is a mixed area with a lot
of services and special
features. Malm arena in Hyllie
is a multi-arena for sports,
entertainment and culture.

The City of Malm, E.ON and


VA Syd are the main partners of
the project, while Siemens will
be the main supplier of energy
technology. A number of
constructors and other actors
are also involved.

Mobility

Energy

Well-functioning PT network in
Hyllie is going to consist of
trains, busses, and a new
metro station. There are good
bicycle paths and services for
cyclists.

Hyllie will get a smart


infrastructure, which will result
as higher energy efficiency. By
2020, energy production in the
district will consist of 100% of
renewable or recycled energy.

Buildings
Buildings will be connected to
a smart grid. The district is
going to have a varied mix of
housing, and at least 30 per
cent of the dwellings will be
rental apartments.

Key learnings
There is already a new well-functioning parking deck called Park n Ride in the district, which is the largest of its kind in
Malm. The multi-storey car park does not only provide parking, however, for there is a variety of services offered in the
building. This facility is a good example of promoting public transport and cycling.
Image credits: Image 1: David Wiberg, Hyllie Centrum 2008, image 2: Jesper Lindgren, Hyllie Centrum 2011.

City of Turku & Siemens AG 2013. All rights reserved.


Page 29

September 2013

movement

The City of Freiburg is famous around the world for its sustainable approach especially regarding the use
of renewable energy sources such as solar energy. The city has had experience and expertise in
sustainable energy management already for years. Freiburg has also been promoted as the Green City,
incorporating environmental thinking in the fields of transportation, energy, waste management, land
conservation and green economics.

districts

Sustainable

Green

Introduction

Freiburg The city of pioneering green districts

Freiburgs way towards a green city started already in the 1970s with the Green Movement and a protest
against a nearby nuclear power plant, which was followed by the leaders of the city and the vast academic
community taking a serious interest in sustainability. In the 1990s, the city started the development of the
two sustainable residential districts, which have become pioneering examples of green
communities and sustainable urban development. These districts are also good models of how to use a
participatory way of planning and to involve the local residents in the decision making regarding their living
environment.
Vauban, the internationally well-known eco-district has been a celebrated model of a sustainable district
for more than 10 years. This brownfield district has successfully reduced private car use in the residential
area and is known for its extensive use of solar energy.
Rieselfeld is another successful sustainable city district in which the City of Freiburg has achieved its
ambitious goals of sustainable urban development in terms of integrating environmental policy and
sustainability in residential district building and creating an attractive housing area for its citizens.
Rieselfeld has been a good example of how the redevelopment of brownfield areas can make them
attractive places to live and at the same time bring inhabitants of low-density suburbs back to the city.

Source: Study on European Eco-districts by the City of Turku, 2013.

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Page 30

September 2013

Examples of current eco-districts: Rieselfeld


(Freiburg, Germany)
Objectives
One main objective was to promote a participatory way of planning and building a sustainable city district.
Since the beginning of the project, all the aspects of a new sustainable district were paid attention to: not only
technological aspects, but also social, cultural, ecological, urban building and marketing were stressed early on.

Facts
Construction area:
Timeframe:
Population:
Residential apt.:
Distance to CBD:

70 ha
19942012
12,000
4,200
4 km

Organization

People
The level of resident
satisfaction is high in Rieselfeld.
The needs of different groups,
such as handicapped, elderly
and families, have been paid a
lot of attention to in the district.

The Freiburg City Council


created a Public-Private
Partnership between the city
and the private developers
consisting of more than 110
building societies and investors.

Mobility

Energy

The area has a general speed


limit of 30 km/h and there are
special traffic-calmed streets.
Priority is given to public
transport (tram and buses)
,pedestrians and cyclists.

All houses are connected to the


district heating system
functioning on a combined heat
and power plant. Renewable
energy such as solar energy,
wood pellets and heat pumps
are used widely in the area.

Buildings
There is an obligation to use
low-energy construction with a
maximum energy consumption
of 65 kWh/m/year in the
houses. There is a wide range
of building types for different
groups of people.

Key learnings
The positive image of Rieselfeld as a sustainable residential district with good public services and a resident-friendly
infrastructure has attracted especially young families and senior citizens.
The project group has involved residents in the development process and considered their opinions for improvements.
Image credits: image 1: Alain Rouiller 2002, image 2: Stadt Freiburg i.Br.

City of Turku & Siemens AG 2013. All rights reserved.


Page 31

September 2013

Examples of current eco-districts: Vauban


(Freiburg, Germany)
Objectives
The energy consumption of the district was to be organised efficiently. Extensive use of ecological building materials and
solar energy were other main objectives of the project. Also an increased use of district heating was promoted early on.
A lot of attention was given to raising public awareness and participation since the beginning of the project.
In transport, priority was given to pedestrians, cyclists and public transport.

Facts
Construction area:
Timeframe:
Population:
Residential apt.:
Distance to CBD:

38 ha
19972009
5,300
2,000
3 km

Organization

People
The innovative and participatory
planning process in Vauban
included future residents of the
district. A private NGO, Forum
Vauban, consisting of residents
was established in 1993.

Actors of the Vauban project


included Forum Vauban, the
City of Freiburg and various
other partners such as small cohousing groups, working
citizens groups and private
builders.

Mobility

Energy

Pedestrian and bicycle paths


are well connected and
efficient. Car usage is strictly
restricted in the traffic-calmed
streets and there is a speed
limit of 5 km/h in the
residential area.

Public energy and heat are


generated by a co-generation
plant functioning on woodchips
(80%) and natural gas (20%). In
2010, 65% of the electricity was
produced locally through cogeneration and photovoltaics.

Buildings
All houses in Vauban are built
at least according to a low
energy standard of 65
kWh/m/year. To promote
versatility in the area,
there were no design
requirements for the buildings.

Key learnings
A successful participatory process requires sufficient resources and involves planning as well as implementation phases.
The balance of social groups in a district is very important.
The reuse of brownfield areas can slow down sub-urbanization in cities.
Image credits: Stadt Freiburg i.Br .

City of Turku & Siemens AG 2013. All rights reserved.


Page 32

September 2013

Content
Chapter

Content

Management summary

Page

1 - 10

The Urban Planning Challenge in midsize European cities


2

Key development challenges


Examples of current eco-district projects in Europe

11 - 32

City of Turku - Pathway towards sustainable urban development


3

Current situation and future vision of Turku


Renewal of existing districts & development of new eco-districts
Sustainable city districts in Turku a major lever of sustainable growth

33 40

Case for action Sustainable living and working environments


4

The planning and management challenge


The technology and innovation challenge

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September 2013

41 - 56

Today there is a huge gap between current situation and


future vision and thus a challenge to achieve the objectives

The City of Turku today


The sustainable solutions carried out have mostly
been based on exploiting the existing urban form and
infrastructure. New residents and functions have been
located in zones with good preconditions for walking,
cycling and public transportation.

Structural model of 2035


Partly due to city center development with its


surroundings since 1990s, the population has begun
to increase particularly in the central areas. At the
same time the urban sprawl has been expanding. The
population of Turku has been growing rapidly during
last three years and it has exceeded the 180.000
border by end of 2012.
Unfortunately no eco-districts have been carried out
yet. Only a few single passive and zero-energy houses
have been built during last years. Instead the situation
in use of renewables is better. E.g. waste heat is used
for district heating and cooling production as well as in
some other solutions. In the field of smart solutions the
city of Turku has taken its first steps.

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Page 34

September 2013

The structural model of 2035 is set up to increase


the attractiveness of the city and will lead to
economic and population growth.

A dense urban structure is crucial for an economically


sustainable development e.g. for the infrastructure supply
Urban form
City of today: Dense urban structure
approximately 6 km from CBD
Former industrial buildings, particularly in the city center and
surrounding brownfield areas have been re-used as offices,
academies, cultural facilities and apartments.
The densification of the urban structure particularly in the
city center and on the surrounding brownfield areas since
1990s has resulted in a population growth in the central
parts of Turku.
65 % of the population is living in pedestrian, cycling and
public transportation zones approx. 6 km from the city
center.
About 55 % of the working places in Turku (n=95000) are
located in the city-center.
Concentration of population 2009

Concentration of work places 2009

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Page 35

September 2013

City of tomorrow: To unify the


existing urban structure
According to the objectives of Turku Master
Plan 2035 at least 85 % of the new and
developing land use (residential areas,
commercial services and other city-center
oriented working places) will be located in the
developed pedestrian, cycling and intensive
public transportation zones. A sufficient
population is a prerequisite for a economical
public transportation.
Vision: Urban structure where you can get
along without a car or at least with one car per
household.

Densification of the urban structure will result in


versatile provision of attractive residential areas
Urban form
City of today: Accelerating urban sprawl
Since 1980s the urban structure has expanded into greenfield
areas in the outskirts of the city of Turku as well as in Turku urban
region.
The City of Turku and municipalities in the urban region have
provided plots for single-family houses and granted building
permits on sparsely populated areas, e.g. the number of building
permits in sparsely populated areas outside the city plan has grown
with 12 % since 1990 (from 4290 to 4792).
Residential areas in the outskirts of the city (on the islands
Hirvensalo, Satava and Kakskerta, in the northern parts Yli-Maaria
and Paattinen) have a low population density. Thus, a large part of
the areas is classified as car-dependent zone.
Urban sprawl from 1980-2005

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September 2013

City of tomorrow: To limit the


urban sprawl
Densification of the urban structure will
result in versatile provision of attractive
residential areas with services located on
walking and cycling distance as well as
public transportation zone (or even
intensive public transportation zone).
Minor new residential areas in the cardependent zone in order to offer diverse
housing taking into account the versatile
residential preferences.
The amount of building permits based on
special consents in sparsely populated
areas will be reduced comparing to the
development since 1990 in order to restrict
the uncontrollable urban sprawl.

City of Turku will be developed as a city of walking,


cycling and public transportation
Mobility
City of today: Development of means of
transport distribution
In 2008 30 % of all journeys were made by foot, 13 %
by bike, 9 % by public transportation and 48 % by car.
Comparing modal split in big Finnish cities the share of
walking is highest in City of Turku.
Turku ranks second after Helsinki when comparing
share of journeys made by car.
Since 2000 car ownership and traffic has increased
faster than the population.

Modal split in some Finnish cities


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September 2013

City of tomorrow: Towards a city of


walking, cycling and public transportation
Travel by bicycle per inhabitant increases by at least
50% from the level of 2006 and the quantity of travel
on foot per inhabitant remains at least on the level of
2006. The travel quantity in public transportation must
increase by 2% annually in the period 2010-2030.
Therefore, in 2020, the quantity of travel must be 24%
greater than in 2009. The increase in traffic from the
urban area to the centre of Turku is in public transport
(Climate and Environmental Programme 2009-2013).

Modal split in 2008 (=nyky) and in 2035 (=RM35=Structural


model)

Public transportation journeys have been increasing


during the last few years.
Mobility
City of today: Development of means of
transport distribution
In 2012 over 21 million journeys were made, which is 3
% more than in the year before. At the same time the
car journeys have been increasing even more.
In Turku urban region e.g. 37 % of the journeys in the
walking zone were made walking, 15 % by bike, 6 %
by PT and 39 % by car (2008). In the intensive PT
zone 26 % of the journeys were made walking, 13 %
by bike, 13 % by PT and 47 % by car. In the car
dependent zone 65 % of all journeys were made by
car and in sparsely populated areas the share of
journeys made by car was 86 %.

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September 2013

City of tomorrow: Towards a city of


walking, cycling and public transportation
The set goals in Climate and Environmental program
2009-2013 e.g. for modal split (33% car traffic, current
48%) can not be reached with past trends or without a
big change in transportation politics.
The aim is to achieve the modal split set goals of the
Structural Model for Turku urban region 2035: the car
traffics share is reduced with 2,5%-units. Even this is a
tough goal since much of the planned new land-use is
outside
the walking
cycling zones.
Car ownership
in 2010and
(white=household
without car,
black= household with 2 cars)

Current situation of Turku regarding Construction,


Energy, Water Supply and Treatment
In the construction practice in Turku, energy regulations are applied, which in the last few years have become more
and more strict. Theres no eco-disticts in Turku. In last years only a few single one-family passive and zero-energy
houses have been built.
Multi-storey areas are mainly connected to the district heating network, except the students apartment block TYS
Ikituuri (geothermal). Nowadays 37 % of the district heating is greenhouse gas emission free production. Legislation
gives the possibility to prescribe in the detail plan a site to be connected to the district heating network (or alternatively
an other sustainable heat source)
One-family houses and row houses are usually not in the reach of the district heating network in Turku. Other
alternatives have been adapted instead, such as geothermal, air- or air- and water-source heating pumps. The air- and
air- and water-source heating pumps have sensors, which exploit the information of outdoor temperature to regulate the
use of the devices.
The need for cooling has increased. The connection to the district cooling network is more eco-friendly than single
separate devices. Snow storage is planned to be used for district cooling production.
The waste heat of Kakola waste water treatment plant is utilized in district heating and district cooling production. In
some public buildings the waste heat is utilized, as e.g. in the Impivaara indoor ice rink, where waste heat is recycled
for the cafeteria. The waste heat of Impivaara swimming hall is utilized to cool down the ski trail nearby.
Due to installed contactless meters (new construction and old buildings) the electricity consumers in Turku can follow
their electricity consumption on the net at one hours interval.
Water meters per apartment (in new construction, more common also in old buildings) have reduced the water
consumption.
In suburban settlements (some suburbs) separate heating plants are in use, new centralized plants for heat and energy
production are planned.
In the 1970 Finland was an exemplary country for sustainable construction (suburbs, element constructions after the oil
crisis). Now, however especially the buildings of this era have proved to be in the weakest position concerning energy
efficiency (ERA17)

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Page 39

September 2013

Turkus strategy regarding the renewal of existing


districts and development of new districts
Creating an attractive and high quality urban living environment

!
?

Renewal of area already completed


Work in progress
No activities planned
Need for action
To be discussed

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Page 40

September 2013

focus on development of city-center and surrounding


brownfield areas
population growth and increase the number of city-center
oriented working places
good accessibility by PT
housing and working places on walking and cycling distance
from the services
City-center development aspires to make the city-center more
attractive and lively around the clock all year round.
Exploiting the existing urban structure including e.g.
infrastructure and services
Development of the city center and its surrounding brownfield
areas corresponds to the citys objectives for sustainable
unifying of the urban structure.
Skanssi and Castle Town are two city districts which are going
to be developed to sustainable residential areas. The two
areas are very different in nature, but the planning of both
districts is going to be sustainable in many ways. Skanssi
area is scheduled to be fully built approximately in 2030 and
Castle Town around 2035.

Content
Chapter

Content

Management summary

Page

1 - 10

The Urban Planning Challenge in midsize European cities


2

Key development challenges


Examples of current eco-district projects in Europe

11 - 32

City of Turku Pathway towards a sustainable urban development


3

Current situation and future vision of Turku


Renewal of existing districts & development of new eco-districts
Sustainable city districts in Turku a major lever of sustainable growth

33 46

Case for action Sustainable living and working environments


4

The planning and management challenge


The technology and innovation challenge

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September 2013

47 - xx

Case for action Sustainable living and working


environments
The city needs to meet the challenges arising for global megatrends. Existing technologies and best practices
can help to meet them.
How to develop the city and exploit possibilities of technology and environment in a sustainable way?

Existing technology achieves high gains


in efficiency and CO2 abatement
Renewable
energies

Energy-efficient
buildings

Traffic management systems

Sustainable Urban Development


Cities are competing globally
to make their urban areas
attractive to live and to invest in
Competitiveness

Governance
Environment

Integrated urban
trans. systems

Low-loss power
distribution

Street lighting
with LEDs

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September 2013

Quality
of Life

Challenge to balance between


competitiveness, environment and
quality of life, and to finance
infrastructure solutions
Achieve committed CO2 targets

Key challenges regarding urban image and


technologies

Quality of life

Technologies

Planning

Key challenges
regarding urban image

Urban image

Technologies
Quality of life

Urban image

Planning

Policies

Policies

Operating models

Operating models

Key challenges regarding


technologies

To avoid social segregation


To develop a socially mixed neighborhood
(e.g. Stockholm Royal Seaport)
Lack of state support for social/subsidized
housing (e.g. Rieselfeld)
To be competitive with other districts of the
Turku when trying to attract residents to the
area (e.g. Stockholm Royal Seaport)
To create district image according to future
residents needs & interests
To preserve biodiversity in the development
(e.g. Vuores)

To provide innovative and visionary solutions


that are feasible in the future
To manage financial risks of long-term
infrastructure technology related investments
To find appropriate financing and business
models to manage the high investment cost
occurring
To anticipate potential technical progress and
to be able to integrate the respective changes
into the ongoing planning or execution phase
To find feasible sustainable technologies
which are applicable for Finnish specifics
(weather conditions, legislation etc.)

To create a district image that attracts


the intended future residents

To provide technologies which enable


sustainable behaviour

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September 2013

Key development challenges regarding urban


planning (1/2)
Urban image

Quality of life

Technologies

Key challenges regarding planning

Planning

Policies

Operating models

To provide a high quality of urban design despite the financing challenge


To prevent of urban sprawl
To use clear and functional criteria in the planning process (e.g. difficulties faced with PIMWAG) (e.g. Eco-Viikki)
To receive the approval of all stakeholders involved (citizens, environmental authorities etc.) (e.g. Vuores)
To receive cooperation and agreements throughout the entire project from all stakeholders. (e.g. Skaftkrr, Vauban)
To define ambitious yet feasible (ecological) targets under consideration of financing issues and legislation (e.g.
Skaftkrr)
To validly transfer solutions from the benchmarking districts to the districts of Turku. (e.g. Skaftkrr)
To plan both infrastructure and services in a way that reduces the need for transport, esp. private car transport.
(e.g. good connections to CBD, arrangement of parking lots, provision of community facilities and services within
the districts)
To implement change management processes regarding the development process and the lifestyles of the future
residents (e.g. Stockholm Royal Seaport)
To consider the increased payback time of green buildings compared to standard buildings as well as slightly
higher rents as well as to bear in mind that the building lifespan is longer and the energy costs are lower

To integrate participative processes into planning

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September 2013

Key development challenges regarding policies &


operating models

Quality of life

Technologies

Planning

Key challenges
regarding policies

Urban image

Technologies
Quality of life

Urban image

Planning

Policies

Policies

Operating models

Operating models

To define consistent and coherent standard for the


assessment of the ecological level of an
infrastructure solution (e.g. The PIMWAG (EcoViikki) approach)
To define a minimum standard for the development
of sustainable district infrastructure
To be aware that materials and new technologies
can contribute to the sustainable development of a
district must obey higher than usual standards and
thus increase costs (e.g. Bo01)

To enable the implementation of


sustainable technologies
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Page 45

September 2013

Key challenges regarding


operating models

To find appropriate operating models to manage the


high investment cost occurring
To find appropriate financing models to manage the
high investment cost occurring
To provide good services to the residents and visitors

To close the bridge between cost


effectiveness and comfort

The planning and management challenge


City planning view
City planning

Attitude

In ambitious and complexed city-planning tasks the projects


need clear visions, open discussion, common goals and good
tools to manage the project.

People involved in the


process must
Share the main goals

City planning is always a multi-dimensional project that must


not forget any of the traditional parts of the city-planning. The
new solutions must adapt to the other plans and the city
planning can not concentrate too much on one or few solutions.
The new solutions chosen may not be driven only by a certain
area or project, they must always be part of the City Strategy.
For new solutions there must be a strong support in all the
decisions making in the city.
The need of information in all levels must not be
underestimated.

Commit to the project


Trust the open dialog and
co-operative processes
Tolerate uncertainty during
the process
Manage the risks, not avoid
them totally

Communication is the Key to Success


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Page 46

September 2013

The planning and management challenge


Management view
We need tools that help us to:

plan
communicate
choose / decide
manage the whole project in its compatibility

We need understanding on the financial


background of the solutions:
building cost
operating cost
economical benefits
financial models for the solution

We need knowledge on the physical needs


of the new solutions:
size
amount
location
special needs / restrictions

We need to understand the influence of the


solution to the project in:
the project managing
the planning process
the city-level
the area-level
buildings and their surroundings

We need to know the steps that need to be taken to achieve the solution

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September 2013

The technology and the innovation challenge


to integrate small scale solutions on district
level which are coherent with the citys strategic
goals and the districts operational goals
to identify feasible solutions and integrate their
prerequisites in planning today
to identify and define solutions which are
visionary and effective today but yet accepted
and state-of-the art technologies in the future
to create solutions which are feasible to
integrate solutions from different providers by
defined standards and open interfaces
to care for technology compatibility (from
different distributors as well as older and newer
technologies as the implementation process
may be long)
to find technologies feasible for Skanssi &
Castle Town which additionally have a good
rollout potential for the remaining city districts

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Page 48

September 2013

Today the solutions stand for themselves


Economy
Residential
Buildings
Community

I&C
Business
buildings

Community
buildings

Energy
supply

Safety &
security

Tomorrow will be brought in the context of district


planning..
Residential
Buildings

Smart
mobility

Economy

City
logistics

Smart Grid

Urban pro-cess
org.

Change

Safety &
security

Business
buildings

I&C

City district
integr.

Ecology

Community

Quality
of Life

Energy
supply

Community
buildings

From isolated technologies to integrated solutions


Requirements are drastically changing from closed island solutions / single products
to interlinked intelligent infrastructure solutions
City of today

City of tomorrow
Residential
Buildings

Residential
Buildings

Economy
Smart
mobility

Business
buildings

Community
Ecology

Safety &
security

Community
buildings

I&C

...

Energy
supply

Quality
of Life

many operating systems with different interfaces


Infrastrcuture controlled by individual management
systems
Efficient, centralized energy system
Public transport based on bus-service and eTicketing is to be introduced
Single tendering

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September 2013

Smart
mobility

Economy

City
logistics

Smart Grid

Urban pro-cess
org.

Change

Safety &
security

Business
buildings

I&C

City district
integr.

Ecology

Community

Quality
of Life

Energy
supply

Community
buildings

reducing the number of operating systems by


standardized interfaces
Intermodal, efficient & effective mobility
Sustainable & decentralized
energy supply
Efficient water supply & waste management
Security
Reduced carbon footprint of the entire city
Concerted solution planning

Financing, Operating & Business Models can help to


overcome the different stakeholders interests
Challenge
The various stakeholders involved in the creation of a district have different and partly competing interests and
incentives regarding energy efficient solutions

New Finance Models


Municipality Financing: Conventional procurement
concept based on Municipality risk (public sector direct
funding, international financial institutions and funds of
EU, private financing providers)
Project financing is based upon a non-recourse or
limited recourse financial structure where project debt
and equity are paid back from the cash flow generated by
the project (e.g. Public Private Partnerships)

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September 2013

New Operating Models


E.g. Traditional supply contracts (customers buy a
product or equipment together with accompanying
services and pay the purchase price upon
delivery/acceptance or according to milestones) vs.
Performance Contracting (supplier guarantees a certain
performance, e.g. energy savings, or availability of its
products and services during the contract term and the
customers pay regular installments)

Exemplary financing model:


Three budgetary pots at Vienna public transport

Vienna, Austria

Wiener Linien is an integrated public


transport service provider managing and
operating 5 underground lines, 28
tramway lines and 90 bus lines in the city
of Vienna, Austria

The financing model is based on three


budgetary pots:

1.

Financial compensation: Fixed amount


for personnel costs maintenance costs.
100% financed through the city of Vienna

2.

Capital supply: All investment except


new underground construction, +1.5%p.a.
100% financed through the city of Vienna

3.

Investment underground construction:


Only provided for new construction of the
underground. 50% financed through the
state of Austria, 50% financed through
the city of Vienna
City of Turku & Siemens AG 2013. All rights reserved.
Page 51

September 2013

Exemplary operating model:


Performance contracting at Kulturforum Berlin

Berlin, Germany

The Kulturforum Berlin (culture forum


Berlin) was in urgent need of
modernizing its technical equipment
but no funds had been allotted for this in
the mid-term.

Siemens Financial Services was able to


offer energy-saving performance
contracting to finance the needed
investments without impacting the
budget: Siemens guarantees annual
energy savings of 30%

Results: Taking the pressure of the public


funds, enhancing the buildings energy
efficiency in a way the investments
amortized from guaranteed energy and
operating costs savings in due time

City of Turku & Siemens AG 2013. All rights reserved.


Page 52

September 2013

New forms of collaboration


Successful urban planning and implementation processes involve actual and potential stakeholders
early on and utilize their competencies for co-creation.
City of yesterday was designed for people

City of tomorrow is created with people

Knowledge is shared and


created in interaction
People are empowered

The city was in charge


People had limited power
Constructers were to
follow instructions
Construction was
motivated by short-term
profit
Co-operation was projectbased
Networks tended to be
driven by personal
business interest

Constructers are part of


solution development
Construction aims at lifecycle profitability
Co-operation is continuous
Stakeholder-networks
combine a wide range of
competence

Modern city and district development is shaped together with stakeholders based on a wide range of
competencies and resources. The process is highly co-operative and transparent.
Defining the
challenges
together

Cocreating
the vision

Profile,
targets,
KPI

City of Turku & Siemens AG 2013. All rights reserved.


Page 53

September 2013

Infrastructure Plg.

Realization

Re-evaluate
and improve

Objectives and measures applied in the reference


cases (1/2)
In the Study on European Eco-districts the reference cities were discovered to have ambitious objectives on eight different themes:
energy, buildings, mobility, water & waste, social issues, ecology & environment, urban structure and management & financing. The
objectives were successfully reached by a variety of measures. The objectives and measures were compared with the planned ones
of Turku and can potentially be implemented in Skanssi and Castle Town.

Objectives of the reference cases

Measures that have been proven successful

Renewable energy use


Energy efficiency in
buildings, services,
surroundings and transport
solutions

Use of renewable energy sources:


Solar panels, solar cells, geothermal heat, wind energy, wood
pellets, biogas, purified waste heat
Low-energy houses, zero energy houses
Smart Grid applications in buildings, infrastructure & electrical systems (e.g.
Stockholm Royal Seaport; Malm: Hyllie)

Mobility

Reducing private car traffic


Promoting walking, cycling
and the use of public
transport

Speed limits, traffic-calmed streets (e.g. Freiburg: Rieselfeld, Vauban)


Carpools (e.g. Stockholm: Hammarby Sjstad)
Limited & priced parking opportunities for cars
Multi-use parking facilities - parking for bikes and cars, public transport
connections (e.g. Malm: Hyllie)
Public transport networks, easy access for all
Bicycles for hire, parking facilities for bicycles, bike-sharing
Good and accessible cycle & pedestrian paths

Water &
waste

Better utilization of water


Efficient water saving and
treatment
Reducing waste production
Efficient recycling

Recycling (e.g. sewage into biogas used e.g. for cooking)


Organic treatment of storm waters, rainwater collection
infiltration & wetland systems (e.g. Tampere: Vuores)
part of landscape planning
Utilizing storm waters in houses
Underground waste collection systems, vacuum waste chute systems (e.g.
Tampere: Vuores; Malm: Bo01)
Promotion of recycling, innovative solutions for recycling
Combustible garbage used for electricity & hot water (e.g.
Stockholm: Hammarby Sjstad)

Energy
Buildings

City of Turku & Siemens AG 2013. All rights reserved.


Page 54

September 2013

Objectives and measures applied in the reference


cases (2/2)
Objectives of the reference cases

Measures that have been proven successful

Social Issues

Creating sense of community


Possibilities for living, working
and recreation in the same
area

Common areas (shared gardens, saunas, work places, etc.) (e.g. Helsinki:
Eco-Viikki)
Designing facilities according to residents needs (e.g. Freiburg: Rieselfeld)
Balance of different social and age groups, subsidized housing (e.g.
Vienna: Aspern; Helsinki: Eco-Viikki)
Good service supply reduces the need for transport

Ecology &
environment

Supporting and increasing


biodiversity
Incorporating green spaces in
the residential districts

Ecological building materials


Incorporating green elements in the architecture
Green roofs & walls (e.g. Malm: Bo01)
Creating green belts reaching the buildings (e.g. Helsinki: Eco-Viikki)
Designing green spaces together with residents
Allotment plots for residents

Urban
structure

A versatile cityscape
A flexible structure

A diverse architecture
Preserving the history of the area
No design requirements greater variability (e.g. Malm: Bo01)
Adaptable solutions
Combination of work and leisure in the same area
Environmental art (e.g. Tampere: Vuores)

Management
& financing

Feasibility
Profitability
Efficient partnerships

Public & Private Partnerships


Subsidies from the EU
National Governments support
Participation in research programs (e.g. Tampere: Vuores)
Involvement of network companies (water, electricity etc.)
Leasing/selling of the district land owned by the City for different developers

City of Turku & Siemens AG 2013. All rights reserved.


Page 55

September 2013

How to create a sustainable city district and promote


green growth in the city
Aspects of the planning
process to be considered
throughout the project

Aspects to be considered after


the construction of the district

Overall vision and the means for


achieving it

Sustainable lifestyle of residents:


encouraging and informing the
residents about sustainable habits

Involving the residents from the


beginning
Full commitment & cooperation
of the project partners
Emphasizing the special
elements of the area - e.g. storm
water management, smart grid
since the beginning
Implementing the sustainable
technologies & practices in the
area e.g. public transport from
the start
Comprehensive research work
and profitability calculations
Taking into account the financial
risks of investments in new
technologies

Continuous monitoring also after


the construction
Clear and adequate follow up goals
Comprehensive documentation of
the results open availability of the
results for benchmarking
The positive image of a residential
housing area can attract future
residents to move into the district
Integrating all social groups in the
district creates balance in the area
Sustainable urban districts can also
have an important role in decreasing
or preventing the expansion of
urban development around a city.

Adaptability to future trends


Sources of pictures: Lennart Johansson, City of Stockholm

City of Turku & Siemens AG 2013. All rights reserved.


Page 56

September 2013

Sustainable city district

Impacts on the City level


Economic growth
Population growth
Attractiveness & good image of the
city
Decrease in GHG emissions

Green growth

Content 2

Content

Page

Content 1

Introduction, case for action and objectives

Content 2

Skanssi and Castle Town


Cornerstones of a sustainable development concept

57 - 210

Content 3

Content III: Toolbox and Outlook

211 214

City of Turku & Siemens AG 2013. All rights reserved.


Page 57

September 2013

1 - 56

Content 2
Chapter
1

Content
Skanssi & Castle Town

Status quo and goals


KPI systems to monitor and control

Page
58 - 71

Smart Buildings in Smart Grids The backbone of sustainability

72 - 121

Mobility & Logistics Connectivity and sustainable


on-site transport

122 - 160

Social Issues

161 - 190

Smart City Services

191 - 203

Implementation

204 - 210

City of Turku & Siemens AG 2013. All rights reserved.


Page 58

September 2013

Skanssi shall be designed according to the following


parameters
Skanssi

Skanssi is a greenfield area located between two forest ridges, two main
roads of Helsinki highway and regional road 110. Distance from Skanssi to
the centre of Turku is approximately 4 kilometres and there are already
buses running from Skanssi to the centre. Construction of the first phase
of the residential area of Skanssi started in 2011, and there is already a
new shopping mall in the district opened to public in 2009.

Source: behance.net; designbuildsource.com.au; dhhs.ne.gov; saunaflow.com

City of Turku & Siemens AG 2013. All rights reserved.


Page 59

September 2013

USP

Living Oasis

Time

2030

Area

Greenfield area between two forest


ridges, two main roads of Helsinki
highway and regional road 110.

Km to CBD

4 km

KPI

Increase in population
Decrease in CO2

Technologies

Standardized automation in building


Distributed & local power generation
E-car sharing
E-public transport
IMP

Skanssi will be a sustainable, innovative


and modern district
Visualization of Skanssi profile
Open community
Community, all-age-oriented,
integrated, tolerant, diverse

Smart working & shopping


Smart Services, shopping,
consumeristic, Micro Business

Green access
PT Orientation, green transport,
accessible, country access

Pioneer architecture
Innovative, modern, modern design

Natural focus
Sustainable, orientation by nature,
recreation, natural
Source: Turku, Siemens, http://nett.umich.edu/ http://cte.umd.edu gcegroup.com inhabitblog.com

City of Turku & Siemens AG 2013. All rights reserved.


Page 60

September 2013

with diverse inhabitant groups with various


expectations and requirements
Hypotheses regarding the future inhabitants of Skanssi
Description

Looking for

Solutions

Creatives
Young creative workers,
attracted by Skanssi's
uniqueness

Inspiration
Creative environment
Other creatives

Creative facilities
(art galleries, ...)
Inspirational architecture

Community areas
Adapting to
demographic
change & future
trends

Families
Extended & big families,
sharing life & living

Privacy
Security
Neighborhood

Standardized
Security Systems
Family orientation

B2C
Community services,
shopping, creative
businesses

Business opportunities
Customers

Sufficient district size


Smart Services availability

Open Standards
Car sharing & city
bike rental

All-age
Juniors, teens, adults,
seniors

Tolerant and safe


community
Healthy environment

Standardized
Security Systems
Smart Buildings

Minority groups
Immigrants, disabled
people

Tolerance
Equal chances
A new home

Integrated schools
Community facilities

Source: http://www.whattoseeinvenice.com/tag/ http://www.bbc.co.uk/, http://core3solutions.com/ http://talkingyouth.wordpress.com/


http://reasonradionetwork.com/2

City of Turku & Siemens AG 2013. All rights reserved.


Page 61

Implications for Infrastr.

September 2013

Good schools
Traffic-calmed living
Room for privacy
Security systems

Kindergarten
Green play yards
Recreation areas
Health services
Security

Community areas
Adapting to demogr.
change & future
trends

Castle Town shall be designed according to the following


parameters
Castle Town
USP

Incubator Urban Lab

Time

2035

Area

brownfield area with soil requiring


vast measures before it can be build
on

Distance to
CBD

KPI

Castle Town is located near the city centre. A bit more than a half of the
planning area of Castle Town consists of so called brownfield areas. These
abandoned or under-used industrial and railroad areas are challenging for
the developing process because the contained soil requires vast measures
before it can be used for housing, offices or business premises. Castle
Town is still under planning, and the construction work is going to start at
the earliest in 2013.
Source: behance.net; designbuildsource.com.au; dhhs.ne.gov; saunaflow.com

City of Turku & Siemens AG 2013. All rights reserved.


Page 62

September 2013

Technologies

km

Economic growth
Decrease in CO2
Increase in population

Standardized automation in building


Distributed & local power generation
E-car sharing
E-public transport
IMP

Castle Town will be a vital and innovative district


representing future urban life and business
Visualization of Castle Town profile
Urban flair
Community, vital, integrated, tolerant,
diverse, vivid, dense, entertainment,
night life

Business incubator
StartUp culture, micro business,
smart services

Centre access
Accessible, PT Orientation, biking
lanes, harbor hub

Hip Castle Town


Innovative, modern, sustainable
Source: Siemens, http://cte.umd.edu gotikanime1111.deviantart.com biketempe.org

City of Turku & Siemens AG 2013. All rights reserved.


Page 63

September 2013

Through our solutions, we are able to address the different


needs of Castle Towns inhabitants and its infrastructure
Hypotheses regarding the future inhabitants of Castle Town
Description

Looking for

Solutions

Modern urban citizens


Busy citizens, living urban
life in a swift environment

Entertainment
Urban lifestyle
Night life

Working people
Employees and
entrepreneurs seeking
chances

Career opportunities
Business environment

Integrated mobility
Easy commuting

Travel chains
Information
management
solution

B2B
Industrial and service
business selling to other
businesses

Impressing architecture
High business density

Open Standards
Decentralized
Energy
Management

Families
Wealthy and
young families

Privacy
Security
Neighborhood

Good schools
Traffic-calmed living
Room for privacy
Security systems

Standardized
Security Systems
Family orientation

Minority groups
Immigrants, disabled
people

Tolerance
Equal chances
A new home

Integrated schools
Community facilities

Community areas
Adapting to do
demogr. change &
future trends

Business opportunities
Other businesses
Work force
High reputation of area

Source: http://www.whattoseeinvenice.com/tag/ http://www.londonhelp4u.co.uk, http://core3solutions.com/


http://talkingyouth.wordpress.com/ http://reasonradionetwork.com/2 http://rack.3.mshcdn.com

City of Turku & Siemens AG 2013. All rights reserved.


Page 64

Implications for Infrastr.

September 2013

Entertainment facilities
Sport facilities
24h-retailing
Fast access

Car sharing & city


bike rental
Community areas

Key Performance Indicators show whether or not we


are on the right track to meeting our goals
Examples of KPIs for Skanssi & Castle Town
Number of inhabitants

Quantitative

Skanssi: 8,000
Castle Town: 15,000

Amount of energy used and produced in the area


Produced solar power KWh / m (gfa) (to be defined)
Use of energy KWh / inhabitant / year (to be defined)
Peak energy maximum KW / inhabitant (to be defined)

Traffic-share, transport percentage:

Qualitative

Public transportation (goal > 15 %)


Private cars (< 40 %)
Bicycling (> 15 %)
Walking (> 30 %)

Innovative Smart Services in the area


Image of the Area
Co-operative planning procedures

City of Turku & Siemens AG 2013. All rights reserved.


Page 65

September 2013

Explanation
KPI = Key Performance Indicator
KPIs can be used to monitor the
Indicators during planning, building
and use of the areas
The chosen KPIs must be
approved by city council so that the
Indicators have a sufficient value in
the process
The number of chosen KPIs must
not be too high in order to focus on
the most important indicators
There are quantitative and
qualitative KPIs. It is important to
find ways to measure also the
qualitative KPIs

How can we measure these KPIs?

1. Use Cases

City

City Cockpit addresses


the status of KPIs by
aggregating relevant data

2. Key Performance
Indicators
3. IT / Data System
4. Technologies,
Solutions,
Sensors etc.
Smart
Buildings
Technologies

Smart Grid
and Metering
Technologies

City Logistics
Technologies
and e-mobility

Public Transport
Technologies

Intelligent Traffic
Management
Technologies

All data from use cases in the city is gathered and the respective KPIs calculated.
The various technological solutions are also providing data through a data system,
thus the City Cockpit aggregates data from various sources outlining the most
relevant for the user
Source:
City ofSiemens
Turku & Siemens AG 2013. All rights reserved.
Page 66

September 2013

The city cockpit provides the city administration


steady feedback on the predefined KPIs
City Cockpit dashboard

Explanation
A city cockpit is a way to
monitor the performance
of a city or a city district
The performance is
based on predefined
KPIs in the
corresponding
infrastructure areas
If the respective features
are enabled the
capability of the city
cockpit advances from a
sheer monitoring &
controlling tool to a more
intelligent level with the
capability of prediction,
modeling & simulation

Source: Siemens

City of Turku & Siemens AG 2013. All rights reserved.


Page 67

September 2013

To bridge the gap between the status quo to our vision for
both districts, an integrated planning process was used

Major components of city planning

Description
City planning process follows 3 steps:

Objectives
of the area

Public
opinion

City
planning

Technical
solutions

Stakeholders

Regional planning
Master planning
Detailed city planning
In every part of the process we need further cooperation with the stakeholders and citizens in order
to improve the services and technical solutions.
Process involves:
City planners
Public opinion
Political decision-making
Building planners
System planners
Construction companies
Financing
Service planners and operators

Agreeing on common goals and ways to measure and monitor the


achievements, is essential for a successful cooperation
City of Turku & Siemens AG 2013. All rights reserved.
Page 68

September 2013

Assessing the performance of the reference districts

Applying KPI in Turku

Basis of

indicators

Introduction

The ten reference districts which were analyzed in the Study


on European Eco-districts were further evaluated regarding a
set of themes/categories of sustainability. The
performances of the districts were assessed in the seven
categories of energy, buildings, transport, waste & water,
social issues, actors & green policies and issues in city level
(page X: Deriving KPIs..). These categories included 23
individual qualitative indicators, each of which consists of a
set of criteria that describe the indicator in question.

23
sustainabi
lity
indicators
33 criteria

Assessment
of the
performance
of the
reference
districts

The indicators were mainly based on the European Green City Index conducted by the Economist Intelligence Unit in
cooperation with Siemens, which assesses the environmental impact of Europes major cities. The findings of the Study on
European Eco-districts and the objectives of the cooperation project of the City of Turku and Siemens also influenced the
creation of the set of indicators.

Out of the 23 sustainability indicators, the nine most relevant indicators for the planning of Skanssi and Castle Town
(page X) were selected. The districts which were the most successful regarding these indicators are presented on page X (The
most relevant...). The selected finished reference districts showcase the areas in which the results of the practices used were
highly successful compared to other European cities, while the chosen districts under development demonstrate the districts
where the indicator was planned to be used extensively. These most successful districts are good examples of creating
sustainability in urban environments.
Based on the analysis of the sustainability indicators for the reference districts and the selection of the relevant indicators for
Turku, a set of examples of KPIs for Skanssi & Castle Town were formulated (p. X: Key). These Key Performance Indicators
are good indicators of how the objectives for the districts can be reached.

City of Turku & Siemens AG 2013. All rights reserved.


Page 69

7
themes

September 2013

Deriving KPIs for Skanssi and Castle Town from the


sustainability indicators

Energy-efficient buildings
Making use of existing buildings/areas

Mobility

Restriction of private car parking/usage


Promotion of green transport
Services for cyclists

Water &
waste

Car sharing model


Sustainable storm water management
Efficient waste treatment

City of Turku & Siemens AG 2013. All rights reserved.


Page 70

September 2013

Common areas/activities for the


residents
Good service supply
Subsidized/less-expensive housing
A moderate amount of rental housing
Business involvement
Development of partnership models
Public participation in green policy
Green policies
Decrease of CO2 emissions

Deriving the most relevant KPIs

Smart grid applications

Social Issues

Local energy production

Actors &
Green Policies

Renewable energy consumption

Issues in City
Level

Buildings

Energy

Sustainability categories and indicators

Key Performance
Indicators
for
Skanssi &
Linnakaupunki

Increase in population
Economic growth
Impact on the image of the city

Impact on
Planning
Policies

Overview of the most relevant sustainability indicators for


Skanssi and Castle Town and the most successful
reference districts regarding these indicators
Best Performances
Finished districts
results

Districts under development


targets

Category

Sustainability Indicator

Energy

Renewable energy consumption

Bo01 (Malm, Sweden)


Vauban (Freiburg, Germany)

Vuores (Tampere, Finland)


Skaftkrr (Porvoo, Finland)
Hyllie (Malm, Sweden)

Local energy production

Bo01

Vuores
Skaftkrr
Hyllie

Smart grid applications

Stockholm Royal Seaport (Stockholm,


Sweden)
Hyllie
Aspern (Vienna, Austria)

Buildings

Energy-efficient buildings

Vauban

Stockholm Royal Seaport


Hyllie
Aspern

Mobility

Restriction of private car parking / usage

Bo01
Rieselfeld (Freiburg, Germany)
Vauban

Promotion of green transport

Vuores
Stockholm Royal Seaport
Aspern

Services for cyclists

Vauban

Car sharing model

Hammarby Sjstad
Vauban

Stockholm Royal Seaport

Hammarby Sjstad (Stockholm, Sweden)


Bo01
Rieselfeld
Vauban

Common areas /
Eco-Viikki (Helsinki, Finland)
Social Issues
City of Turku & Siemens
AG
All rights reserved. Rieselfeld
activities for
the2013.
residents
Vauban
Page 71
September 2013

Skaftkrr
Stockholm Royal Seaport
Hyllie
Aspern

Vuores

Content 2 / 2
Chapter
1

Content
Skanssi & Castle Town

Status quo and goals


KPI systems to monitor and control

Page
58 - 71

Smart Buildings in Smart Grids The backbone of sustainability

72 - 121

Mobility & Logistics Connectivity and sustainable


on-site transport

122 - 160

Social Issues

161 - 190

Smart City Services

191 - 203

Implementation

204 - 210

City of Turku & Siemens AG 2013. All rights reserved.


Page 72

September 2013

The selection process of districts relevant solutions


Pre-selection phase

Our methodological approach during the workshop

Filter 1

All possible
solutions
across all the
urban
infrastructure
areas on
regional,
(mega-) cityand districtlevel

Filter 2

General
district
relevant
solutions

Selection
of district
relevant
infrastruc
ture
domains

District
solutions
matching to
city strategy

Expert
selection
on sustainable
innovative
district
criteria

City of Turku & Siemens AG 2013. All rights reserved.


Page 73

September 2013

Filter 3

District
solutions
matching to
district profile

City
district
planner
selection

To be
prioritized
&
integrated
into
planning

Scoping: Turku the time horizon for district


solutions
Continuous challenging of infrastructure solutions living lab initiative
Continuous innovation dialogue with infrastructure providers

Skanssi
(picture today)

photo
or planning pic

Castle Town
(picture today)

2013

2020

1st phase: first residents


construction

photo
or planning pic

photo
or planning pic

photo
or planning pic

photo
or planning pic

photo
or planning pic

photo
or planning pic

2025

2030

2nd phase: districts


3rd phase: grow
installations for transport & residents & first
energy, as well as
businesses
community living

2035

4th phase: grow business


park

focus of report
development
path for
infrastructure
solutions

focus in 1st
residential building
& basic
infrastructure
current solutions

focus on enrgy and


transport solutions
not too fancy, realistic
scenarios, available
solutions to scale, e.g.
LR connectivity

City of Turku & Siemens AG 2013. All rights reserved.


Page 74

September 2013

Key automation of
buildings & energy
grid

future outlook

Infrastructures in districts/ urban planning


Key questions to be answered for a sustainable district

Urban
transport
solutions
Urban
water
solutions

Urban
energy
solutions
Urban
waste
solutions

Urban
buildings
solutions

Public
furniture
Urban
design
soltuions

IT Comm
&

Smart City
Services

How is a comprehensive
connectivity ensured?
Are the mobility needs of all
groups of residents covered?
Will this config. serve to achieve
the ecol. targets?
How can we realize sustainable
but still affordable energy?
How can we plan with reliable
energy supply if the energy market
is shifting?
Can interconnected buildings
increase the energy-efficiency?
How can we combine future-ready
and versatile buildings make
secure and comfortable?
In what way are the services
beneficial for the residents?
Do the services support achieving
the ecol. or social targets?

Social issues
Transport chain
City
people & goods
efficient
transport
functional
District
City
connection
1

PT & IT
accessible

sustainable
comfort., safe
2 Within district transport mode mix
sustainable
3 (inter-)regional access
1

Energy flows

reliable
secure
autonomous
sustainable local 2
energy
generation

3 Grid
management

Building flows
energy-efficient
secure
comfortable
design

City smart services


smart services
community
Apps
safety
1
quality of life
DC

City of Turku & Siemens AG 2013. All rights reserved.


social
ecol. responsibility
economic growth
Page 75
September
2013
CAPEX & OPEX calc.
responsibility
CO2 saving potential

Energy storage
solutions

1
3

Dev

2
Services

NW
3
SW

generation
grid mamgt
storage

consumption
heating
lighting
cooling

information
provision
data mgmt
guidance
IT based
citizen services

Through our chosen buildings and energy solutions, we


are able to address the districts most urgent requirements
Ranked challenges & requirements towards the buildings & energy infrastructure
1 Innovative districts through innovative solutions
2 Sustainable living
3

Enabling Smart Services


4 Reliable energy supply
5 Low energy costs
6 Versatile infrastructure

1 Innovative
Smart Buildings
Automation
using weather
forecast

Sustainable

Electricity
Storage
Solar panels

Smart
Services

Standardized
Security
Systems

City of Turku & Siemens AG 2013. All rights reserved.


Page 76

September 2013

Reliable

Energy
Distribution
Automation
Communication
Network
Infrastructure

Low energy
costs
Decentralized
Energy
Management

Versatile

Open
Standards in
Buildings

There are interdependencies and overlaps between


the various energy and buildings solutions
Energy & Buildings Solutions
Advanced solutions

enable

Explanation
Basic / enabling solutions

Smart Building solutions


Standardized Security
Systems
Automation using weather
forecast

Electricity storage

Open Standards in
Buildings

Energy Distribution
Automation

Communication network
infrastructure

Solar panels

Decentralized Energy Management

City of Turku & Siemens AG 2013. All rights reserved.


Page 77

September 2013

Basic solutions are


prerequisite to implement
advanced solutions
Standardized Security
Systems and
Automation using
weather forecast are part
of the Smart Building
Solutions
Decentralized Energy
Management is a
management solution
through which all other
solutions can be steered
& controlled

The building and energy solutions show a potential


of decreasing residential CO2 emissions by 42%
Cumulated CO2 abatement potential in the energy &
buildings infrastructure area

Total CO2 emission


saving potential = 10000
tons per year (42%) in
Skanssis and Castle
Towns combined
residential area

-42%
24.948

6.728

tons
CO2/year

3.742
5

Baseline

Solar
panels

Smart
Buildings

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Page 78

September 2013

Explanation

Pred.
autom.
using
weather
forecast

14.474

Optimized
Baseline

Solar panels are the


biggest lever and can
save up to 6.7 tons
Through Smart Buildings
we can save CO2
emissions of up to 3.7
tons in Skanssi and
Castle Town
Predictive automation has
only a very small impact,
up to 5 tons of CO2
savings possible per year

Current situation in Turku


Situation of Energy in Turku

Objectives of Energy in Turku

Only central Energy infrastructure for Power and


Heat available
New bio mass based power plant in tender phase
Current waste-energy plants environmental
license is ending
Distribution network does support future
investments on smart solutions

Optimization of property specific energy


production
Reduction of energy consumption .
Reducing the carbon footprint of construction
Introduction of distributed energy sources
(solar, wind) in order to complement central
energy production

Specific objectives of Energy in Skanssi & Castle Town


Utilization of smart energy network in properties/apartments
Focus on local energy production
Skanssi: Smart Distribution network to be developed (greenfield area)
Castle Town: Existing distribution network to be upgraded (ie. feeder automation, support of two way
energy flow)
City of Turku & Siemens AG 2013. All rights reserved.
Page 79

September 2013

Electricity Storage
Energy, Skanssi & Castle Town

Source: Siemens

City of Turku & Siemens AG 2013. All rights reserved.


Page 80

September 2013

Electricity storage for Skanssi & Castle Town at a


glance
Case for action
Minimize energy losses, Enables
effective storage of distributed
energy
Peak Load Management,
Combining local energy
production with central needs
management
Distributed energy with fluctuating
supply, Improvement of System
Average Interruption Duration
Index (SAIDI)

Description of solution
Black start capability for
guaranteeing
continuous power supply
Improvement of power quality
Black start capability for
guaranteeing
continuous power supply
Optimizing tariffs and improve
energy autonomy
e-Car Quick Charging

Power system stability

Prerequisites

Comprehensive energy
management system available
Distributed power generation
done
Intelligent network components
installed
Secure communication
infrastructure set up

Output

Overload

Underload

Time

Example: Placement in shopping center

Source: Turku, Siemens expert estimation basing on reference in Kalasatama Helsinki

City of Turku & Siemens AG 2013. All rights reserved.


Page 81

September 2013

Load

Electricity-storage systems are able to act as a buffer in


electrical power grids
The aim is to provide a buffer against short-term fluctuations
in output from renewable energy sources. Such fluctuations
can last for seconds or several minutes long.
As a result, there's no need to adjust controls at power
stations - a procedure that reduces efficiency and increases
costs.
Modern energy storage combines cutting-edge power
electronics for grid applications and the latest highperformance Li-Ion batteries. It provides power up to several
Mega Watts at capacities from 0.2 up to 2 MWh. The
modular designs enables power and capacity to be adapted
to specific demands and ensures for the district a high
availability and reliability.
Recommendation1): 1 device per district
Cooperation with Skanssi shopping mall for certain periods
possible
The devices require a lot of space but can be placed
anywhere: Basement of buildings,
subway stations,
outside, etc.

Electricity storage for Skanssi & Castle Town at a


glance
Benefits

Implementation plan and rollout potential

Citizens

Seamless system, does not require end user participation


High system availability and power quality
Enabling storage of privately produced energy
Lower energy costs through more efficient energy usage

Investors

Milestones

New business models: Private storage, energy market,


peak load management, etc
Energy storage may be used in co -operation with Fingrid
Oyj by offering frequency regulation services

~ 1 year

Financial

Pricing concept

> 6 months

Technical

Pilot
City
development

City administration
Supports large scale distributed energy production
Enables optimization of grid investments
Cleaner environment
Less supply losses
Improvement peak load handling

Profile fit

Economical fit

Technical fit
Overall
transferability

City of Turku & Siemens AG 2013. All rights reserved.


Page 82

September 2013

Maintenance concept
Battery choice (lifetime, capacity, )
Location of devices
Safety concept rollout

Interdependency with DEM


Batteries have to be replaced
Steady adaptation of set-up and number
of devices to energy roadmap

3 months

1 2 years

Continuously

Requirements / prerequisites
Geographical /
spatial fit

Rollout potential

Time

Question of device ownership: City,


construction company, residents?
Safety / Insurance concept

Legal
Implementation plan

Enough space for devices required


Suitable location for devices needed
Cooling system in devices are noisy, social acceptance required (acoustic
fit)
In case of outside location, the devices have to optically fit into the districts
landscape (esthetic fit)
With the current generation of electricity storage it is not yet possible to
earn money => The city needs to be willing to subvention this solution
Without demand & supply deviations, there is no need for storage => peak
loads necessary
As soon as the new generation of electricity storage devices and the
technological process increase the economical attractiveness, the rollout
potential will increase from a medium to a high level

Reference case / Best practice

Challenge for Energias de Portugal (EDP)


First pilot project: Enel, an Italian electric utility company, uses the energy storage system for the
efficient integration of photovoltaic power plants and for an e-vehicle charging station.
Enel connected the first pilot system with a performance of 1 MVA (megavolt-ampere) and a capacity
of 500 kWh to the medium-voltage grid. The company is Italys largest energy distributor.
The energy storage system was successfully commissioned in
February 2012 and is used to explore new smart grid solutions.
Stored electrical energy is used for load regulation and voltage
stabilization.
Furthermore, the systems enables the start-up of the grid
the main supply is not available

Source: Siemens

City of Turku & Siemens AG 2013. All rights reserved.


Page 83

September 2013

when

Solar panels
Energy, Skanssi & Castle Town

Source: Siemens, http://en.wikipedia.org http://www.flickr.com

City of Turku & Siemens AG 2013. All rights reserved.


Page 84

September 2013

Solar panels for Skanssi & Castle Town at a glance


Case for action
Solar panels generate electricity out
of sun light
Solar panel = Packaged, connected
assembly of photovoltaic cells
The electricity produced can either
be used for own consumption or it
can be fed back into the energy grid
Potential location of panels: Roof
tops, house walls, public transport
stations

Prerequisites

Social acceptance of energy


solutions (e.g. panels at bus
stations)
Metering strategy for all
consumption and energy sources
Energy reporting strategy

Description of solution
Equipping the districts with
panels will make the
residents decrease the
residents dependency
from energy providers
Affordable energy costs
are important to attract
various groups of
residents and push green
energy demand
Solar forest

E-Car solar
charging in shopping center
Example:
Placement

Solar panels generate electricity out of sun light


Solar panel = Packaged, connected assembly of photovoltaic
cells
The electricity produced can either be used for own
consumption or it can be fed back into the energy grid
Potential location of panels: Roof tops, house walls, public
transport stations
The energy output of solar panels relies on the quality of the
panels, the exposition to sunlight and the efficiency of the
grid
The exact location of panels is a critical success factor and
should be considered from an early phase of planning
Panels in the Turku region produce ~ 900 kWh/m per year
Todays solutions show an efficiency factor of up to 20%
New solutions show the potential to achieve much higher
factors: E.g. CPV (concentrated photovoltaic): Similar to a
loupe, sunlight is bundled before it hits the panels thus
increasing the intensity of the light and the power generated
=> efficiency factor of ~ 40%
Solar panels can be installed on every building with sunshine
access
Public places (e.g. bus stop stations can also be equipped
with panels)
Long term goal: 20,000 m solar power plant on Skanssis
roofs, 37,500 m in Castle Town

Source: Siemens experts, http://www.trendsderzukunft.de http://www.ornl.gov http://daybreakmagazine2.wordpress.com

City of Turku & Siemens AG 2013. All rights reserved.


Page 85

September 2013

Impact evaluation Residential Solar panels


Assumptions

Potential earnings & energy production


p.a.

8,000 residential inhabitants


Skanssi

6.000.000
4.000.000

15,000 residential inhabitants


Castle Town

2.000.000

50m/inhabitant

0
2015

2020

2025

2030

2035

2040

2045

Skanssi

Up to 5% to be implemented in
the long run (starting in 2025,
4 years rollout duration, 1%
increase per year)

Linnakaupunki

GWh p.a.

Skanssi & Linnakaupunki

60

Solar panels in Turku regions


create ~ 900 kWh/m of
electricity per year

40
20
0
2015

1% of residential area would


be directly available used for
solar panels from 2015 on

90 /MWh energy price for


end consumer
2020

2025

2030

2035

2040

2045

Source: Turku Energy, Siemens (master thesis Sanna Pasens: Comparing energy production options for a new district), , Fortum, http://www.scanvac.net/2010/11/finlandlaunching-new-energy-performance-regulation-2012-and-era17-action-plan-for-2010-2017/

City of Turku & Siemens AG 2013. All rights reserved.


Page 86

September 2013

Impact evaluation Residential Solar panels


Assumptions

CAPEX & OPEX

1.150.000m residential area


in Skanssi & Castle Town

1.200.000

1% of residential area would


be directly available used for
solar panels from 2015 on

1.000.000

Up to 5% to be implemented in
the long run (starting in 2025,
4 years rollout duration, 1%
increase per year)

800.000
600.000
400.000

CAPEX (today) ~ 100 /m 2)


OPEX (today) ~ 2.5 /m 2)

200.000
0
2015

CAPEX (from 2025 on) ~ 61


/m 2,3)
2020

2025

2030

2035

CAPEX (Skanssi + Linnakaupunki)


OPEX (Skanssi + Linnakaupunki)

Source: 1): Siemens Singapore Study


Mason Inman, 6 December 2012

2045

OPEX (2025) ~ 1.5 /m per


year 2,3)
Life span of solar panels = 25
years 2)

2): Prices & features today: ISC Konstanz 3) Prices in 2025: Near Zero,How Low Will Photovoltaic Prices Go? An Expert Discussion,

City of Turku & Siemens AG 2013. All rights reserved.


Page 87

2040

September 2013

Impact evaluation CO2 - Residential


Assumptions

Annual CO2 abatement

Castle Town + Skanssi residential


space = 1,150,000 m

-27%

1% thereof used for panels in the


short-term, 5% in the long run

24.948

tons
CO2/year

2.340
4.388

18.220

Electricity consumption = 36,4


kWh/m
Electricity emission = 130
gCO2/kWh
Heating consumption = 66 kWh/m
Heating emission = 257 gCO2/kWh
Solar panels in Turku regions
create ~ 900 kWh/m of electricity
per year
Zero emissions through solar
panels

Baseline

Skanssi 5% Linnakaupunki
5%

Optimized
Baseline

Implementation at 100%

Source. Turku Energy, Siemens (master thesis Sanna Pasens: Comparing energy production options for a new district), , Fortum, http://www.scanvac.net/2010/11/finlandlaunching-new-energy-performance-regulation-2012-and-era17-action-plan-for-2010-2017/

City of Turku & Siemens AG 2013. All rights reserved.


Page 88

September 2013

Solar panels for Skanssi & Castle Town at a glance


Benefits

Implementation plan and rollout potential

Citizens

Consumers become prosumers, thus having to buy less


energy from the providers

Investors

New business opportunities & business models emerge:


Installation, management as well as smart city services
(e.g. monitoring applications, automated maintenance)

Legal

Technical

Pilot

The sustainability character of Skanssi & Castle Town


becomes directly recognizable if the majority of roof-tops is
transformed into a district wide solar energy plant

Rollout potential

Cleaner environment
Decreased dependency from fossil energy
If solar panels in the two district are a pilot for a city-wide
rollout, the districts will be installed as green pioneers for
the whole region

Profile fit

Economical fit

Technical fit
Overall
transferability

City of Turku & Siemens AG 2013. All rights reserved.


Page 89

September 2013

Time
N.a.

Subvention of panels by city to be clarified


12 months
New business models check (e.g. maintaining
companies, degree of investor involvement, etc.)
Maintaining concept
Operational safety concept
1% 2015, 1% more pear year from 2025 on
finishing in 2028
Skanssi & Castle Town could serve as pilots for
a city-wide rollout

6 months

Adjustment of solutions to changing prices (e.g.


strong increase of used solar panels in the
coming decades)
Panels have to fit into the overall look of the
district
Adapting to new technology trends

Annual check

24 months

Requirements / prerequisites
Geographical /
spatial fit

Society

Financial

City
development

District

Milestones
N.a.

Implementation plan

Exposition to sun is a critical success factor. Solar panels in Lapland, for


example, will produce less electricity
The local society needs to accept the panels as part of the districts profile
(profiling acceptance)
Panels have to optically fit into the overall district landscape (esthetic
acceptance)
The community needs to be willing to make high initial investments

Grid infrastructure needs to be ready


Nowadays, the rollout potential is medium. If energy prices rise in the future
and panels become cheaper, the rollout potential will become very high

Reference case / Best practice


Solution approach in Helsinki

ABB rooftop, Helsinki

In 2010, an 181 kilowatt (kW) solar power system was launched on


the rooftop of ABBs low voltage AC drives factory at Pitjnmki, in
Helsinki. The electricity it generates is to be used for charging the
batteries of the factorys fork lift trucks, and for cutting energy
consumption peaks at the factory.
The electricity generated is equivalent to the annual energy
consumption of about 30 residential homes (without electrical
heating) and is fed directly to the grid within the factory for powering
the battery chargers of the forklift trucks. Any excess electricity is
used by other loads within the factory grid
The project, which costs approximately 500,000 euros, is partly
funded by Finlands Ministry of Employment and the Economy from
its renewable energy system investment fund that invests in future
and renewable technologies as part of its strategy to create new
technologies and jobs within these sectors.

Source: http://www.abb.com/

City of Turku & Siemens AG 2013. All rights reserved.


Page 90

September 2013

Figures
1,200 m
181 kW
160,000 kWh electricity
generation per year
Equivalent to the
consumption of 30
residential homes
Project costs ~500,000

Communication Network Infrastructure


Energy, Skanssi & Castle Town

Source: Siemens

City of Turku & Siemens AG 2013. All rights reserved.


Page 91

September 2013

Communication network infrastructure for Skanssi &


Castle Town at a glance
Case for action
Enables two way communication
Fiber Optic communication
referable
Current Standard technologies
Mixing of different technologies
shall be possible
Scaleable
Easy access on data (ie. third party
services)

Prerequisites

Description of solution
Real Time Data Sharing
Two way communication
Enabling the grid to
intercommunicate =>
Smart Grid

Skanssi illustration

Smart Grid Vision and Strategy


Distributed power generation
setup
Intelligent network components
Data communications

Source: Turku, Siemens

City of Turku & Siemens AG 2013. All rights reserved.


Page 92

September 2013

Effective data communication is a basic requirement for a


Smart Grid and intelligent Energy solutions
Smart Network infrastructure is a prerequisite of Smart Grid.
Installation of communication network infrastructure (fiber
optic cabling and or wireless communication 2G, 3G, 4G
GSM Modems, intercommunicating ring main units)
Citizens will demand significant control over access to data
about their electricity usage, both to supply third-party service
that they consider valuable and restrict other usage that they
consider detrimental.
The ability of utilities to incorporate technological
developments in electric grid systems and components on an
ongoing basis will be critical to mitigating the data
communications and cyber security challenges associated
with grid modernization. Development and selection
processes for interoperability standards must strike a balance
between allowing more rapid adoption of new technologies
and enabling continuous innovation
Smart grid communication features: Two-way
communication, Network Architecture, Communication
media, Communication protocols, Communication Standards,
Cyber Security, Accessibility

Communication network infrastructure for Skanssi &


Castle Town at a glance
Benefits

Implementation plan

Citizens

Seamless, secure & fast communication network


infrastructure (internet, phone, etc.)
Enables real time access, e.g. for
power consumption data

Investors / Businesses

State-of-the-art communication network improves the


districts attractiveness for IT companies (e.g. internet
caf) and startups
Improved cyber security

City administration

The district is granted the opportunity for innovative


offerings like free internet, outdoor internet, etc.

City of Turku & Siemens AG 2013. All rights reserved.


Page 93

September 2013

Milestones
Legal

Implementation plan

Financial

Technical

Pilot
City
development

Time

Ownership of communicational data


Data protection
Cyber security concept

Several months

N.a.

N.a.

Choice of communication media


Cabling planning & rollout
Security, maintenance & service concept

12 months (fiber optic


cabling)
3 months (wireless)

N.a.

N.a.

Steady updating of communication network to


the utmost standard
Fiber optic: Higher investment but less changes
required

Whenever a new
technology emerges

Distribution Automation
Energy, Skanssi & Castle Town

bidirectional
energy flow
generation /
consumption
in the LV grid
generation
in the MV grid

smart
meter
energy
storage

Source: Siemens

City of Turku & Siemens AG 2013. All rights reserved.


Page 94

September 2013

e-car
infrastructure
regulated
distribution
transformer

Distribution automation for Skanssi & Castle Town at


a glance
Case for action
Short down time and high selectivity
required
Push sustainability to its next level
by minimizing energy losses
Combining local energy production
with central needs management
Distributed energy with fluctuating
supply
Improvement of System Average
Interruption Duration Index (SAIDI)

Description of solution
Automatic supply voltage
management
Fault localization
Condition monitoring

Prerequisites

Local regulators demand


Distributed power generation needs to be installed
Intelligent network components working
Secure communication infrastructure in place

Distribution kiosk
Example: Placement in shopping center

Source: Siemens

City of Turku & Siemens AG 2013. All rights reserved.


Page 95

September 2013

Distribution Automation = Automated & intelligent control over the


energy distribution network
Nowadays, 3 different intelligence levels of energy distribution are
defined:
The first level just comprises of monitoring, required for example,
to achieve higher availability (SAIDI, CAIFI) or faster fault
localization
Apart from monitoring, the second level additionally offers the
possibility of remote control, thus minimizing the downtimes. Long
ways of the fault-clearing teams to often distant transformer
substations are therefore a thing of the past
The third level provides the option of complete power-flow control
by the secondary transformer substation. This refers, for example,
to the activation of reactive-power compensation or the
management of decentralized power supplies by actively triggering
the inverters
Totally new solution to be implemented in Skanssi (start from
scratch). In Castle Town this would be an upgrade, basic solution
is already existing. 500 kVA per distribution transformer; 15 25
distribution transformers 1)
Possible focus areas: Automation units, voltage and current
sensors, monitoring devices (temperature, etc), distribution
transformer with voltage regulation, communication, security,
Distribution Automation system may be owned by Turku Energy.
System operation and maintenance may be outsourced for
services provider

Distribution automation for Skanssi & Castle Town at


a glance
Benefits

Implementation plan and rollout potential

Citizens / Businesses

Increased reliability
Shorter outage times

Operators

Less maintenance required because of shorter outage


time => Higher customer satisfaction as well as
lower
maintenance costs

Financial

Technical

Pilot
City
development

Enables large scale distributed energy production


Longer audit intervals
Higher power quality
Increased safety
Rollout potential

Source: Turku, Siemens; 1): Turku Energy + Siemens expert estimation

Page 96

September 2013

Skanssi: First installation concept


Castle Town : Upgrade concept
Maintenance concept (usually third party),
easy access
N.a.

Time
Several months

N.a.

Several months

N.a.

Location of ring main units (e.g. inside / outside) Several weeks


Alignment of planning and utility has to part of
the implementation plan

Requirements / prerequisites
Geographical /
spatial fit
Profile fit

Economical fit

Technical fit
Overall
transferability

City of Turku & Siemens AG 2013. All rights reserved.

Distance from residential buildings (noise)


Fire safety concept
N.a.

City administration

Milestones
Legal

Implementation plan

Room for ring main units required, either inside or outside of buildings
Outside location of transformers: Social acceptance required of the optical
fit into district landscape (esthetic fit)
Inside location: Social acceptance of potential risk, e.g. fire, required
(safety fit)
District needs to be able to bear initial investment costs

N.a.
High, all requirements can be easily met.

Reference case / Best practice


Challenge for Energias de Portugal (EDP)

EDP RMU

A major requirement on electricity supply systems is high supply reliability for


the customer which is mainly determined by the distribution network. Supply
reliability is influenced by various technical and organizational factors, and
typically quantified by criteria such as SAIDI and SAIFI. In general, customer
and regulator expectations on supply reliability are steadily increasing.
Moreover, in liberalized markets, regulators typically require the utilities to
report on the reliability performance, or define explicit performance targets
that are even penalized in case of violations.

Technical Details of Solution Approach

Facts & Figures

Monitoring and controlling inside the Secondary Substation: Feeder control and
monitoring (switchgear and alarms), Phase Short Circuit detection (Dedicated
DO to eMic), earth fault detection (Dedicated DO to eMic), transformer
protection monitoring (Temperature, Pressure and Gases), door open and
Intrusion Detection, general alarms (about five indications), measurement
acquisition through fault detection devices, communication in IEC 60870-5-104
Protocol PID EDP Light, Backup Power Supply System with Battery
supervision - Standby Time 5 hours with 3 full switching procedures within
those 5 hours

328 ring main units delivered in


2011
334 ring main units delivered in
2012

Source: Siemens, http://www.edp.pt/en/Pages/homepage.aspx

City of Turku & Siemens AG 2013. All rights reserved.


Page 97

September 2013

Decentralized Energy Management


Energy, Skanssi & Castle Town

Source: Siemens

City of Turku & Siemens AG 2013. All rights reserved.


Page 98

September 2013

Decentralized Energy Management for Skanssi &


Castle Town at a glance
Case for action
Optimize the electric through
optimized energy balance, energy
storage, energy usage and reduced
grid losses
Optimize the energy mix exploiting the
local reserves and sources
Combination of local energy
production with central needs
management required

Description of solution
Demand Response
Management
Weather services and
forecasts
Optimized use of energy
storage.
Distributed energy with
fluctuating supply

Prerequisites

Virtual power plant

Distributed power generation


setup
Intelligent network components
Energy storage
Secure Communication
infrastructure
Energy (consumer) market place
is required

Source: Siemens

City of Turku & Siemens AG 2013. All rights reserved.


Page 99

September 2013

With a decentralized energy management solution (DEM)


you can network decentralized generating units in a smart
grid, control them centrally, and optimize their use both
economically and ecologically
Through this solution, distributed power generating units can
be combined to form a large-scale virtual power plant. The
system uses all important information, such as weather
forecasts, current electricity prices, and the energy demands.
This data forms the basis for drawing up and monitoring a
generally optimized dispatch plan
The solution is merely a management solution steering &
controlling other parts of the grid. Thus, the concrete
characteristic of a DEM depend on the characteristics of the
rest of the grid
Possible technical features:
Energy exchange, weather services, Virtual Power Plant,
demand response, invoicing, etc.
DEM is either owned by Turku Energy or a third party
provider
Thus, the solution would not be placed in the districts itself
The solution is scalable but from a synergy standpoint a citywide rollout would be the best solution

Decentralized Energy Management for Skanssi &


Castle Town at a glance
Benefits

Implementation plan and rollout potential

Citizens

Households become able to sell their produced energy


power
Enabled demand response
Decreased energy costs through optimized energy use

Investors

New business opportunities due to the value chain


changes => E.g. enabling start-ups to participate in the
energy business
Provider access to new business model

Milestones

2-3 years

Financial

Business case check for owner


Pricing
Insurance

Starting after
completion of legal
issues: 6-12 months

Technical

Location and control of DEM


Scale
Functionalities

3 months (basic
clarification), 3 months
(technical clarification)

Pilot

Early start with first houses

3 years

Integration of new energy sources

Continuously

City
development

City administration
Cleaner Environment
Less CO2 emissions
Optimized & supported of distributed energy => Pushing
the districts sustainability image forward

Requirements / prerequisites
Geographical /
spatial fit
Profile fit

Economical fit

Technical fit
Overall
transferability

Source: Turku, Siemens

City of Turku & Siemens AG 2013. All rights reserved.


Page 100

September 2013

Size of district (if its too small, it might not cover the costs. If its too big, it
might not be able to cope with the complexity)
N.a.

Rollout potential

Time

Question of ownership Public


tender for public ownership)
Taxation

Legal
Implementation plan

Investment and operating costs have to covered


Energy demand needs to be at a level that makes the solution economical
attractive
Required technical infrastructure has to be installed in advance
High. Spatial and economical requirements will rarely be a deal breaker for
modern districts

Reference case / Best practice


Challenge for utility company Munich, Germany

Hydro Power Plant

Munich city utilities owns several distributed energy production facilities


Without a central management tool, a lot of the produced distributed energy
was either wasted or overloaded the grid

Solution approach in Munich, Germany


Munich city utilities is using a Siemens distributed energy management
system called DEMS, which makes note of weather forecasts, current
electricity prices, and demand, and then plans production accordingly. A windy
forecast, for instance, would cue more reliance on the wind farm.
The calculated deployment schedule consequently minimizes the costs of
generation and operations the interconnected plants making up the virtual
power station
The system makes use of software in communications technologies that
connect the 12 plants, including LAN, WAN, GPRS and ISDN.

Facts & Figures


Total Capacity of 20MW
12 small scale plants, 5 hydro
stations, 1 wind farm and 6 unit
type cogenerating stations.

Source: Siemens & Stadtwerke Mnchen: http://www.smartplanet.com/blog/intelligent-energy/munich-smart-grid-for-smart-city/14802

City of Turku & Siemens AG 2013. All rights reserved.


Page 101

September 2013

Smart Buildings
Buildings, Skanssi & Castle Town

Source: Siemens

City of Turku & Siemens AG 2013. All rights reserved.


Page 102

September 2013

Current situation in Turku


Situation of Buildings in Turku

Objectives of Buildings in Turku

All buildings have different building management systems


(BMS)
BMS systems are currently not able to intercommunicate
Need for trained user for every single system
Buildings have different security systems, currently
without any interaction

Energy saving of 9% 2016 (baseline 2005)


Lifecycle cost reduction
More efficiency in building services
Outsourcing in building services is required

Specific objectives about the buildings in Skanssi & Castle Town


Ca. 8000 residents planned in Skanssi, ca. 15,000 residents planned in Castle Town
Building infrastructure to be build from scratch in Skanssi (only shopping center currently existing), existing buildings
to be upgraded in Castle Town
Around 10% of the permitted building volume of the residential blocks of the area should allow working places and
services
The demands of smart services and commerce are considered in the buildings
Reduction of energy consumption (about 80% low-energy houses 65 kWh/m2/a or passive houses 15 kWh/m2/a)
Utilization of smart energy network in properties/apartments

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Page 103

September 2013

Smart buildings for Skanssi & Castle Town at a


glance
Case for action

Description of solution

Each inhabitant can influence, monitor & optimize to their energy


consumption and circumstance
Save energy through individual optimization
Control your home through devices like smart phones, tablets

Prerequisites

Integrated building

Installation of building infrastructure that is able to


communicate with and execute on command of the user
On the other hand, Smart Buildings can also be steered
from a defined centre, e.g. in case of emergency
Possible capabilities of an exemplary Smart Building
solution: Room Optical Control for comfort and energy
efficiency in the room (Cross-discipline, intelligently linked
efficiency function; automatic detection of unnecessary
energy usage in the room; notifies room user of inefficiency)
Can potentially be implemented in all of Skanssis & Castle
Towns buildings
Open standards required

operation

Guidelines for building technical


planers have to be ready in
advance
Large recreation areas
Complete & fast internet access
Open standards

Security
Centre

Smart
Buildings
Security Centre
Source: Turku, Siemens

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Page 104

September 2013

Impact evaluation Residential


Potential earnings
Assumptions

Potential earnings

8,000 residents Skanssi


15,000 residents Castle Town

/p.a.

50m per resident

1.077.435

1.000.000
718.290

Electricity cost (per year) =


90/MWh
Electricity consumption = 36,4
kWh/m
Heating costs (per year) = 45
/MWh
Heating consumption = 66 kWh/m

2020

2025

2030

2035

Skanssi + Castle Town 10%


Skanssi + Castle Town 15%

2040

time
2045

Experts estimates savings of 10 15% through smart buildings


solutions (studies showed savings
of up to 20% for electricity and up
to 25% for heating)
Starting in 2020, implementation at
100% in 2035

Source. TU Munich, Turku Energy, Siemens (master thesis Sanna Pasens: Comparing energy production options for a new district), Fortum,
http://www.scanvac.net/2010/11/finland-launching-new-energy-performance-regulation-2012-and-era17-action-plan-for-2010-2017/

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Page 105

September 2013

Impact evaluation Residential


Assumptions

CO2 savings (tons per year)

-10%

-15%
24.948

24.948
2.495 22.453

3.742 21.206
Baseline
10% savings
Optimized Baseline

Castle Town + Skanssi


residential space = 1,150,000
m
Electricity consumption = 36,4
kWh/m
Electricity emission = 130
gCO2/kWh
Heating consumption = 66
kWh/m
Heating emission = 257
gCO2/kWh
Calculation based on 10% as
well as on 15% saving
CO2 savings are calculated at
a 100% implementation level
(year 2035 and later)

Source. TU Munich, Turku Energy, Siemens (master thesis Sanna Pasens: Comparing energy production options for a new district), Fortum,
http://www.scanvac.net/2010/11/finland-launching-new-energy-performance-regulation-2012-and-era17-action-plan-for-2010-2017/

City of Turku & Siemens AG 2013. All rights reserved.


Page 106

September 2013

Smart Buildings for Skanssi & Castle Town at a


glance
Benefits

Implementation plan and rollout potential

Citizens

Increased comfort due to automated & individualized room


settings (heating, cooling, air regulation, etc.)
Saving energy cost through intelligent automated systems

Businesses

Milestones
N.a.

Smart Buildings as an enabler of Smart Service Business


in the districts
Lower energy costs for businesses
Smart Building solutions might attract IT related business
& employees

Legal
Implementation plan

Technical

Pilot
City
development

Profile fit

Economical fit

Technical fit
Overall
transferability

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Page 107

September 2013

N.a.

Open standards need to be implemented


Internet connection available
Maintenance concept defined

12 months

Already done: Derby project

12 months

N.a.

N.a.

Requirements / prerequisites
Geographical /
spatial fit

Rollout potential

CO2 abatement through lower


energy consumption,
e.g. intelligent
use of sunlight
Smart Building solutions might attract IT related business
& employees
Smart, communicating and self regulating buildings
highlight the districts relevance as innovative lighthouse
projects

N.a.
Financial

City district administration

Time
N.a.

Possible in buildings of any size


Overall fit to city & district development plan
Target group fit: Not every resident strives for innovative buildings and
rooms and is thus willing to bear the costs
More expensive than standard solution

Standardized Automation required


Rollout potential medium because of the technical and economical
prerequisites

Reference case / Best practice


Situation & solution in case study

ZVEI1)

One big office building planned with construction costs of 14


million
High operating costs of 2 million /year
By increasing the construction costs by 0.5 million , from 14 to
14.5 million, smart building solutions (SBS) where implemented
Through these smart building solutions the OPEX decreases by
10%

Cost overview with & without SBS

Business case

0,5
without SBS

14,0

with SBS
1,8
construction costs

0,2

operating costs
(per year)

Lifecycle costs without SBS


= 14 mio. (construction) + 20
years * 2 mio /year (OPEX)
= 54mio.
Lifecycle costs with SBS =
14 mio. (construction) + 20
years * 2 mio /year (OPEX)
= 50.5mio.

Source: ZVEI = Zentralverband Elekrotechnik- und Elektronikindustrie e.V. - Central association for electrical engineering and electronic industry

City of Turku & Siemens AG 2013. All rights reserved.


Page 108

September 2013

Predictive automation using weather forecast


Buildings, Skanssi & Castle Town
Temperature
Cloudiness %
Rain probability %
Rain condition
Cumulative rain amount (h)
Wind direction
Wind power
Relative humidity
Sun emission (w/m2)

FTP Server
weather forecasts
(Foreca etc)

Source: Siemens

City of Turku & Siemens AG 2013. All rights reserved.


Page 109

September 2013

Building
Management
System

Predictive automation using weather forecast for


Skanssi & Castle Town at a glance
Case for action

Description of solution

Sensing, forecasting & self-optimizing buildings represent a new


generation of building automation
Buildings become self-adapting to short-term weather fluctuations as
well as to long-term climatic change
Reduction of energy consumption through improved planning by using
weather forecast

Prerequisites

Integrated operation

Heating tubes have to be


installed, e.g. at ramps and
pedestrian areas
Control system has to be installed
Reliable data has to be available
(e.g. Foreca)
Guidelines for building technical
planers have to be ready in
advance
Complete & fast internet access

Source: Siemens

City of Turku & Siemens AG 2013. All rights reserved.


Page 110

September 2013

Building Management Systems gather weather forecast data


from a public provider via internet and then distribute this
information to the different building automation devices
Typical applications are:
Night cooling, heating optimization, cooling and heating
demand calculation (for the next day), blinds and sunshades
control, car ramp heating and:
Pedestrian area heating in winter: If the snow fall has already
begun, it is too late to start heating pedestrian areas, and it
takes much more energy to melt snow than if the street
temperature was high enough when the snow fall started. To
avoid this problem, it is possible to use weather forecasts to
start heating earlier, so that when snow begins to fall, it melts
immediately. Correspondingly, it is possible to stop heating
earlier if the end of snow fall is known in advance
Open Standards required
All systems are integrated e.g. via BACnet together
Public provider (e.g. Foreca) delivers data for BMS
Add-on for solutions that depend on outside weather
conditions
For all buildings, where cooling and heating systems are
installed
For outside areas with lots of pedestrians

Impact evaluation Pedestrian heating


Potential earnings
Assumptions

Potential earnings

In the South of Finland, the total


operating time of the outdoor heating
systems is about 1,000 hours a year

/p.a.
2.000

The system can be heated by district


heat or electricity and a thermal effect of
300 W/m is enough to keep the surface
of the road free of snow until an outdoor
temperature of -13 C.

1.500
1.000
500

2030

2035

2040

10% savings on electricity heating


15% savings on electricity heating
10% savings on district heating
15% savings on district heating

Source: Siemens Helsinki Study 2012

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Page 111

September 2013

time
2045

The reduction potential of weather


forecast control amounts to 10 to 15 %
through optimizing start/stop commands
and heating temperature (Siemens tests
with TABS-control in Germany).
Total street area Skanssi + Castle Town
= 391m
Heating price for city = 0,02/kWh,
electricity price for city = 0,11/kWh

Predictive automation using weather forecast for


Skanssi & Castle Town at a glance
Benefits

Implementation plan and rollout potential

Citizens

Increased comfort because of optimized hooting & cooling


regulation
Increase security e.g. on the pedestrian areas via pathway
heating
Lowered energy costs

Businesses

Milestones
N.a.
Legal

Implementation plan

Lowered operating costs through energy savings


New business models: Setting optimizing applications, etc.

Financial

Technical

Pilot
City
development

For some pilots (e.g. pedestrian areas), an


insurance concept might be necessary
Can be implemented before as well as after
building construction is completed
Location of solutions (which pathways/
buildings, etc.)
Totally new solution
Different pilots required for winter and
summer
Reconfiguration every year
When isolation of buildings improve, this
solution will help to decrease cooling
costs even to a larger amount than
heating

Time
N.a.
6 months

12 months

24 months
12 months

City / district administration

Districts will become weather- seizing, self-regulating


and innovative, creating a positive image as sustainable
districts
The utilization of weather and climate changes leads to a
decreased total energy consumption and thus protecting
the environment: CO2 savings: 1.5 4.5 tons depending
on assumptions

Requirements / prerequisites
Geographical /
spatial fit

Rollout potential

Profile fit

Economical fit

Technical fit
Overall
transferability

Source: Siemens

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Page 112

September 2013

External: All outside areas, where heating is used nowadays (auto ramps,
pedestrian areas etc)
Suitable for countries with climate deviations between seasons
Internal: Suitable for all buildings using heating & cooling
Overall fit to city & district development plan
Everywhere, where peak demand limiting is required
Additional costs have to be covered

Basic solutions are already available


Rollout potential is high as there are no big or problematic requirements to
be fulfilled. Weather forecast information in automation can basically be
used anywhere

Reference case / Best practice


Solution approach in Ylivieska, Finland
In March 2010 weather-forecasting solutions was
implemented in an 8 floor building which has 50 flats in
Ylivieska city region, Finland.
Pilot saved 47,4 MWh (2760) in one year
In future for energy optimization is necessary to incorporate
weather forecast to building management system (BMS
system) to control different energy saving functions witch are
dependent of weather conditions, e.g. temperature, rain,
humidity wind direction etc.
Several institutions provide forecast data to the customers
which can be obtained using FTP technology. These data are
usually in the .csv data format and include data for several
days.

Source: http://www.wisepro.fi/

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Page 113

September 2013

Pilot Building

Standardized Security Systems


Buildings, Skanssi & Castle Town

Total
Building
Solution

Security management

Fire

Intrusion

Access

Video

Time

EvaScanning
cuation

Source: Siemens

City of Turku & Siemens AG 2013. All rights reserved.


Page 114

September 2013

Building management

Ventilation

Heating

AC

Light

Water

Power

Standardized Security Systems for Skanssi & Castle


Town at a glance
Case for action

Description of solution

Communicating security
Standardized & communicating
systems push security as
security devices enable many smart
well as a general safety
service applications like remotefeeling to a new level while
control, automated security,
reducing the stress level of
interaction with neighbor security, etc.
emergencies through
Lifetime for standardized automation
optimized guidance
is very long and guarantees future
compatibility

Option 1

Prerequisites

Guidelines for building technical


planers have to be ready in
advance
Cameras outside will not be
accepted by the community, they
might be in commercial/business
areas outside (e.g. harbor area)
common practice nowadays
Complete & fast internet access

The integration of traditional security disciplines access


control, intrusion detection and video surveillance with fire
safety and building automation systems gives operators the
benefits of continuous situational awareness along with
centralized management and alarm handling. Such security
management solutions can already help prevent crime,
accidents or attack, detect and warn of any dangers before
they occur, and enable staff and external agencies to
communicate effectively to deal with any incident or potential
threat. Or simply ensure that things run smoothly and safely.
To be implemented inside of buildings
Special security systems needed for public places (school,
etc.)
Functional descriptions of different systems have to be
written as a guideline

Option 2

Skanssi

Source: Siemens

City of Turku & Siemens AG 2013. All rights reserved.


Page 115

September 2013

Standardized Security Systems for Skanssi & Castle


Town at a glance
Benefits

Implementation plan and rollout potential

Citizens

Improving overall security level


More comfortable security

Construction companies

Lower life cycle cost


Less fault alarms
Improving overall security level

Implementation plan

Milestones

Implementation
during
construction

Systems get implemented at the end of the


construction phase when cabling is done in
entire building

Implementation
after
construction

Systems can also be implemented in existing


buildings with not-yet standardized solutions.
Guidelines and descriptions have to be ready
in advance.

City
development

Regular maintenance

Time

< 3 months

Every year

Businesses

New business models: Se-curity center in districts, re-mote


security center, security applications etc.
Requirements / prerequisites
Geographical /
spatial fit

Lower life cycle cost


Improving overall security level

Rollout potential

City / district administration

Profile fit

Economical fit

Technical fit
Overall
transferability

N.a.

Social acceptance of the planned level of surveillance required (supervision


fit)
Security needs to be a worthy investment for society

Investment and operating costs have to covered


Energy demand needs to be at a level that makes the solution economical
attractive
Rollout potential is high, no problematic requirements to be expected for a
rollout of standardized security

Source: Siemens

City of Turku & Siemens AG 2013. All rights reserved.


Page 116

September 2013

Reference case / Best practice (Siemens new


building in Helsinki Derby Business Park)
Challenge

Derby, Helsinki

Maximize security level in order to protect the property and create


a safe working environment
Reduce building lifecycle cost
Pilot for Siemens security solution

Solution approach in Business Park Derby

Integrated systems for fire safety & security


Same systems and products to be used in the future in all Siemens
premises around Finland
Easy to handle and maintain

Facts & Figures


500 people working in new
building as of August 2013
7 level building
Full standardized security
systems implemented
Source: http://www.koja.fi Siemens

City of Turku & Siemens AG 2013. All rights reserved.


Page 117

September 2013

Standardized Automation
Buildings, Skanssi & Castle Town

Source: Siemens

City of Turku & Siemens AG 2013. All rights reserved.


Page 118

September 2013

Standardized Automation in buildings for Skanssi &


Castle Town at a glance
Case for action

Description of solution

New solutions are compatible to existing systems


Infrastructure is future ready and easy to upgrade
Enabling more innovative and state-of-the art solutions to be
implemented in the future
Lifetime for standardized automation is very long and guarantees
future compatibility
Enabling energy efficient solutions

Prerequisites

BACnet

Guidelines for building technical


planers have to be ready in
advance
Integrated involvement of different
stakeholders involved in planning
Complete & fast internet access
Working cyber security concept

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Page 119

September 2013

Open communication standards and interfaces enable the


integration of a wide choice of different building control
disciplines like heating, ventilation, air conditioning
applications, lights and blinds, up to fire and safety systems
and equipment.
Thus, independency from suppliers and future developments
is gained.
Moreover, open Standards enable Smart Services and
modern building solutions
Standards have to be part of the technical descriptions of
buildings systems
Possible open Standards: BACNET, KNX, Modbus
This solution should be implemented in every building to
enable smart service, smart grid & smart building solutions
and to make the buildings future-ready
European Norm 15232 recommends this solution in order to
achieve the highest sustainability classification of buildings
(class A)

Standardized Automation for Skanssi & Castle Town


at a glance
Benefits

Implementation plan and rollout potential

Citizens

Future-proofing their system will increase the security of


investment, with reduced cost of ownership - through
simplified installation and lower integration costs

Manufacturers / Software vendors

Milestones
N.a.

Interoperability with other manufacturers products without loss of their own brand identity - and extended
market opportunities
Lower development costs as well as increased market
interest

Legal
Implementation plan

N.a.

Technical

Pilot
City
development

Open standards allow steady updating the buildings


solutions to the utmost and modern level. This will
push Skanssis image as a leading innovative district.

Geographical /
spatial fit

Rollout potential

Profile fit

Economical fit

Technical fit
Overall
transferability

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Page 120

September 2013

Open standards have to be


implemented in construction phase
Done (Skanssi shopping center)
Pilot for residential buildings remains to be
done
City district requirements have to be
defined
Engineering guidelines and
descriptions have to be written

1 week - 2 months

12 months
3 months

Requirements / prerequisites

Installing state-of-the art solutions makes the buildings


more attractive to potential buyers

City / district administration

N.a.

Financial

House owners / construction companies

Time
N.a.

N.a.

Social acceptance of the planned level of surveillance required (supervision


fit)
Security needs to be a worthy investment for society

Investment and operating costs have to covered


Energy demand needs to be at a level that makes the solution economical
attractive
Rollout potential is high, no problematic requirements to be expected for a
rollout of standardized security

Reference case / Best practice


Initial situation & challenge
The city of Lappeenranta used to have 5 different building management systems in its buildings
infrastructure
For every single system, people needed to be trained and dedicated
Maintenance used to be difficult for all the different systems
Moreover, the systems were operating ineffective

Solution approach in Lapeenranta


More than 55 public buildings connected to one
Management Station via BACnet
Benefits:
Reduction of dedicated training
Reduction of maintenance costs
Energy savings due to better overview of
consumptions
Comfort increase

Source: http://www.lappeenranta.fi/In_English/Main_Page.iw3

City of Turku & Siemens AG 2013. All rights reserved.


Page 121

September 2013

Lappeenranta

Content
Chapter
1

Content
Skanssi & Castle Town

Status quo and goals


KPI systems to monitor and control

Page
58 - 71

Smart Buildings in Smart Grids The backbone of sustainability

72 - 121

Mobility & Logistics Connectivity and sustainable


on-site transport

122 - 160

Social Issues

161 - 190

Smart City Services

191 - 203

Implementation

204 - 210

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Page 122

September 2013

Mobility & logistics connectivity & sustainable onsite transport


Passenger travel process
Trip
planning

First mile

On board

Last mile
& post
journey

Integrated Mobility Platform (IMP)

Level of
applicability

Car sharing
Park & charge

City level
District level
Cross district
level

E-Buses

Bike sharing

City level
District level

City level
District level
Cross district
level

Operator planning & operations process


Strategic &
long term
planning

Operation
al
planning

Transport

Travel chain

Mobility
Solutions

Source: Siemens

City of Turku & Siemens AG 2013. All rights reserved.


Page 123

September 2013

Maintena
nce

The chosen
solutions offer
value for both
operator and
passenger along
their specific
travel chain
The travel chain
solution
indirectly
benefits the
passenger and
directly benefits
the transport
operator.
All other mobility
solutions directly
benefits the
passengers and
residents.

The chosen mobility solution offer an entry to


sustainable district planning
Mobility Solutions
Bike sharing

accessible
sustainable
all-age

Explanation

Skanssi
all-age-oriented
integrated

Car sharing

Park & charge

E-buses

accessible
sustainable
integrated
Sustainable
accessible
integrated
Sustainable
accessible
modern

PT orientation

green transport

accessible

modern design

innovative

sustainable

Castle Town
cycling lanes
integrated

PT orientation

viivd
Sustainable

Travel chains accessible

The single solutions resemble


state-of-the-art technology, but
the combination of them with
respect to the districts profiles
makes them sustainable.
All the solutions have been
chosen to their high fit to the
districts profile characteristics
and the requirements of the
future residents.

accessible

modern design

integrated

sustainable

innovative

Transport flows

City

District

1 City connection
2 Within district transport

3 (inter-)regional access

Source: City of Turku, expert opinions

City of Turku & Siemens AG 2013. All rights reserved.


Page 124

September 2013

The mobility solutions show a potential of decreasing


residential CO2 emissions by 69%
Cumulated CO2 abatement potential in the mobility
infrastructure area

Explanation
Total CO2 emission saving
potential = 8.600 t /yr
(69%) in Skanssis &
Linnakaupun-kis combined
residential area

-69%
1000
tons
CO2/
year

12.400

Park & charge is the


biggest lever & can save
up to 5.600t

5.660
217

760
1.377

14

Bike E-Buses Travel


Baseline Park & E-Car
chains
charge sharing sharing

560

3.812

IMP Optimized
baseline

For both the park & charge


& the travel chains solution
only abatement due to
technological innovation
has been calculated.
For the remaining solutions
abatement due to
technolo-gical innovation
and modal shift has been
calculated.
Interdependencies were
not taken into account.

Source: Siemens

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Page 125

September 2013

The mobility solutions show a potential of decreasing


residential CO2 emissions by 58%
Adjusted cumulated CO2 abatement potential in the
mobility infrastructure area

1000
tons
CO2/
year

-58%

Total CO2 emission saving


potential = 7.138 t /yr
(58%) in Skanssis &
Linnakaupun-kis combined
residential area

7.138

Adjustment rate is 17% to


mitigate overlaps and
interdependencies.

12.400

5.262

Baseline

Adjusted cumulated
savings potential

Source: Siemens

City of Turku & Siemens AG 2013. All rights reserved.


Page 126

September 2013

Explanation

Optimized baseline

Park & Charge Solution


Mobility & Logistics, Skanssi

City of Turku & Siemens AG 2013. All rights reserved.


Page 127

September 2013

Current situation regarding car transport in Turku


Situation of mobility in Turku

Objectives of mobility in Turku

453 cars / 1000 persons, close to average in Finnish


cities.
Plans to build underground parking facilities in the
center, time consuming decision process.

Make public transport more green and sustainable


Reduce CO2 emissions
Minimization of the carbon footprint in all activities
Environmentally friendly transport solutions
Provide attractive and comfortable means of transport

Specific objectives of Mobility & Logistics for Skanssi


The parking areas may not control the city space & the area should be preserved from the drive-through traffic of
private cars.
Smart, ICT based solutions for consumers and transport control
Building 25% less parking spaces than in comparable areas, i.e. 25% less than 0.5 parking spaces per household
Possibilities for charging of electric cars are paid attention to
Noise values of outdoor and indoor spaces should not exceed the regulations

Source: City of Turku

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Page 128

September 2013

Park & charge solution for Skanssi & Castle Town at


a glance
Case for action
Skanssi needs an intelligent concept
for e-car parking & charging to
provide accessibility of district from
outside and within
Fits in to the expectations of low
emission of CO2 and noise values
Noise reduction, environmentally
friendly, green attitude.

Description of solution
To optimize mobility
solutions the charging
costs could be integrated
to parking costs,
individuals home electricity
bill, subsidized by
community etc.

Prerequisites

Sufficient funds
Need to plan the electricity grid to support the charging.
Space for the charging poles In 2020s, the estimated share of hybrid
and eCars is 50-80% of all vehicles
Accepted and favoured by citizens One of Skanssis visible
differentiators as a modern district?

Source: Siemens; Electric traffic Finland initiative

City of Turku & Siemens AG 2013. All rights reserved.


Page 129

September 2013

The Park & Charge concept can be built as public, semipublic or private system
Public: Open space, charging poles with card/phone payment
or free use. Semi-Public: Restricted access to space either
by key or payment system ( for example mall or office
parking). Free usage of poles or card/phone payment.
Private: Inhabitants own only yard or private access lots,
charging systems connected to house electricity systems. As
the close by area has shops, mall, offices, homes, all 3
solutions are possible.
Encourages not only pure eCars but also hybrid charging.
Dynamic displays inform about the parking situation at the
charging poles. This means: decrease and less waste of time
of searching for a parking space steady occupancy of
charging poles.
Moreover, parking space management and parking tariffs can
be used to steer traffic flows in the desired way. When combined with parking guidance systems, an even stronger effect
can be achieved.
Application for charging management for the local energy
company ( roaming, invoicing) plans underway in Finland.
Smartphone applications to show and reserve vacant
charging points ( some available already)
3 charger types: Home charging AC 4-10Kw, 8h full battery,
Routine charging AC 20kw, 2h full battery, Quick charging
DC 50Kw, 15-30min full battery

Impact evaluation (only taking into account the invest


due to charging not due to parking guidance)
CAPEX & OPEX

Assumptions
Capex - Linnakaupunki
Capex - Skanssi
Opex

30
0

30
0

30

70

30

30
0

Benefits

Savings on individuals fuel costs


Environmentally friendly traffic
Supporting the smart grid, an energy reserve / storage
Independent from crude oil prices
Managed traffic flows in the CBD and around

Source: Siemens expert calculation

City of Turku & Siemens AG 2013. All rights reserved.


Page 130

September 2013

30

30
0

30

30

0
2040

2030

0
2029

2028

2027

2026

30

2039

30

2038

30
0

2025

70

65

30

2037

30

2036

30

74

2035

30

74

140

120

2034

74

140

138

2033

74

138

2032

138

2031

138

Cars per inhabitant: 0,459


Thereof e-cars & hybrids: 80%,
which is 5.508 cars in Linnakaupunki & 2.938 cars in Skanssi
Home charging 80%, public
charging: 20%
Public charging: 3 cars per unit
= 367 units in Castle Town, 195
units in Skanssi
5000/public charging
1000/ home charging, but investments for home charging in
million : 8.5 mil. neglectable
due to private investments
Investments for public charging
in million : 1,84 + 0,98 to be
stretched over 4 years
OPEX: 0,5 FTE for
administration & maintenance

Impact evaluation
Annual CO2 abatement

Assumptions
Traffic CO2 emissions in Turku in
2035 will be 128.000t CO2 /yr
under the constraint that every
citizen has the same travel
pattern regardless their age.

-46%
12.400
3.690

Baseline of Castle Town &


Skanssi is then 12.400tCO2/yr for
15.000 + 8.000 residents
1.970

6.740

Travel pattern in the districts is


similar to the whole of Turku.
Thus, we will have an optimized
baseline of 6.740 t CO2
emissions in Castle Town and
Skanssi

Baseline (tCO2/a) Saving potential


(tCO2/a) in
Linnakaupunki

Saving potential
Optimized
(tCO2/a) in
baseline (tCO2/a)
Skanssi

Source: Turku Light Rail Impact Study; http://www.ltaacademy.gov.sg/doc/IS02-p23%20Bike-sharing.pdf

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September 2013

Park & charge for Skanssi & Castle Town at a glance


Benefits

Implementation plan and rollout potential

City

The park & charge system sup-ports electricity as energy


for vehicles, reduces CO2 emissions & can be payment
wise connected to public transportation.

Citizens

Reduces transportation energy costs.


Creates the opportunities for more environmentally friendly
lifestyle

Milestones
Legal

Implementation plan

Financial

Technical

Pilot
City
development

Environment
Emissions are reduced, fossil-based resources are
protected, also supporting the country wide initiative of
reducing oil dependency in energy.

Electric network

Cars can be used as reserve energy (batteries)


More stability in the network

Profile fit

Economical fit

Technical fit
Overall
transferability

Source: Siemens; expert opinions

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September 2013

Overall time frame:


12-18 months

Public tender

9 months
System ownership
Invoicing the electric charging, a country wide initiative exists
Financing model: Energy companies, shopping center, offices, city4 months
Management system, local energy company to decide joining to
country wide roaming system?
Best practices, winter conditions etc

3 months
Detail concept
Maintenance responsibilities
Detailed management system requirements

3 months
2-5 charging poles
First phase: Free usage
Available Management system tests
Electric grid planning

2 months
Evaluation of amount of parking spaces
Management system requirements, info from country
wide EMO initiative to local energy company

Requirements / prerequisites
Geographical /
spatial fit

Rollout potential

Time

Sufficient space to set up the charging systems


Plan for cables to be placed in advance
Fits to reduction of traffic and emissions.
Target group: all private car owners
Required market / district size: all sizes ok
GDP per capita required:?
Required complementary systems / support: maintenance and system
monitoring
Availability of electric grid
Rollout potential is high. Existing and developing technology, local planning
(Finland) skills available, project funding possibilities, support from
technology providers, positively visible case with limited costs to start
piloting.

Reference case in Oslo, Norway


Objectives

Details

In addition to including environmental concern in general travel policy and promoting use of
public transport, UiO is promoting the use of electric cars.
The charging stations are a contribution to environmental protection efforts. The service is
meant to reach as many owners of electric cars as possible. We encourage users of these
stations to only use them as necessary.
Private use: priority, reserved and free parking at several locations charging at no cost.
General policy: if you need a parking place it will be arranged.

Blindern
14 charging poles
Gaustad & Sendrum
8 charging poles

Solution approach

Picture

The University has several charging stations for electric cars. Students and employees can
use these free of charge.
The charging stations are locked. You get the key for the outlet by contacting the Technical
Department's operations office for the area to which the parking spot belongs. You must
show your student or employee card and sign for the key. The spots display signs marking
them as "Reserved parking for electric cars being charged".


The spots can only be used by plated electric cars that are being charged. They are not meant to be reserved parking for electric cars. Any
other parking is subject to the regular inspection fee. It is a prerequisite that the vehicle has a valid parking permit for UiO. UiO is making
available a park of 5 electric cars for all students and employees through collaboration with a private service provider. Easy access online
booking system, Taking care of reserva-tions and necessary documentation in a single-visit system. Job-related use will be charged
employer directly and automatically. Private use is possible and will be charged by the hour or day directly by the company. Electric vehicles
are in use within the park department. Test trials of electric lawn-mover robots is an ongoing project.

Source: http://sahkoinenliikenne.fi/latauspisteet/, http://www.uio.no/english/for-employees/operational/transport/charging-stations/

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September 2013

E-car sharing
Mobility & Logistics, Skanssi & Castle Town

City of Turku & Siemens AG 2013. All rights reserved.


Page 134

September 2013

Current situation regarding car transport in Turku


Situation of mobility in Turku

Objectives of mobility in Turku

453 cars / 1000 persons, close to average in Finnish


cities.
Car sharing kimppakyyti has for some years been of
interest among students, but no large scale constant or
stable offering base exists.

Lifespan thinking as part of all cost assessing.


Minimization of the carbon footprint in all activities
Minimizing the energy consumption of the regional
technology
Environmentally friendly transport solutions

Specific objectives of Mobility & Logistics for Skanssi & Castle Town
Car ownership 25% below the average (cf. Freiburg -33%, Rieselfeld -40% & Vauban -65% less than in Turku curr.)
Car sharing models & minimizing the need for a second car
Use of private cars, transport percentage <40% of the journeys (currently in the Turku city region intensive public
transport zone is 46,9%, in Helsinki transport percentage of cars is 40%)
Enhancing the attractiveness of other forms of transport
Car transport within the area is restricted in terms of speed limits and drive-through
Accessibility of other forms of transport easier than of parking spaces
Parking spaces are not included in the price of a house
Building 25% less parking spaces than in comparable areas

Source: City of Turku

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September 2013

E-car sharing for Skanssi & Castle Town at a glance


Case for action

Description of solution

Location fit for the purpose, close to public transport, mall, walking
distance from homes. Wrong location destroys the case.
Fits into the expectations of reducing amount of cars/inha-bitant.
Supports better use of capacity, pay as you use, not for owning the
vehicle
To optimize the solutions the car sharing reservations and payments
should be integra-ted to monthly payments like public transport or
electricity. Also point sales needs to be managed, vending machines,
smart phone payment etc.
Connected to Integrated Mobility Platform (IMP) idea

Prerequisites

Location planning, both within and around the district


Terms and conditions of the car sharing, local business
The role of the city Car provider? Maintenance?
Defining the entrepreneur & business model. Business case for the
local population to gain support. City's own use in their transportation
needs.
Commitment to keep the vehicles and spaces clean and tempting for
users.

Source: City of Turku, expert opinions, Siemens

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September 2013

It is a model of car rental where people rent e-cars for short


periods of time, often by the hour, on a self service basis.
They are attractive to customers who make only occasional
use of a vehicle, as well as others who would like occasional
access to a vehicle of a different type than they use day-today. It is a complement to existing PT systems by providing
the first or last leg of a journey, with integrated ticketing
solutions. Cars are reserved via a Internet based system
where vacant cars and their charging level are seen.
Payments / use or monthly.
The car sharing concept can be built by giving some
advantages like free parking, use of bus lanes, free charging
etc.
Encourages to not purchase a 2nd car and gives savings for
families. Shared cars should be eCars and/or hybrids.
Environmentally friendly, green attitude.
City provides facilities (space, charging infra, basic security)
23.000 inhabitants in Skanssi & Castle Town
2% will use car sharing: 430 users
car-to-user ratio: 6%; 30 cars
10 stations
50 charging poles
replacement of cars to be approx. 231

Impact evaluation for Castle Town & Skanssi


CAPEX & OPEX

Assumptions
Capex - Linnakaupunki
Capex - Skanssi
Opex

261

261

261

261

261

261

261

261

261

261

261

261

261

261

261

261

60

60

60

60

60

60

60

60

60

60

60

60

60

60

60

60

2040

192

2039

192

2038

192

2037

192

2036

192

2035

192

2034

192

2033

192

2032

192

2031

192

2030

192

2029

192

2028

192

2027

192

2026

192

2025

192

Potential earnings

Assumptions
No. of users: 483
Membership fee 50 p.a.
Ramp up of membership (25%,
50%, 75%, 100%) until a total
of 483 will be reached in 2037
450.000 km driven per year
Earnings per km 1,13

800
700
600
500
400
300
200
100
0
2025 2026 2027 2028 2029 2030 2031 2032 2033 2034 2035 2036 2037 2038 2039 2040

Source: www.fta.dot.gov, expert estimation

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Page 137

15.000 & 8.000 residents, 2%


will be using the system
no. of eCars needed: 31
no. of charging poles: 51
no. of pick-up stations: 10
Invest stretched over 4 years,
but nevertheless ongoing due
to short life span of shared cars

September 2013

Impact evaluation
Annual CO2 abatement

Assumptions
-2%

12.400

141

75

12.184

Traffic CO2 emissions in Turku in


2035 will be 128.000t CO2 /yr
under the constraint that every
citizen has the same travel
pattern regardless their age.
Baseline of Castle Town &
Skanssi is then 12.400tCO2/yr for
15.000 + 8.000 residents
Travel pattern in the districts is
similar to the whole of Turku.
231 cars will be replaced in the
districts
Car sharing leads to a reduced
mileage for its users of an avg. of
20%

Baseline (tCO2/a) Saving potential


(tCO2/a) in
Linnakaupunki

Saving potential
Optimized
(tCO2/a) in
baseline (tCO2/a)
Skanssi

Source: Turku Light Rail Impact Study; http://www.ltaacademy.gov.sg/doc/IS02-p23%20Bike-sharing.pdf

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September 2013

Thus, we will have an optimized


baseline of 12.184 t CO2
emissions in Castle Town and
Skanssi

E-car sharing for Skanssi & Castle Town at a glance


Benefits

Implementation plan and rollout potential

Citizens

The car sharing system enables road-users to cover short


distances easily while using public transpor-tation and can
also be linked to traf-fic information and control systems.
Cost of a 2nd car can be used to other investments

Investors

Feasible business opportunities with high paybacks due to


an oligopolistic market structure

Legal
Implementation plan

Milestones

Financial

Technical

Pilot
City
development

Overall time frame:


8-12 months
Time

Should there be similar to taxi permissions?


Public tender?

12 months

Financing model, charge per time, or fixed monthly

3 months

Fine tuning the car types, based on customer needs, rough


technical concept (# of cars, car models, parking stations)
Detailed concept (maintenance, prices, )

3 months

10 cars (2-3 models)


City promoting by encouraging employees to use
Testing with a university, other education institutions
First phase: Free usage, second phase: Priced usage
Adjustment of solutions to changing prices (e.g. Ensuring
facilities
Setting technical requirements ( emission level etc)

6 months
12 months

Environment
No. of cars & emissions are reduced.
Fossils are protected & traffic flows & the use of
infrastructure & means of transport for people & goods are
optimized in a cost-effective way.

City / district administration

Less parking places needed


City image is improved
Higher share for PT

Requirements / prerequisites
Geographical /
spatial fit

Rollout potential

Profile fit

Economical fit

Technical fit
Overall
transferability

Source: Siemens, cp. Tampines caes

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September 2013

Sufficient space to set up the charging systems

Overall fit to city & district development plan


Target group: all private car owners
Required market / district size: all sizes ok
GDP per capita required:?
Required complementary systems / support: maintenance and system
monitoring
Availability of electric grid
Rollout potential is high. Existing and developing technology, local planning
( Finland) skills available, project funding possibilities, support from
technology providers, positively visible case with limited costs to start
piloting.

Reference case DriveNow Car Sharing System


Objectives

Map of available cars

Providing new options to the growing number of urban consumers interested in transportation
alternatives and/or environmentally friendlier lifestyles
Reducing the amount of cars and time spent on searching for parking spaces
Developing a flexible and high quality car sharing system to attract the potential residents to
actually use the service
Promoting an alternative replacement for little-used and inefficient vehicles

Solution approach
BMW Group and the car rental company Sixt AG bundled their car sharing activities in the
DriveNow joint venture.
The modern mobility concept combines high-quality vehicles and service with simple and
flexible usage. In Germany, vehicles can be picked up and dropped off wherever the customer
needs them, and thus the system is not dependant on fixed car hire stations. Customers can
find available vehicles via Internet, a smart phone application or simply at the roadside.
Booking may be done in advance or cars can be used spontaneously without prior reservation.
A conventional car key is not necessary as vehicles are opened with a chip on the driving
license. The concept started off in Munich with 300 cars to ensure that customers usually have
no more than 500 meters to walk to the nearest available vehicle.
Customers pay a base fee for the first 30min of usage, followed by a per minute rate (starting
at 0.24 in Germany) for every minute afterwards. Rates are discounted for parked car, multihour and daily usage. The rates are all-inclusive and cover rental, gas, insurance, parking and
maintenance costs. There is also a one-time registration fee of 29.
Offering of a variety of BMW group vehicles gasoline and electric in Germany, in San
Francisco only electric vehicles. In San Francisco, 70 ActiveE electric cars are available for
hourly rental and parked at nine garages in the city area.

Facts & Figures


Since initial launching in Munich in
June 2011, the concept has taken
root in four German cities and San
Francisco, USA
As of December 2012, DriveNow
operates over 1,000 vehicles which
serve over 60,000 customers
The business is expected to prove its
profitability this year

Source: Drive Now. Available: https://www.drive-now.com/international Accessed: March 20th 2013; LeSage, Jon. Available: http://green.autoblog.com/2013/02/12/bmws-drivenow City of Turku & Siemens AG
2013. March
All rights
reserved.
carsharing-arm-now-turning-a-profit/.
Accessed:
20th 2013
; CNBC. Available: http://www.cnbc.com/id/48726385. Accessed: March 20th 2013 ; BMW blog. Available:
http://www.bmwblog.com/2011/03/21/bmw-and-sixt-establish-drivenow-joint-venture-for-premium-car-sharing/. Accessed: March 20th 2013 ; Wikipedia. Available:
Page
140
September 2013
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Drivenow.
Accessed: March 20th 2013.

Bike sharing
Mobility & Logistics, Skanssi & Castle Town

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Page 141

September 2013

Current situation regarding cycling and bike sharing


in Turku
Situation of bike sharing in Turku

Objectives of mobility in Turku

There are several bike rental possibilities mainly for


needs of tourism in Turku, both private bike shops and
even promoted by city tourist office
Many people in Turku own bikes modal share of 11%
in 2007 (in Helsinki area 6-8%, national average 12%)

Minimizing the carbon footprint in all activities


Minimizing the energy consumption of the regional
technology
Environmentally friendly transport solutions
Comfortable and attractive mobility solutions

Specific objectives of Mobility & Logistics for Castle Town


Shortest routes for pedestrians, cyclists and public transportation
Good supply of services within walking and biking distance: day care centre, primary school, grocery shop
Cycling, transport percentage >15 % of the journeys (currently in the Turku city region intensive public transport
zone: 12,7 %)
High-quality bicycle parking close to apartments, public transport stops and main activities
All bicycle paths accessible
Walking, transport percentage >30 % of the journeys, (currently in the Turku city region intensive public transport
zone: 25,9 %)
Pedestrian and biking links to the main destinations (grocery shops, public transport stops, schools, day care
centers) do not intersect with the main streets or busy collector streets (> 8000 drives/day?)
Source: Poljin Kotimaisia tilastoja pyrilyst ja kevyest liikenteest. Website: http://www.poljin.fi/tilastoja/tilastot_kotimaa. Accessed: Feb 12th 2013

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September 2013

Bike sharing for Skanssi & Castle Town at a glance


Case for action

Description of solution

Castle Town needs an intelligent concept for short journeys within the
districts
Opportunity to drop off bikes also at important points outside the
district
Mobility within Castle Town shall be provided with low CO2-, PM- &
noise-emission,.
Bike sharing serves for last mile mode of transport
Integration with other modes to foster the objective of maximizing noncar transport
Enabling elder citizens to take part in bike sharing as well by provision
of e.bikes and easy renting modalities

Prerequisites

Bike stations or pick-up/drop-off anywhere


Spatial fit spaces for bikes included? Rather even grounds, not too
hilly, otherwise consideration of e-bikes
Acceptance by citizens are they willing to participate in the bike
sharing concept?
Low rate of cycle ownership
During winter substitute service for bikes required

The basic idea underlying the city bike-sharing is to provide


sustainable transport and cover the last mile travel in Castle
Town. There are two possible concepts: Firstly the bikes
could be rented at one station and be either returned there or
at another station or as another possible concept they can be
picked up/dropped off everywhere in the designated district
area
As a last mile means of transport they provide fast and easy
access to nearby destinations within or at the district borders
or areas close to SkanssiTo make usage easy as possible
they should make use of smart technology (smart cards
and/or mobile phones) and can be run by diverse business
modelsRental fees are time-based or annual, monthly,
weekly or daily fees and in some systems the first minutes
are free of charge. Bike pick up andreturn stations operate
24 hours per day, 7 days a week.
If stations are used for rental pick up and drop off then the
stations should be strategically placed at regular intervals
throughout the city, making them easily accessible from
public transport stations as well as residential, office and
shopping areas. The latest systems operate with smart
technologies and provide users with real-time bike availability
information on the internet. These smart bike-sharing
systems provide the missing link between existing points of
public transportation and desired destinations, offering a new
form of mobility that complements the existing public
transport systems.

Source: bike-sharing.blogspot.com; http://www.cincinnati-oh.gov/bikes/; www.fta.dot.gov; Migdley, P. (2009), p. 23

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September 2013

Impact evaluation for Castle Town


CAPEX & OPEX

Assumptions
Capex - Linnakaupunki
Capex - Skanssi
Opex

225

225

225

225

225

0
2039

70

2038

2035

225

140

70

2034

2030

225

140

0
2029

2028

2027

225

65

0
2026

225

120

110 110 110 110


60
60
60
60

2025

225

2040

225

2037

225

2036

225

2033

225

2032

225

2031

225

Potential earnings
350
300
250
200
150
100
50
0
2025 2026 2027 2028 2029 2030 2031 2032 2033 2034 2035 2036 2037 2038 2039 2040

Source: http://www.cincinnati-oh.gov/bikes/; www.fta.dot.gov, expert estimation

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September 2013

15.000 & 8.000 residents, 20%


will be using the system
1 shared bike for 30 residents
1 station per 10 bikes
Invest: per station 41.000; per
bike 300,
Invest stretched over 4 years
plus additional irreg. invest for
refurbishment of stations

Assumptions
Membership fee 50 p.a.
Ramp up of membership (25%,
50%, 75%, 100%) until a total
of 3000 and 1.600 will be
reached in 2037
7.000 km driven per bike
Fee per km 0,03
Earnings for ads approx.
400,- per station per month

Impact evaluation
Annual CO2 abatement

Assumptions
-6%

12.400

496

264

11.640

Traffic CO2 emissions in Turku in


2035 will be 128.000t CO2 /yr
under the constraint that every
citizen has the same travel
pattern regardless their age.
Baseline of Castle Town &
Skanssi is then 12.400tCO2/yr for
15.000 + 8.000 residents
Travel pattern in the districts is
similar to the whole of Turku.
7% of travelers switch from car to
cycling
Thus, we will have an optimized
baseline of 11.640 t CO2
emissions in Castle Town &
Skanssi

Baseline (tCO2/a) Saving potential


(tCO2/a) in
Linnakaupunki

Saving potential
Optimized
(tCO2/a) in
baseline (tCO2/a)
Skanssi

Source: Turku Light Rail Impact Study; http://www.ltaacademy.gov.sg/doc/IS02-p23%20Bike-sharing.pdf

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September 2013

Bike sharing for Skanssi & Castle Town at a glance


Benefits

Implementation plan and rollout potential

Citizens

Additional mobility option


Health benefits
No own bike needed, no threat of theft, no maintenance

Investors

Advertising opportunities
Relatively inexpensive and quick-to-implement
Add-on option for existing operators to cover the last mile

Milestones
Legal

Financial

Technical

Pilot
City
development

Environment
Reduced CO2-emissions
Livable, car free streets

City / district administration

Increased cycling modal share


Make cycling more visible
Savings with reduction of car infrastructure, i.e. less traffic
lights, parking space, enforcement, administration, etc.

Profile fit

Economical fit

Technical fit
Overall
transferability

Source: http://www.ltaacademy.gov.sg/doc/IS02-p23%20Bike-sharing.pdf

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September 2013

Time
6 months

3months

Rough concept (# of bikes, booking and


billing system)
Detailed concept (maintenance, prices, etc)

3 months

First phase: Allowance on pricing to promote


usage
Second phase: Priced usage
Incorporate space for bike stations in spatial
planning
Promote bike sharing concept, maybe with
incentives
Roll-out concept to other districts if possible

3 months
12 months

Requirements / prerequisites
Geographical /
spatial fit

Rollout potential

Legal founding of the company


Application for concession
Financing model

Implementation plan

only applicable with the suitable spatial prerequisites


Suitable weather conditions, not too windy, not applicable on frozen
grounds. Thus, in winter a substitute might be needed.
Fits to target of Turku of providing low emission transport, thus overall fit to
city & district development plan
Target group fit and fit to customers due to high share of usage by young
people and families, elderly by e-bikes
Critical mass of user required for solution to be profitable, but as the
reference case shows applicable on a small scale
Investment is relatively low
Fits into the overarching traffic concept of fostering bike transport in Castle
Town. Fits best when citizens show a low share of privately owned bikes
The overall transferability of the solution for the other districts of the City of
Turku is estimated to be rather high due to the same topography and
weather conditions as well as the corresponding target of promoting other
means of transport than by individual car.
Transferability to other regions is dependent on topography and climate.

Reference case
Bike sharing in Biel, Switzerland
Objectives

Biel in brief

The city of Biel aims at motivating both citizens and tourists for using bike
transport.
By this means the disadvantage of owning a bike, such as theft or
maintenance do not show. People coming to Biel by car or PT can use the
opportunity of flexible last mile transport.
The city aims at a higher modal split towards green transport solutions and
thus supports the usage of bike sharing.
The city enhances combined mobility and the creation of attractive modal
interfaces

Core of Biel: ~ 52.000 citizens


Greater Biel: ~104.000 citizens
Hinterland: ~150.000 citizens
Not too uneven, applicable for
bike sharing solutions

Solution approach in Biel


Provision of 50 bikes during the pilot phase, afterwards a ramp up to 400
bikes on 50 stations, where bikes can be picked up & returned.
Businesses can support the system by setting up a station in the very front
of their office and by financing a couple of bikes for the whole system.
A communication entity steers & monitors the information flow between the
bike and the central communication server.
The users are registered in advance and have either a daily, monthly or
annual membership. Operations are run by Biel city planning authorities and
the employment programme agency.

Source: www.bikesharing.ch; www.are.admin.ch;

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September 2013

Facts & Figures


Pilot of 50 bikes in the centre in
2010
In 2011 increase to 400 bike at
50 stations
Businesses have the opportunity
to support the system by setting
up a station in the very front of
their office.

E-Buses Solution
Mobility & Logistics, Skanssi & Castle Town

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Page 148

September 2013

Current situation regarding bus transport in Turku


Situation of mobility in Turku

Objectives of mobility in Turku

Currently ~ 180 diesel buses operate public transport.


Alternative technologies are being evaluated.
Use of private cars is common in Turku
Regional authority established

Reducing the need for transport


Use of public transport, transport percentage >15 %
of the journeys
Use of private cars, transport percentage <40% of the
journeys
Minimization of the carbon footprint in all activities
Environmentally friendly transport solutions

Specific objectives of Mobility & Logistics for Skanssi & Castle Town

Sufficient population for efficient public transport (5000/8000 inhabitants)


More than 60% of the residents live within 250 m from the public transport stops of the bus rapid transit system
More than 90% of the residents live within 450 m from the public transport stops of the bus rapid transit system
Smart, ICT based solutions for consumers and transport control
Car ownership to be 25% below the average

Source: City of Turku

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September 2013

E-buses for Skanssi & Castle Town at a glance


Case for action

Description of solution

Public transport need to be


Public transport need to be an
attractive and need to be
ecological mode of transport
the choice of modal share
Low emissions
Comfortability improves the
Integration to future light rail solution
attractiveness
Skanssi is outside of city center but
need to serve fast and easy access to
the working areas and city center
Less car traffic within district

Prerequisites

Option 1

Charging infrastructure
Comfortable environment of bus
stops
Sufficient travel chain
Short enough intervals

Source: City of Turku, expert opinions, Siemens

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September 2013

The concept has several variations, depending on the role of


combustion engine, most common today is serial hybrid
which has electric motor as 100% power supplier to vehicle
From combustion supported to pure battery to fuel cell
technology
The eBus lines can be planned to run either within normal
traffic lanes or in separate BTR Bus Rapid Transit line from
satellite centers to city.
Full bus line solution: Need to ensure the adequate charging
possibilities in the pit or turnaround places to ensure
continuous service.
Serial Hybrid:
Hybrid up to 30- 50% emission reduction on PT
- depending on which Euro X norm to compare
- to diesel buses (Euro 2-4): Up to 40-50 %
- to new Diesel bus (EEV): Up to 25-30 %
Today 8 to full size 18 meter buses
Thousands of deliveries, hybrid
===================================
City bys with electric charging:
Electric buses (Battery with PlugIn / Charge)
Battery (and Ultracapacitor)
Fuel cell with battery

Impact evaluation for Castle Town & Skanssi


CAPEX & OPEX

Assumptions
Capex

Opex

4.600 4.600 4.600 4.600 4.600 4.600 4.600 4.600 4.600 4.600 4.600 4.600 4.600 4.600 4.600 4.600

Savings on fuel costs


Environmentally friendly traffic
Supporting the smart grid, an energy reserve / storage
Independent from crude oil prices

Source: http://www.cincinnati-oh.gov/bikes/; www.fta.dot.gov, expert estimation

City of Turku & Siemens AG 2013. All rights reserved.


Page 151

2040

2039

2038

Assumptions

Benefits

2037

2036

2035

2034

2033

2032

2031

2030

2.140 2.140 2.140 2.140

2029

2028

2027

2.140 2.140 2.140

2026

2025

2.140

no. of buses in Skanssi &


Castle Town: 21
no. of charging stations: 2
labor cost (installation,
maintenance, administration)

September 2013

Earnings will be same as with


ordinary buses

Impact evaluation
Annual CO2 abatement

Assumptions
-11%

12.400
898

479

11.023

Traffic CO2 emissions in Turku in


2035 will be 128.000t CO2 /yr
under the constraint that every
citizen has the same travel
pattern regardless their age.
Baseline of Castle Town &
Skanssi is then 12.400 tCO2/yr
for 15.000 + 8.000 residents
Travel pattern in the districts is
similar to the whole of Turku.
Bus km in Turku 12 mil.
Hybrids reduce emissions by 30%
& eBuses reduce emissions by
90% compared to normal buses
100% of eBuses

Baseline (tCO2/a) Saving potential


(tCO2/a) in
Linnakaupunki

Saving potential
Optimized
(tCO2/a) in
baseline (tCO2/a)
Skanssi

Source: Turku Light Rail Impact Study

City of Turku & Siemens AG 2013. All rights reserved.


Page 152

September 2013

Thus, we will have an optimized


baseline of 11.023 t CO2
emissions in Castle Town and
Skanssi

E-buses for Skanssi & Castle Town at a glance


Benefits

Implementation plan and rollout potential

Citizens

Silent, reliable transport


A visibly environmentally friendly mode of transport

Investors

Local bus manufacturers can fully participate


Local innovations & tech. to fit local needs

Legal

Financial

Technical

Pilot
City
development

Environment

Implementation plan

Milestones

Overall time frame:


8-12 months

Time

Responsibilities of the energy providing vs. bus 12 months


services level
Financial expectations for further routes /
6 months
hybrid & eBuses
Costs for the city to build larger eBus
infrastructure
3 months
Analyze the runtime, services level etc
Make decisions accordingly
Either a joint test with research centers,
3 months
Universities, VTT and local bus companies
Or include 1 eBus line to a public tendering for
bus companies, or both
3-10 months
Internal planning of possible eBus routes
Discussions with local bus companies

25-100% reduction on public transport CO2 (hybrid-full


eBus)
Significant noise reduction
Requirements / prerequisites
Geographical /
spatial fit

Fuel costs reduction


More silent
Charging of eBuses can take advantage of tram routes

Rollout potential

City / district administration

Profile fit

Economical fit

Technical fit
Overall
transferability

Source: City of Turku, expert opinions, Siemens

City of Turku & Siemens AG 2013. All rights reserved.


Page 153

September 2013

Winter conditions, adequate charging facilities


No special geographical issues.
A very visible sign for low emission attitude
Will raise interest from other cities towards Turku way of solving the issues
Can be included into public tendering with emission level requirements for
certain lines
May also be calculated / tested in co-operation with local research institutes
and bus companies
Technologies exist
Winter conditions needs to be discussed
Local tests jointly with research institutes and bus companies
Rollout potential is high, Turku is already testing some hybrid bus types
solution. When building a new district makes it relatively easy to set the
infrastructure ready for future eBus lines.
International examples and even some national pilots exists

Best practice E-buses


Challenges

Trolley in Arnhem, Holland

Improving air quality and reducing noise disturbance in cities


Creating environmentally friendlier public transport solutions
Increasing the modal share of public transport

Solution approaches in other towns and cities


Plans for almost total elimination of fossil fuel powered buses for environmental reasons for
example in Salzburg, Austria. References show potential for
No idling energy losses (stopping at bus stops, traffic lights)
Regeneration resulting energy savings of 30% on average
Reducing air and noise pollution
Ecolobus Project in Quebec City, Canada, promoting traffic reduction, sustainability and
social benefits since 2008. Anecdotal evidence from local officials suggest succeeding in
Reducing the number of cars and buses in Old Quebec
Helping to create a more pedestrian friendly environment
In Arnhem, Holland, six trolleybuses an hour was found cheaper to operate than six
motorbuses
Lower and more predictable operating costs (compared to imported fuels)
Recharging the vehicle for example while running under the wires or mainly during off-peak
hours (typically overnight) as in Genoa and Turin, Italy
Overnight charging reducing issue of capacity for electrical generation

Facts & Figures


Increase in ridership on converted
routes to trolleybuses on like-for-like
basis - Arnhem, Holland: +17%;
Salzburg, Austria: +16%; similar results
also in San Francisco
Overall positive customer feedback:
82% of participants in Quebec City
were very satisfied or satisfied
Electric minibus case in Oxford,
England, in 1990s reported reduced
air pollution of -21% CO2, -98% CO, 42% acid gases, -93% hydrocarbons
and -95% particulates after 500 days of
operation

Source: Simon P Smiler and others. City Transport Electric Bus. Website: http://citytransport.info/Electbus.htm. Accessed: March 7th 2013.
The
Quebec
colobus
System. Website:
Accessed: March 7th 2013.
City
ofCity
Turku
& Siemens
AGhttp://www.tc.gc.ca/eng/programs/environment-utsp-casestudypublictransit-1707.htm.
2013. All rights reserved.
10 years of electric buses with IPT Charge. Website: http://www.conductix.com/en/news/2012-05-31/10-years-electric-buses-iptr-charge. Accessed: March 7th 2013.

Page 154

September 2013

Reference case BRT-busline 550 in Helsinki area


Challenge

Busline 550 Route Map

Improving quality of Helsinki area public transport between suburbs


Reducing the travel time to minimum
Attracting especially working people to use public transport

Solution approach in Helsinki area


BRT-busline ("Jokeri-linja") serving traffic between suburbs as a ring line
since 2003. Originally light rail planned instead but idea replaced with BRT to
reduce costs. Now planned to be changed to light rail to increase capacity.
Short intervals first to attract customers, later to provide enough capacity
In 2003, 7min interval introduced during peak hours, 10 min during the day.
Peak hour interval increased to 5min in 2006. Since 2010, two buses
departing together every 5min during peak hours.
Traveler amount immediately higher than expected
40% increase in trips per day between 2006-2010 (2006, 19 600; 2008, 24
000; 2010, up to 30 000)
Solutions to improve average speed
Only 38 bus stops for 27km line
Exclusive public transport lanes
Bus priority traffic lights, special priority light for Jokeri

Facts & Figures


On average 27.000 travelers
per day on weekdays, 11 000
on Sat, 7 000 on Sun in 20102012
Average speed in 2010 was
29km/h which is considered
very good for a busline
Positive customer feedback
In Aug 2012, 37 new environmentally friendly Scania buses
will start operating

Source: Jokeirliikenne Kaupunkiliikenne. Website: http://www.kaupunkiliikenne.net/Helsinki/jokeri.html. Accessed: March 7th 2013.


HSL. Website: http://www.hsl.fi. Accessed: March 7th 2013.
City of Turku & Siemens AG 2013. All rights reserved.
Wikipedia Jokeri. Website: http://fi.wikipedia.org/wiki/Jokeri-linja. Accessed: March 7th 2013.

Page 155

September 2013

Travel chains
Mobility & Logistics, Skanssi & Castle Town

City of Turku & Siemens AG 2013. All rights reserved.


Page 156

September 2013

Current situation regarding public transport in Turku


Situation of mobility in Turku

Objectives of mobility in Turku

85% of public transport journeys within the Turku


region take place within city boundaries.
2 Railway stations
7 Service levels for public transport are defined per
network sections
City owned and several private bus companies with
service contracts

Build an end-to-end journey focused approach


Make public transport more green and sustainable
Reduce CO2 emissions
Reduce congestion
Reduce private driving, increase modal shift

Specific objectives of Mobility & Logistics for Skanssi & Castle Town

Bus stop intervals so that the speed of public transport is compatible with private cars
More than 90% of the residents live within 450 m from the bus rapid transit system stop
Enhancing the attractiveness of other forms of transport to private cars
Flexible public transport travelling, change of transport mode

Source: City of Turku

City of Turku & Siemens AG 2013. All rights reserved.


Page 157

September 2013

Travel chains for Skanssi & Castle Town at a glance


Case for action

Description of solution

Careful location planning for bus stops Well working and efficient
travel chain, i.e. optimized
and connections to other modes of
interfaces between modes
transport
to reduce waiting times
Well working and efficient travel
Transport management
chain, i.e. optimized interfaces
system to optimized route
between modes to reduce waiting
planning
times and make travellign by PT
convenient to support other transport Incident management
means than private car usage

Prerequisites

Facts & figures

High data availability & data


processing
Optimized operational and
administrative processes
Overarching traffic
management concept
integrated traffic planning
across all modes

- 10% in the total travel time


on a given public transport
route (provided that the
service intervals are kept the
same) can lead to a reduction
of vehicles required to cover
the public transport demand
by about 9%, bringing with it
an enormous savings potential
in terms of equipment, staff
and maintenance.

Source: City of Turku, expert opinions, Siemens

City of Turku & Siemens AG 2013. All rights reserved.


Page 158

September 2013

By shifting mobility demand to public transport, the attractiveness of


public transport services needs a boost most of the time in terms of
journey times & timekeeping.
The installation of a module for prioritizing public transport at signal
controlled intersections serves in two ways. An appropriately
equipped guidance system not only increases travel speeds &
improves punctuality on public transport services with minimal
impact on private vehicles, but it also allows public transport
operators to economize on use of vehicles, or alternatively to
improve services using the same number of vehicles. Guaranteed
right of way for public transport is usually managed locally.
The bus or tram determines its position (using markers or GPS
technology) &, as it approaches the stop line, relays its position to
the local controller. This adjusts the signaling by extending or
shortening of a green phase or even by inserting a new phase, so
that on reaching the stop line, the bus or tram re-ceives a green
light. On the one hand, the task of the guaranteed-right-of-way
system for public transport is to dispatch the vehicle over the
intersection without stops and loss of time on the other hand
however, it is of course desirable to keep the impact on private
transport as small as possible.
According to a study by Nrnberger Verkehrsbetriebe VAG, buses
& trams waste up to 27% of their total travel time in waiting at
intersections. For public transport, this proportion of time can be
drastically reduced using guaranteed right of way. If it is politically
desirable, the UTC (Urban Traffic Control) system can be
programmed in such a way that public transport waiting times at
intersections are cut to zero. However, this kind of solution requires
the availability of a dedicated bus or tram lane, which in turn may
have a massively impact on private transport.

Impact evaluation
Annual CO2 abatement

Assumptions
-0%

12.400

-12.386

Traffic CO2 emissions in Turku in


2035 will be 128.000t CO2 /yr
under the constraint that every
citizen has the same travel
pattern regardless their age.
Travel pattern in the districts is
similar to the whole of Turku.
Bus km in Turku 12 mil.
Optimized travel chains lead to a
mileage reduction of 9%
Thus, we will have an optimized
baseline of 12.386 t CO2
emissions in Castle Town and
Skanssi

Baseline (tCO2/a) Saving potential


(tCO2/a) in
Linnakaupunki

Saving potential
Optimized
(tCO2/a) in
baseline (tCO2/a)
Skanssi

Source: Turku Light Rail Impact Study; http://www.ltaacademy.gov.sg/doc/IS02-p23%20Bike-sharing.pdf

City of Turku & Siemens AG 2013. All rights reserved.


Page 159

September 2013

Travel chains for Skanssi & Castle Town at a glance


Benefits

Implementation plan and rollout potential

Citizens

The travel chain enables change from private car use to


public transport due to more convenient , i.e. faster travel &
empty streets.

Investors

Higher no. of passengers


Less vehicles
Less fuel consumption

Milestones

Legal

Implementation plan

Financial

Technical

Pilot
City
development

Time

Overall time frame:


8-24 months

What options to require various PT


18 months
companies to join the system? Taxi,
Matkahuolto etc?
Budget, revenue growth from new passengers,
12 months
revenue growth from current passengers.
Maintenance costs
IT project for ticketing ( if not done
within other City Development
projects)
Ticketing solution
Connections to other public transport
(VRetc)
Route planning, estimations and calculations
for passenger growth and behaviour

12 months

12 months
6 months

Environment
Optimized travel chains cuts the no. of involuntary stops
for buses. Scientific analyses have shown a stop is the
equivalent of 60s waiting with a running engine. Thus, a
reduction in the no. of buses stopping at intersections has
a very positive impact on exhaust emissions.

City / district administration

Working travel chain supports the city plan to grow >15%


Traffic to PT & seamless traffic reduces amount of vehicles

Requirements / prerequisites
Geographical /
spatial fit

Rollout potential

Profile fit

The concept fits into the city strategy of making public transport more
attractive and enhancing the modal shift from private car transport towards
other means of transport.
Target group: 1st phase local, then TBD.

Economical fit

Adequate market / district size: 2 railway stations, passenger ship harbor,


local and long distance bus stations, taxi companies

Technical fit
Overall
transferability

Source: Siemens

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Page 160

September 2013

No specific spatial requirements to be given for the implementation of this


concept

Required complementary equipment / solutions are available


Issue is the planning of all the pieces to be connected and determining
what should be the starting point
Rollout potential is high, Size and variables of the transport chain makes it
relatively easy to be planned, but required parties needs still to be defined.

Content
Chapter
1

Content
Skanssi & Castle Town

Status quo and goals


KPI systems to monitor and control

Page
58 - 71

Smart Buildings in Smart Grids The backbone of sustainability

72 - 121

Mobility & Logistics Connectivity and sustainable


on-site transport

122 - 160

Social Issues

161 - 190

Smart City Services

191 - 203

Implementation

204 - 210

City of Turku & Siemens AG 2013. All rights reserved.


Page 161

September 2013

The social issues measures enable the districts to be


a community that includes, actively supports and
engages all groups of inhabitants.
3 principles of a sustainable
district

Solution

Vision
Skanssi

Vision
Castle Town

The living Oasis focuses


on young families &
creatives

Society

The incubator urban lab


focuses on urban citizens
& working people

Measures
Green Building Monitor
Social engagement
in energy efficiency

Living Lab
Common saunas

Community Areas
Market places

Economics

Ecology

The societal factor is


interconnected to, is influenced
and influences itself the
economical and ecological
sustainability of a district.
City of Turku & Siemens AG 2013. All rights reserved.
Page 162

September 2013

Adapting to
demographic
change
& future trends
Family orientation
as part of the
branding

Mobility guide & Last-Mile Car


Home automation
Multi-functional school
center
Multi-functional school
center

Solutions of Mobility, Buildings and Energy provide


synergies with Social Issues Solutions
Solutions of Infrastructure
Areas

Mobility & Logistics


Solution

Buildings Solution

Energy Solution

The consumer
becomes a
producer

Contribution to Social Issues


Solutions
Increasing understanding for energy
production
Self-contained energy supply as an
identification factor for community

Smart Buildings

Interconnected systems of energy


consumption is the basis for a centralized
and user friendly control
Smart solutions to be implemented in
multifunctional-school center

Standardized
security systems

Children friendly environment


Satisfaction of the need of families to
feel particularly save in their homes as
well as in public places
Same applies for old and handicapped
inhabitants

Public Transport
services and
smart information
services

Fast, easy and cheap connection to


the city centre as well as the country
side as an advantage especially for
young families and older inhabitants

City of Turku & Siemens AG 2013. All rights reserved.


Page 163

September 2013

Social Issues
Solutions

Social
engagement
in energy
efficiency

Adapting to
demographic
change
& future
trends

Family
orientation
as part of the
branding

Family orientation as part of the branding


Social Issues, Skanssi & Castle Town

City of Turku & Siemens AG 2013. All rights reserved.


Page 164

September 2013

Family orientation for Skanssi & Castle Town at a


glance
Case for action

Description of solution

Places of encounter for all generations


Active integration of minority groups
Set basis for a save and barrier-free environment in terms of
infrastructure as well as social indicators (e.g. criminality rate)
Social inititiatives to increase the understanding for other generations
and to help overcoming prejudices
Prohibit active and passive discrimination against groups and
individuals
Innovative services that provide solutions for the whole family
Special focus on vulnerable inhabitants

Prerequisites

Objectives

Go into an active dialogue


during planning phase with a
variety of stakeholders (e.g.
families, social welfare and
charitable organzations)
Build up a common
understanding of which
projects should be realized

Offer families a green and save


environment or an environment
with an urban atmosphere
Implement smart services that
support young families in
organizing their daily life
provide flexibility between
private and business activities
Offer a broad range of leisure
time facilities tailored to family
needs

City of Turku & Siemens AG 2013. All rights reserved.


Page 165

September 2013

Foundation of community centers by combining several


public services in and around schools
School renting out rooms for other public services and private
users (e.g. businesses, church groups, dancing club)
Common area for public in combination with seating places
and a small kitchen
Services should be tailored to specific target groups of the
two districts.
Accessible for anyone via interactive online booking system
Users receive a bar code on their smartphone with which
they get access to the room they have reserved
Heating and lighting is automatically regulated depending on
booking times
Technologies and other materials (e.g. flipcharts) are stored
in central room and can also be reserved and paid via
interactive online booking system
Multi-functionality approach needs flexible elements in
buildings that are comparable to an open office concept used
in companies
exclusive and open areas
Smart services to manage facility, e.g. time table and
interactive online booking system
Special needs recognition as an overall guidance in planning
phase barrier free access to all facilities

Services in Multi-Functional School Center tailored to


Skanssi & Castle Town
Services for
Castle Town

Common
services

Specific
services

Leisure activity offerings for children, the youth and senior citizens
Evening classes (e.g. language courses, second chance education)
Possible integration of a day care center and a nursing home
Establish shops of daily needs

Cultural events such as lectures, arts


exhibitions and concerts
Initiatives that make use of the spatial
proximity, e.g. granny au-pair
Integration of a family center
lending items for children, such
as skis or buggies
Short SOS lendings but also
over an extended period of time
Garden as the heart of the center

City of Turku & Siemens AG 2013. All rights reserved.


Page 166

Services for
Skanssi

September 2013

Trade fairs and business lectures/


coachings
Simulation of business cases with
interactive computer game
Business Competence Center
exclusive rooms to be used for
meetings
Availability of printers, small
selection of office equipment
(e.g. folders, pencils)
Establish restaurants in area

Family orientation for Skanssi & Castle Town at a


glance
Benefits

Implementation plan and rollout potential

Citizens

Many services in reachable distance


For Castle Town: flexibility between working and leisure
time
For Skanssi: whole family has one centre

Investors

Optimum utilization of facilities


Additional income by renting out

Milestones
Legal

Implementation plan

Financial

Technical

Pilot
City
development

Time
Enabling school to renting out rooms
12 months
Establish rules and regularities for all parties
involved
Private investors and city of Turku deciding on joint
6 months
financing plan
12 months
Implementation of interactive online
booking system to manage the
facilities
Start with most crucial facilities (school,
12 months
Business Competence Center, nursing home)
Gradually implement additional services

ongoing

Environment
Less energy consumption/CO2 emission due to
Less traffic
Optimal utilization of buildings

City / district administration

Prestige object in the heart of the district


Offering variety of services for less money through using
synergies
High community identification of inhabitants

Requirements / prerequisites
Geographical /
spatial fit

Rollout potential

Profile fit

Skanssi and Castle Town are successful as best practice models as a


community of social integration and innovative public services

Economical fit

Initial investment depending on location


High long-term profitability for city when used consequently by different
service providers

Technical fit
Overall
transferability

City of Turku & Siemens AG 2013. All rights reserved.


Page 167

September 2013

Technical realization without barriers for new buildings


Greater efforts for existing infrastructure

Integration of smart services to manage facilities


Renovation of buildings to make it multi-functionally usable
Transfer to other schools is realistic due to the flexibility of this approach
Roll out potential: high

Mobilty Guide
Adapting to demographic change & future trends
Social Issues, Skannsi & Castle Town

City of Turku & Siemens AG 2013. All rights reserved.


Page 168

September 2013

Mobility Guide for Skanssi & Castle Town at a glance


Case for action

Description of solution

Sustainable thinking and acting as a guiding principle in planning and


implementation phase of districts & continuous efforts to improve
efficient resource usage
Offer places of encounter & connecting things, people and services via
internet to keep up with future trends
Barrier-free access to all buildings, places and mobility
Social initiatives to increase awareness for the needs of minorities and
to help overcoming prejudices & innovative services that foster the
diversity approach
Special focus on vulnerable inhabitants

Prerequisites

Objectives

Commitment of all
stakeholders to actively
address demographic change
and future trends
Accepting the adaptation to
demographic change and
future trends as an ongoing
process
Competent and reliable
partners for implementing
inclusive solutions in all
infrastructure areas

Sustainable thinking and acting


is one major principle
Aiming for a tolerant society
that actively includes minorities
and promotes diversity
Addressing further needs of
changing lifestyle attitudes
Use of smart services,
especially for sick, handicapped
and older inhabitants

City of Turku & Siemens AG 2013. All rights reserved.


Page 169

September 2013

The Mobility Guide is an integrated,


multi-modal mobility service and therefore part of the
Intermodal Mobility Platform (mobility & logistics solutions)
Accessible from a smart phone or tablet, the system guides
user through
Multi-modal journey planning and reservations
Navigation
Onboarding
Proceeding to the next transport vehicle
Offers additional information such as where to find the next
coffee shop, operator statistics and real-time information of
changes to planned itinerary
Voice control and simplification of user interface for less
technically oriented users
Especially older inhabitants of the district
could make better and more comfortable use of
Public transport system by relying on the
Mobility Guide.
Service of the Intermodal Mobility Platform (further details in
mobility & logistics solutions part)
Uses GPS and internet connection
App can be easily installed on own device

Mobility Guide for Skanssi & Castle Town at a glance


Benefits

Implementation plan and rollout potential

Citizens

Convenient inter-modal travel


Only one interface to transport provider
Be (and stay) mobile by relying on smart service

Investors

Better understanding of customers


Improved utilization
Value-added service

Milestones
Legal

Implementation plan

Clarification of data protection requirements


Set up a data protection guideline

6 months

Stakeholder agreement on finance plan

6 months

Realization of service will be possible


in the near future

12-18 months

Skanssi and Castle Town could be the pilot


districts to implement this service

N.a.

Gradual expansion of service to the whole city


of Turku

Financial

Technical

Pilot
City
development

Time

ongoing

Environment

Optimized utilization
of the transport infrastructure
Increased public transport utilization because of higher
attractiveness

City / district administration

Attractive mobility services


Active support of older inhabitants to use transport
infrastructure and therefore to be more independent

Requirements / prerequisites
Geographical /
spatial fit

Rollout potential

Profile fit

Economical fit

Technical fit
Overall
transferability

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Page 170

September 2013

No specific requirements

Districts / cities that want to implement the Intermodal Mobility Platform and
offer smart services especially for older inhabitants
Highly attractive especially when district / city has a relatively complex
transport system
Transport providers implement open standards to ensure interconnection of
information and services
Roll out potential: high

Community Areas
Social Issues, Skanssi & Castle Town

City of Turku & Siemens AG 2013. All rights reserved.


Page 171

September 2013

Current situation in Turku


Situation of community areas in
Turku
Finland has a strong tradition in public outdoor areas.
There has been strong regulation for them including
playgrounds, parks and other recreational areas.
Indoor spaces have been implemented in certain kinds
of housing, especially older and rental housing.

Objectives of community areas in


Turku
A good network of public areas in the city
Smart services in public areas and public or private
indoor spaces.
Turku has agreed on lowering the CO2-emissions
30% by the year 2020.

Specific objectives of community areas in Skanssi & Castle Town

The public areas are a critical part of the image of the new areas
Common indoor and outdoor spaces to provide services and foster the community feeling
Private financing and ownership on public out-door areas and semi-public indoor-spaces.
Private services in a key role on making the local services
Smart public services in community areas
Creation of social life places for everyone as a focus for Skannsi
Business life places providing networking and business opportunities for Castle Town

City of Turku & Siemens AG 2013. All rights reserved.


Page 172

September 2013

Common saunas for Skanssi & Castle Town at a


glance
Case for action

Description of solution

Meeting specific needs of district focus groups


Establish flexible environments that can be adjusted to changing
demands
Building community in leisure and business time
Implement community areas that are accessible for every inhabitant of
district
Comfortable usage in summer and winter
Responsibility of city to ensure that minorities are included
Clarification of ownership and responsibilities

Prerequisites

Objectives

Open discussion between


stakeholders in planning
phase to decide on
the needs of district
the economical solutions
Owners of community areas
and their responsibilities
Regular evaluation of chosen
solutions and adaptations
when necessary

Sustainable thinking and acting


is one major principle
Aiming for a tolerant society
that actively includes minorities
and promotes diversity
Addressing further needs of
changing lifestyle attitudes
Use of smart services,
especially for sick, handicapped
and older inhabitants

City of Turku & Siemens AG 2013. All rights reserved.


Page 173

September 2013

Establish Common Saunas as an attractive alternative to


private ones
Owned by private service providers, users pay entry
Two different kinds of establishments
Neighborhood saunas as single buildings that are open to
everyone
Saunas integrated in apartment blocks that are exclusively
for inhabitants
Not exclusive to Skanssi but focus area for this district
Combine community activity with energy savings compared
to private saunas
Especially the neighborhood saunas have the potential to
offer a complete sauna landscape including swimming pool,
children area etc.

Impact evaluation Common Saunas


Assumptions

Building cost and potential savings

Building cost of Common Saunas is 1.350 / person.

One common sauna + shower + dressingroom + toilet is app 30 m2.

Building cost 30 m2 x 4.500 /m2 = 135.000


.

Takes care of the needs of 100 inhabitants.

Total area built for saunas: 2.400 m2

Building cost of private saunas is 3.500 / person.

One private sauna is app 3,5 m2.

Building cost 3,5 m2 x 3.000 /m2 = 10.500


.

Takes care of the needs of 3 inhabitants.

Total area built for saunas: 9.333 m2

The total saving on building costs in the area is 17,2


M (2.150 / inhabitant, 8.000 inhabitants)

In practice the biggest apartments might still have


private saunas, this calculation is simplified so that
none of the apartments has private saunas.

City of Turku & Siemens AG 2013. All rights reserved.


Page 174

September 2013

Common Saunas 80 x 135.000 = 10,8 M

private saunas 2667 x 10.500 = 28,0 M

Impact evaluation Common Saunas


Energy consumption & potential savings

The heating of individual saunas: heated once / week,


10 kWh / heating, 1 sauna for 3 inhabitants

1.600
1.400
1.200
1.000
800
600
400
200
0

Common saunas 799 MWh


Private saunas 1.387 MWh
Saving potential 588 MWh

The heating of Common Saunas: heated 3 times /


week, 64 kWh / heating, 1 sauna for 100 inhabitants
Skanssi, with 8.000 inhabitants, would either have
2667 private saunas or 80 Common Saunas
The energy consumption in Skanssi (normal heating
for the rest of the time not included)
private saunas 1.387 MWh / year
Common Saunas 799 MWh / year
The potential saving is 588 MWh / year

Energy Consumption
Further savings will come from overall heating of the
6.933 m2 smaller total floor-area in Skanssi.
Energy saving potential when using exhaust air for
heating the rest of the building

City of Turku & Siemens AG 2013. All rights reserved.


Page 175

Assumptions

September 2013

Overall heating: The Common Saunas need 2.400 m2


floor-area, the private saunas need 9.333 m2. That
means 6.933 m2 smaller heated total area or 22.800
m3 lower building-volume in Skanssi-area.

Common saunas for Skanssi & Castle Town at a


glance
Implementation plan and rollout potential

Citizens

Better quality and wider range of services than in private


sauna
Enjoying sauna experience with community
No high investment cost

Investors

Increased attractiveness of building/neighborhood


Additional business opportunity

Implementation plan

Benefits

Milestones
Legal

Financial

Technical

Pilot

City
development

Time
City master plan & Detailed city plans in phases
The city plan should allow to build Common Saunas over
the normal building-right
Financial model on the central park (Skanssi)
Financial model in the common indoor spaces
The city plan should allow to build Common Saunas over
the normal building-right
Overall plans for the indoor & outdoor areas
Detailed plans for the outdoor areas
Agreement on the Common Saunas with stakeholders
First solutions concluded in housing (saunas & indoor
spaces)
First part of the park (Skanssi)

Overall planning of the central park (incl stormwaters)


Schools outdoor-areas planned as part of the park and
indoors as part of the indoor services in the area

12 months

6 months

12 months

6-36
months
ongoing

Environment
Energy savings compared to private saunas
Less CO2 emissions

City / district administration

Supports image of a modern and sustainable district


Increased attractiveness through additional leisure time
facilities

Requirements / prerequisites
Geographical /
spatial fit

Rollout potential

Profile fit

Page 176

September 2013

Skanssi and Castle Town are successful as best practice models for a
sustainably acting community
Districts need to find investor or finance it themselves

Economical fit

Technical fit
Overall
transferability

City of Turku & Siemens AG 2013. All rights reserved.

Modification of apartment blocks necessary


Enough space in already established districts

Relatively high effort to modify already existing buildings

The calculation of energy savings with Common Saunas can be transferred


to any area / development project
Overall transferability can be seen as high

Reference case / Best practice


Social issues

Community areas Common Saunas

Challenge

Eco-Viikki

creating a sense of community in the district


overall participation of the residents in the districts activities
incorporating ecological mindset into the lifestyle of the residents

Solution approach in Eco-Viikki


allotment plots in the green fingers, which inhabitants can rent for gardening
purposes
many green spaces and parks in the area
shared saunas and common laundries in the buildings for the residents
to use

http://esi.nus.edu.sg/publications/2012/02/02/solar-potential-of-hdb-blocks-in-singapore

City of Turku & Siemens AG 2013. All rights reserved.


Page 177

September 2013

Facts & Figures


Amount of common spaces / total
area (17 houses): 5.739 m2 / 61.309
m2 = 9,4%
Building volume / The living area in
Eco Viikki is 4,53 (normal areas 4,1 4,2)
Amount of common areas:
Allotment plots are appriciated and
well used

Market places as a measure for Skanssi &


Linnakupunki
Virtual market place
Business

Trading

@
Shopping

Anyone can
offer
anything to
anyone via a
virtuel
platform

(Physical) All-year market place


Pleasure

Networking

Socialising

City of Turku & Siemens AG 2013. All rights reserved.


Page 178

September 2013

A place of
encounter
and trading
in the heart
of the
district

Indoor-/Outdoor marketplace for Skanssi & Castle


Town at a glance
Illustration market place during summer

Description of solution

Illustration market place during winter

Source: http://philly.curbed.com/tags/chestnut-hill-farmers-market

City of Turku & Siemens AG 2013. All rights reserved.


Page 179

September 2013

Preferably community owned outdoor/indoor area


Focus on
business fairs as a networking opportunity
product/services presentations, weekly market for
daily needs
community events such as concerts
The same place is modifiable depending on weather
conditions, outdoor market during the summer
Flexible modules close the area with a roof top and side walls
in winter time
Market stands are booked via an online administrative
system enabling high transparency and accessibility

Indoor-/Outdoor market places for Skanssi & Castle


Town at a glance
Benefits

Implementation plan and rollout potential

Citizens

Modern and flexible environment for micro businesses


Urban and vibrant atmosphere

Investors

Increased attractiveness of district


Additional business opportunity

Optimal usage of space


High energy savings expected due
central heating system

Technical

Pilot

Time

Clarify what the requirements are for flexible


modules (hight of construction, opening hours
etc.)
Identify private and public investors who jointly
agree on a finance plan

1 month

12 months

Decide for a system and adjust it to Castle


Towns requirements

4months

Start with provision of place and covering system for


the winter time
Implement simple online booking system

12 months

Gradually add additional smart services in the


booking system

ongoing

Requirements / prerequisites

Profile fit

Economical fit

Technical fit
Overall
transferability

City of Turku & Siemens AG 2013. All rights reserved.


September 2013

Geographical /
spatial fit

Rollout potential

supports image of a modern urban district


Attracting businesses through offering a platform to get in
contact with investors and customers

Page 180

to closed room and

City / district administration

Financial

City
development

Environment

Milestones
Legal

Implementation plan

No barriers in newly built districts


Enough space in already established districts?
Shift of business focus necessary depending on clientel of the district
Initial investment is comparably high due to flexible modules which makes
strong commitment and joined investment of public and private sector
necessary
Management of the marketplace as a potential challenge
None
Overall transferability is likely, mainly due to the absence of specific
technical requirements
However, high initial investment is a challenge
Rollout potential: high

Virtual marketplaces for Skanssi & Castle Town at a


glance
Case for action

Description of solution

Meeting specific needs of district focus groups


Building community in leisure and business time
Responsibility of city to ensure that minorities are included
Clarification of ownership and responsibilities

Prerequisites

Connection

Open discussion between


stakeholders in planning
phase to decide on
the needs of district
the economical
solutions
Owners of marketplace areas
and their responsibilities
Regular evaluation of chosen
solutions and adaptations
when necessary

City of Turku & Siemens AG 2013. All rights reserved.


Page 181

September 2013

Community platform used as a trade and exchange market


online
Every inhabitant can be a provider and customer
Virtual market place enables B2B, B2C and C2C commerce
Possible offerings
Any kind of consumer goods (e.g. food)
Industrial products
Services such as food delivery, in-house hairdressing,
language courses or babysitting
Enable B2B, B2C and C2C commerce

In addition, services may be offered in


exchange for another service or good without
the usage of money. A pensioner could, for
example, teach a migrant finnish who in return
does the shop for him/her.
Every individual has something to offer is the
guiding principle for this measure.
Community platform used as a trade and exchange market
online
Virtual trading communities like ebay serve as a successful
business model

Virtual marketplaces for Skanssi & Castle Town at a


glance
Benefits

Implementation plan and rollout potential

Citizens

Business but also community driven exchange platform


Adding a value to society by bringing in own strengths

Investors

Increased attractiveness of district


Additional stimulation of local economy

Financial

Technical

Pilot
City
development

Environment

Milestones
Legal

Implementation plan

Clarify whether public sector is able to offer such


services

2 weeks

Identify private and public investors who jointly agree on


a finance plan

6-12 months

Choose platform developer and start project


Platform goes live

2 months
8 months

Start with a basic version to gradually implement further


services

1 year

Potential to become a regional or even national platform


over the years
Continuous improvement necessary

ongoing

No negative implications for environment

City / district administration

Requirements / prerequisites
Geographical /
spatial fit

supports image of a modern and innovative urban district


Fosters community cohesion
Rollout potential

Time

No specific requirements

Fits to any kind of district that aims at exchanging goods and services
within the close community

Economical fit

Private investment partners are necessary


Knowledge of which business will be located in district/city as a basis for
that

Technical fit

Inhabitants have access to internet

Profile fit

Overall
transferability

City of Turku & Siemens AG 2013. All rights reserved.


Page 182

September 2013

Overall transferability is likely if district/city is able to finance it itself or finds


private sector investors
Rollout potential: high

Reference case / Best practice


Sell experiences - sweemo
Business model
Platform that connects people who want
to buy, sell or swap special experiences,
such as a soap opera or an exclusive
safari
Generates profit through sellers who pax
commission on the final selling price

Sell services - Zilok

Sell (used) goods - ebay

Business model
Platform that connects borrower and
lender
Idea is to buy a service which can also
mean to use a certain product only for a
limited period of time

Busines model
Platform that connects buyers and
sellers
Generates profit through a listing fee or
commission on the transactions that are
made

City of Turku & Siemens AG 2013. All rights reserved.


Source: http://www.boardofinnovation.com/

Page 183

September 2013

Social engagement in energy efficiency


Social Issues, Skannsi & Castle Town

City of Turku & Siemens AG 2013. All rights reserved.


Page 184

September 2013

Current situation in Turku


Situation of social engagement in
Turku
City of Turku has made an agreement to use only
electricity from renewable sources
Metering of electricity has been renewed lately and is in
modern state with hourly metering
Users are able to choose their electricity provider

Objectives of social engagement in


Turku
Social Issues have had an important part of different
strategies in Turku for a long time in many levels

Specific objectives of social engagement in Skanssi & Castle Town


Create a shared understanding in community of responsible energy consumption and CO2 emissions
Achieve economical and ecological advantages through individual energy savings
Use group dynamic of community as a driver for energy efficient behavior
think and act sustainable as a positive image for both districts

City of Turku & Siemens AG 2013. All rights reserved.


Source: xxxxx

Page 185

September 2013

Energy efficiency for Skanssi & Castle Town at a


glance
Case for action
Information of inhabitants about
their individual energy
consumption
cost of energy
production source of energy
how to use energy more
efficiently
Mind shift of how to use energy
by increasing inhabitants
awareness of their consumption
behaviour

Description of solution
Lower costs, social
affirmation/recognition
Information access to be ensured
at any time
Possibility to choose between
different energy providers
Switching providers without
barriers, Involve inhabitants in
solution process
participative democracy

Prerequisites

Standardized system that meters energy for single households


Live energy consumption monitoring
Connecting all energy producers and consumers
Open data provision
Analyses of all data and preparation for end users in short period of
time
Initiatives that enable inhabitants to motivate themselves to think and
act sustainable

City of Turku & Siemens AG 2013. All rights reserved.


Page 186

September 2013

Concept aims at innovations that are developed and tested in


a multifaceted real context
User-centric approach is based on the experiences and
knowledge and ideas of individuals
Businesses, authorities, researchers and inhabitants work in
projects to create validate and test new technologies,
services or business ideas
Products or services are adjusted to the needs of the user
throughout an innovation process
Focus on democratic and open process that includes diverse
people and backgrounds
The negotiated city as a new approach of developing a
living environment
May be supported by open space technology that enables
users to moderate discussions as well as generate concrete
measures in working groups

Concept

The Living Lab concept engages the society in


finding efficient energy solutions
The Living Lab

Principles

Jointly developed energy efficiency solutions for the community


Openness

Influence

Projects

Green Building Monitor

Monitoring of energy
consumption
Best practice sharing
benchmarking
City of Turku & Siemens AG 2013. All rights reserved.
Source: http://knowledgecenter.openlivinglabs.eu; Siemens internal

Page 187

September 2013

Realism

To be defined

Values

Sustainability

To be defined

Green building monitor for Skanssi & Castle Town at


a glance
Case for action
Information of inhabitants about
their individual energy
consumption
cost of energy
production source of energy
how to use energy more
efficiently
Mind shift of how to use energy
by increasing inhabitants
awareness of their consumption
behaviour

Description of solution
Lower costs, social
affirmation/recognition
Information access to be ensured
at any time
Possibility to choose between
different energy providers
Switching providers without
barriers, Involve inhabitants in
solution process
participative democracy

Prerequisites

Standardized system that meters


energy for single households
Live energy consumption
monitoring
Connecting all energy producers
and consumers
Open data provision
Analyses of all data and
preparation for end users in short
period of time
Initiatives that enable inhabitants
to motivate themselves to think
and act sustainable

City of Turku & Siemens AG 2013. All rights reserved.


Page 188

September 2013

The Green Building Monitor (GBM) collects a variety of


values within building and enables user to monitor them
power and water consumption
temperature readings
greenhouse gas emissions etc.
Awareness of energy consumption motivates inhabitants to
use energy more efficiently
Enable individuals to actively influence their energy
consumption by installing GBM in single appartments
Installation in public buildings to achieve transparency and
show best practice examples
Data center collects and analyses all data of
neighbourhood/district to provide inhabitants with
benchmarking data
Open standards required (e.g. BACnet)
Can be steered by on-the-wall-devices, tablets, from a
central station etc.
Colour in display indicates the energy performance of the
building

The Living Lab for Skanssi & Castle Town at a glance


Benefits

Implementation plan and rollout potential

Citizens

Are part of the solution generation for their own community


and home
Can actively influence which and how innovations are
realised
Energy cost savings
High information availability
Full control of energy production and consumption

Investors

Milestones
Legal

Implementation plan

Financial

Pilot

Environment

Innovations to use energy efficiently are continuously


developed further
Less energy consumption/CO2 emission through
behavioural
change

City / district administration

Image of being an innovative district


Community building through joined projects
Attractive for innovation oriented investors
Sharpening image as sustainable district

City of Turku & Siemens AG 2013. All rights reserved.


Page 189

September 2013

Balance between individual data protection and


knowledge sharing

6 months

Private investors and city of Turku deciding on


joint financing plan

2 months

Evaluate possible network size

2 months

2 years

Establishment of data center and first buildings


equipped with Green Building Monitor
Connect single entities and start with first initiatives

Gradually extend data network

ongoing

Requirements / prerequisites
Geographical /
spatial fit

Rollout potential

Technical

City
development

Direct contact to users of products and services


Benefit from innovative ideas generated by community
Cutting-edge solution with high marketing effect

Time

Technical realization without barriers for new buildings


Greater efforts for existing infrastructure

Profile fit

Skanssi and Linnakaupinki are successful as best practice models for a


sustainably acting community

Economical fit

High initial investment necessary


Long-term profitability only when used consequently

Technical fit

Standardized system for the whole city


Establishment of complex network between energy producers and consumers

Challenging to transfer this solution to the whole city due to potential technical
restrictions and high investment need
Roll out potential: medium

Overall
transferability

Reference case / Best practice The Crystal


9 KPIs are measured /
monitored

The success model


The Crystal is connected via Energy Monitoring and Controlling (EMC) to
the Advantage Operations Center (AOC) in Frankfurt, which constantly
monitors the systems for efficient operation.
Automatically transfer of current consumption information and
performance indicators to the Green Building Monitors (GBM) in the
Crystal
LED displays are integrated in the graphic to represent the data of 9 KPIs
The info-graphic obtains the required data directly from the EMC via an
authenticated interface.

City of Turku & Siemens AG 2013. All rights reserved.


Page 190

September 2013

1. % of the electricity consumed so


far today has been provided by
the solar panels
2. kWh of electricity have been
consumed so far today
3. kWh of heat generated by ground
source heat pump
4. kWh of cooling generated by
ground source heat pump
5. kWh of heat has been generated
by the solar thermal systems
6. liters of water have been
consumed so far today
7. % of the water consumed has
been provided by the recycling
system
8. % of the water consumed so far
today has been provided by the
rainwater harvesting system
9. tones of CO2 have been
prevented from being emitted by
the building's system

Content
Chapter
1

Content
Skanssi & Castle Town

Status quo and goals


KPI systems to monitor and control

Page
58 - 71

Smart Buildings in Smart Grids The backbone of sustainability

72 - 121

Mobility & Logistics Connectivity and sustainable


on-site transport

122 - 160

Social Issues

161 - 190

Smart City Services

191 - 203

Implementation

204 - 210

City of Turku & Siemens AG 2013. All rights reserved.


Page 191

September 2013

Smart City Services

City of Turku & Siemens AG 2013. All rights reserved.


Page 192

September 2013

Backup

Smart City Services are closely interwoven with the


other infrastructure areas and solutions
Infrastr. areas

Energy

Mobility

Buildings

Social

Solutions
Solar panels
Decentralized Energy Management
Distribution Automation
Electricity Storage
Communication infrastructure network
Car Sharing and city bike rental
Parking & charging
Electric Public Transport
Travel chains
Information management solutions

Standardized Automation
Standardized Security Systems
Smart Buildings
Predictive Automation using weather forecast

Social engagement in energy efficiency


Community areas
Adapting to demographic change
Family orientation

City of Turku & Siemens AG 2013. All rights reserved.


Page 193

September 2013

Explanation
Smart City Services are not an independent,
stand-alone infrastructure area but closely
interwoven with the other areas and solutions
The solutions marked in bold on the left are
either partly Smart Services or could actually be
implemented as such

Illustration of applications of Smart City


Services in the respective infrastructure areas

Integrated Mobility platform (IMP)


Mobility & Logistics, Skanssi & Castle Town

Source: Siemens

City of Turku & Siemens AG 2013. All rights reserved.


Page 194

September 2013

Current situation regarding public transport in Turku


Situation of mobility in Turku

Objectives of mobility in Turku

85% of public transport journeys within the Turku


region take place within city boundaries.
2 Railway stations
7 Service levels for public transport are defined per
network sections
City owned and several private bus companies with
service contracts

Build an end-to-end journey focused approach


Make public transport more green and sustainable
Reduce CO2 emissions
Reduce congestion
Reduce private driving, increase modal shift

Specific objectives of Mobility & Logistics for Skanssi & Castle Town
Enhancing the attractiveness of other forms of transport to private cars
Flexible public transport travelling, change of transport mode

Source: City of Turku

City of Turku & Siemens AG 2013. All rights reserved.


Page 195

September 2013

Integrated mobility platform for Skanssi & Castle


Town at a glance
Case for action

Description of solution

All age groups in the districts


convenient first to last mile trip
must be enabled to use PT
planning based on the traveler's
facilities.
preferences
A traveler may inquire about
Real-time transport information
infor-mation across all
for people traveling individually as
transportation modes (& based
well as for public transport users
on real-time da-ta), then select
Dynamic (and multimodal) routing
one
of the offered mobility
information
options
& finally book & pay for
Residents must be easily enthe
whole
trip from one single
abled to use public transport
platform

Prerequisites

Agreement of the different mobility providers to collaborate


Well organised travel chains as the backend of the solution
Open data interfaces
An IT architecture and solution that guarantees data security in the
billing process
A feasible B2B business model
A customer frontend which enables easy usage

Source: Siemens

City of Turku & Siemens AG 2013. All rights reserved.


Page 196

September 2013

To make optimum use of the capacities of the entire traffic


infra-structure the intermodal evaluation of the traffic system
is increa-singly gaining importance. Intermodal Traffic
Management focuses on interoperable multimodal Real Time
Traffic & Travel Information (RTTI) services provided to
drivers & travelers with the goal of dra-stically reducing
energy consumption in urban areas across the dif-ferent
modes of transport by changing the mobility behavior (modal
shift) of the single traveler; resulting in: Less pollution,
including CO2 emissions, particle emissions and noise; Less
traffic conges-tion; Less energy consumption; A shift away
from individual trans-port towards public transport;
Responsive and adaptive traffic ma-nagement. To enable
travelers planning for a journey and booking their means of
transport easily, Information Technology (IT) is a key element
in transportation strategy. A highly innovative IT-System,
called the multimodal Integrated Mobility Platform (IMP) will
en-able travelers to use the transportation services in a
convenient manner even though those transportation
services may include several modes & may be provided by
various transport operators.
An IMP makes transport more attractive by offering end-toend tra-vel solutions & is a lever to win new customers & to
generate more revenues from existing customers. An IMP
needs to be extendable & give the option to integrate more
service partners mid-/long-term

Impact evaluation
Mobility & Logistics

Annual CO2 abatement

Assumptions
-5%

12.400

365

195

11.840

Traffic CO2 emissions in Turku in


2035 will be 128.000t CO2 /yr
under the constraint that every
citizen has the same travel
pattern regardless their age.
Travel pattern in the districts is
similar to the whole of Turku.
-6% of individual transport is
shifted towards public transport
Thus, we will have an optimized
baseline of 11.840 t CO2
emissions in Castle Town and
Skanssi

Baseline (tCO2/a) Saving potential


(tCO2/a) in
Linnakaupunki

Saving potential
Optimized
(tCO2/a) in
baseline (tCO2/a)
Skanssi

Source: Turku Light Rail Impact Study; http://www.ltaacademy.gov.sg/doc/IS02-p23%20Bike-sharing.pdf

City of Turku & Siemens AG 2013. All rights reserved.


Page 197

September 2013

Integrated mobility platform for Skanssi & Castle


Town at a glance
Benefits

Implementation plan and rollout potential

Citizens / Travelers

Operators / Investors

Financing model

Collaboration of Transport Operators to provide multi


modal end-to-end travel services
Cost reduction
Value-added services
Additional sales channels through partners
Increase in revenue
Improved utilization & better understanding of customer

District

Legal
Implementation plan

Integrated and easy-to-use multi-modal mobility services


Convenient multi modal travel, Using without thinking
Transparent travelling information & customized individual
mobility packages
Greater choice of mobility offerings & attractive prices and
bonus program

Sustainability oriented management of scarce resources


to support modal shift
Optimized utilization of transport infrastructure
Compliance with emission regulations
Communication with the travelling public
Increased control of traffic management
Information about transport needs & attractive city

Source: Siemens

City of Turku & Siemens AG 2013. All rights reserved.


Page 198

September 2013

Milestones
System ownership (city, jointly with taxi, railway etc)

Financial

Technical

Pilot
City
development

Rough technical concept (payment system connections,


interfaces)
Detailed concept

Time
18 months

6 months

12 months

Interconnection and payment system with 2 transport modes


12 months
First phase: bus & train schedule & ticket payment
Second phase: include taxi companies & car sharing
6 months
Route planning
Bus stops, car sharing or rental car parking lots

Requirements / prerequisites
Geographical /
spatial fit

Rollout potential

No specific spatial prerequisites


Can be applied in every region

Profile fit

Targets innovative and integrated solutions


Focuses on the optimization of end-to-end travel

Economical fit

Subject to economies of scale and scope


Needs a critical mass of both services and users
Pre-investment is rather high

Technical fit
Overall
transferability

Needs careful technical planning and realization


Interfaces, Partnering, Clearing and billing systems
Rollout potential is high, as Turku is already planning an e-Ticketing system
Volume of the IMP needs still to be defined.

The Integrated Mobility Platform could help the city of


Turku to integrate with mobility services from other
providers.
Example
for illustration only

Turku

Route
Planning

Ticket
System

Bus
Operator

Regional
Bus
Operator

Regional
Bus
Operator

City of Turku & Siemens AG 2013. All rights reserved.


Page 199

September 2013

Car
Sharing

Bike
Sharing

Bike
Route
Planning

Parking

Regional
Taxi
Operator

National
Bus
Operator

National
Train
Operator

Water

http://www.worldwaterweek.org
City of Turku & Siemens AG 2013. All rights reserved.
Page 200

September 2013

Decentralized waste water management for Skanssi


& Castle Town at a glance
Case for action

Description of solution

To bring sustainable wastewater management into the district and the


city centre.
In times of resource scarcity it is a well justified question of how to
handle waste waters. In recent times waste water is more and more
perceived as an additional useful resource which needs to be treated
with consideration and care.

Technical details

Each facility is odorless with a botanical-garden like appearance that


can be located anywhere, even in a city center. At the same time the
advanced automation solutions ensure reliable and efficient operation
of the waste water treatment plant, each with a simple, user friendly
interface.
The facility treats wastewater to local standards and is able to handle
extreme variations in the load both in terms of quality and quantity.
The solution reduces the physical footprint of the waste water
treatment plant by up to 60% and at the same time its improved
reliability and automated operation helps lowering operational
expenses by 30%. It has a wide processing capacity from 1,000 m3
per day to more than 200,000 m3 per day.

http://www.worldwaterweek.org
City of Turku & Siemens AG 2013. All rights reserved.
Page 201

September 2013

This solution offers a proven and economical solution to


todays urban wastewater management challenges with its
Food Chain Reactor (FCR) solution, a cost and space
efficient facility for the treatment of sanitary wastewater. The
water treatment reactors in the water processing unit utilize
carefully selected plant root structures and biofiber media to
provide an ideal habitat for a unique and diverse biofilm. The
majority of the biomass resides in an attached form resulting
in high sludge age in the reactors. The special media invites
a much more diverse biology than those already in use in the
industry. In addition to the bacteria found in traditional
activated sludge systems, the treatment plants are populated
by over 3,000 species of microbes, aquatic flora and fauna.
Several reactors are used in sequence arranged in a
cascade configuration to optimize the development of distinct
ecosystems at each step of the treatment process.
The reactors are arranged in a cascade fashion with
pretreatment steps in the beginning and final polishing at the
end, depending on influent characteristics and effluent use.
As water flows from one reactor to the other it passes
through different ecologies and in each of these reactors
various components of the contaminants are broken down or
- to put it another way- utilized as energy (food). Thus the
sub-ecosystems provide for enhanced removal efficiency
while utilizing less energy and producing less sludge. The
complex biology is managed by state of the art process
control software which regulates all engineering components
necessary to maintain ideal conditions in the system.

Decentralized waste water management for Skanssi


& Castle Town at a glance
Benefits

Illustration

Citizens

Savings
Odor-free

Operators / Investors

OPEX savings
Improved efficiency
Advanced automation

District

Decentralized approach
Attractive design
Less physical space

http://www.worldwaterweek.org
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Page 202

September 2013

Reference case
Global references
Globally more than 30 operating references
and another 15 under construction,
show the significant resource saving
potential of the solution for sustainable
wastewater management.
In Shenzhen, China, the waste water
treatment seamlessly integrates into urban
settings, dramatically lowering infrastructure costs and creating opportunities
for automated "smart" wastewater networks.

Waste water treatment in Shenzhen, China

http://www.worldwaterweek.org
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Page 203

September 2013

Content
Chapter
1

Content
Skanssi & Castle Town

Status quo and goals


KPI systems to monitor and control

Page
58 - 71

Smart Buildings in Smart Grids The backbone of sustainability

72 - 121

Mobility & Logistics Connectivity and sustainable


on-site transport

122 - 160

Social Issues

161 - 190

Smart City Services

191 - 203

Implementation

204 - 210

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September 2013

Overall Strategic roadmap


Implementation roadmap
Phase I

Phase II

Phase III

Defining the most


suitable business model

Evaluating technical
concept

Implement sustainable
city districts

Legal

Technical

City
development

Evaluating the legal framework


Defining the business model

Ensure the technical concept


availability

Financial

Pilot

Develop the business case


and financial model
Finding the financing

Demonstrate the technical


concept

Typically 3-6 month

Typically 3 months

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September 2013

Re-use sustainable
solutions in city development
Regulation of requirements
Monitoring and feedback
of results

Typically 12 months

Implementation, programming and project


management
Proposed project organization
Project setup in
Lighthouse projects

Roles & Responsibilities


High-ranked sponsor and public
representation of the project

City of Turku

Steering
committee

Sounding
board

Project Lead

Core team

Mobility
focus team

Buildings
focus team

Energy
focus team

Expert partners
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September 2013

Stakeholders

...

Steering committee
Overall steering
and guidance
Taking of key
decisions

Sounding board
Advisory
Involvement
and alignment
of stakeholders

Overall project management


Definition of overall project targets,
methodology and project standards
Coordination & alignment of focus teams
Ongoing stakeholder involvement

Responsible for content work with


respect to focus team topics
Current situation
Identification of measures
Evaluation and prioritization

Critical success factors, risks and barriers


Introducing new district solutions is a complex and cross-functional long-term
project. General experience based on the introduction of such complex
turnkey projects and the knowledge about the specific situation in Turku as
well as some important critical success factors need to be highlighted.

Strategic
Communication

Stakeholder
Involvement

Integrated
Planning &
Solutions

The open and target oriented


communication towards citizens and a
convincing concept towards investors
how to efficiently install new technologies
in the City of Turku is essential.
Citizens needs and lifestyle are the main
drivers for city services & infrastructure.
Ensuring that actual and future requirements
are met by offering high quality, integrated
services in the new districts is an important
factor in district development.

Continuously integrate land use planning and


traffic planning: these two plans should be
revised at the same time and be strongly
interconnected to implement the appropriate
activities (business, residential, mix used
area) at the right place. Rethink the
interconnection and integration of the regional
public transportation system as well as the
circulation in the city center will help to create
a smooth and functional transportation
network.

City of Turku & Siemens AG 2013. All rights reserved.


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September 2013

Identify and select competent and reliable


partners for the realization of the district
infrastructure solutions is of importance.

Ensure stable project funding to facilitate


implementation and to avoid unexpected
financial issues.
Evaluate alternative funding possibilities such
as public private partnerships

Governance &
Partnering

Project
Funding

Transportation
Management

Actively influence the mobility behavior &


travel patterns of the citizens by longterm urban planning, traffic management
and traffic guidance systems, parking
policies as well as company travel plans
for employers & information campaigns
is another key requirement; as well as
simplifying the use of public transportation, for inhabitants but also tourists who
can then easily find stations & understand the network map at the 1st glance.

Way forward: applicability & transferability to Turku


and the region

Turku structural model indicates that the


development in the city region is estimated to
require many changes in the land use. The
model has identified over 100 areas with
significant need for development in land use and
in new infrastructure development

Turku structural model 2035:


111 new development areas or
areas with significant changes
The population is estimated to
grow by 75 000 inhabitants
78 000 new dwellings are needed
20 000 new jobs needs to be
created

The implementation of city objectives and the


callenges to manage them is by large similar.
Utilization of a toolbox as a guideline for city
district development will help the planning and
implementation of these areas.
Source: Turku Structural Model 2035
City of Turku & Siemens AG 2013. All rights reserved.
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September 2013

Overview applicability & roll-out potential of chosen


solutions

Energy

Electricity
storage
Applicability

Buildings

Roll-out
potential

Smart
buildings
Applicability

Roll-out
potential

Bike-sharing

Solar panels
Applicability

Roll-out
potential

Predictive
automation
Applicability

Roll-out
potential

Car-sharing

Com. network
infrastructure
Applicability

Roll-out
potential

Distribution
automation
Applicability

Standardized
sec. systems
Applicability

Roll-out
potential

Roll-out
potential

DEMS
Applicability

Roll-out
potential

Standardized
automation
Applicability

Park & charge

Roll-out
potential

E-Buses

Travel chains

Mobility
Applicability

Social
issues

Roll-out
potential

Green Building Monitor


Applicability

Roll-out
potential

IMP

Applicability

Roll-out
potential

Common
saunas
Applicability

Roll-out
potential

Applicability

Roll-out
potential

Applicability

Mobility
Guide

Market places
Applicability

Roll-out
potential

Applicability

Water

Smart services
Applicability

Roll-out
potential

Applicability

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September 2013

Roll-out
potential
high
medium
Applicability low
Roll-out
potential

Roll-out
potential

Roll-out
potential

Applicability

Roll-out
potential

Multi-func.
school centre
Applicability

Roll-out
potential

Rollout of proven cities approach to the Baltic Sea


Region as additional growth lever
Rollout Concept for Baltic Sea Region

Developing a guideline for development of


sustainable districts

Best-practice case for sustainable district


development in Baltic Sea Region
Guideline for development of sustainable city
districts for Union of the Baltic Cities
Feed in to UBC Urban Platform agenda

Best Practice Sharing

Baltic Development Forum Summit


Union of the Baltic Cities
EU Baltic Sea Region program
Next step: Alignment with UBC/BDF Urban
Platform agenda

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September 2013

Content 3

Content

Page

Content 1

Introduction, case for action and objectives

Content 2

Skanssi and Castle Town


Cornerstones of a sustainable development concept

57 - 210

Content 3

Content III: Toolbox and Outlook

211 214

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September 2013

1 - 56

The toolbox guides integrated city administration teams through


certain development phases of sustainable district planning
Sustainable City District Planning Toolbox Introduction
Illustration

Explanation

Target group

City executives
Integrated teams of city administration members and
involved stakeholders

Goal

Guidance of integrated teams through the process of


sustainable district development

Including the phases from an initial project setup to the


monitoring of the districts KPIs and its improvements
Excluding the phases prior to the project setup, e.g. initial
political decision making, and excluding the construction
phase

Scope

Required
input
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September 2013

#
m
temporal
data

Exact location and the targeted size


Key milestones of time plan for the new district (start of
construction, end of construction, etc)
Core team exists and is committed
Financing issues of the development process already
taken care of

Toolbox
Overview about the supported phases and steps
Strategic district & solution planning phase

Construction phase

Post-construction phase

Benchmarking

Setup

Vision

Challenges

Solutions

Implementation
roadmap

DCP 1)
DSD 2)

Realization

Monitoring
concept

Operational
Monitoring

Improvement planning
& exec.

Major Activities

Illustr.

Requirements

Kick-off
Workshop
with Core
Team
Launch of
benchmarking
study

Deliverables

Project plan
Agreement
on core
values of
collaboration

Vision
workshop

Challenges
workshop

Selection
and first
descriptions
of best
practices

Site visits

District
profile
attributes
(heatmap)

Challenges
classification
list

Future
inhabitant
groups list
KPIs

Assessment
of the key
challenges

First
hypothesis
how to
overcome the
challenges

Requirements Gather
interviews with
Select
stakeholders
(academia,
Describe
citizens, etc.)
Check
Match and
connection
adjustments of with
district profile
operational
with
monitoring
requirements
centers

Requirements list
(per infrastructure
area, basic +
advanced)

Selected
solutions list
Detailed
description
and
evaluation of
solutions

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1)
2)

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September 2013

Gather
possible
pathways
Evaluate
Select
Describe
pathway

Complete
technology
implementation roadmap

Detailed city planning


Detailed solution design

Out of scope

Design and
implementation of
monitoring
concept
based on
derived
district KPIs

Adapting to
new trends

City
monitoring
center in
operation

Mega trend
consideration

Within scope

Parallel process

Lessons learnt issues to be taken into account in


the planning process
Throughout the project

7 Aspects of achieving a
sustainable district

Defining a vision and its measures


As early as possible
Clear, realistic and approved by
all the project partners
Implementing the sustainable
technologies & practices in the area
from the start
Public transport, services
Emphasizing the special elements of
the area since the beginning
e.g. storm water management,
smart grid
Cooperation among all the project
partners
Involving the residents from the
beginning
Participation of residents for creating
identity/ sense of community
Long-term commitment to the project

Sustainable lifestyle of residents:


encouraging and informing the residents
about sustainable habits

Involving the residents from the


beginning

Continuous monitoring also after the


construction

Full commitment & cooperation of


the project partners

Clear and adequate follow up goals

Emphasizing the special elements of


the area since the beginning

Comprehensive documentation of the


results
open availability of the results for
benchmarking

Overall vision and the means for


achieving it

e.g. storm water management, smart grid

Implementing the sustainable


technologies & practices in the area
from the start

e.g. public transport

Comprehensive research work and


profitability calculations

Taking into account the financial


risks of investments in new
technologies

Adaptability to future trends

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September 2013

After the construction of


the district