24 views

Uploaded by Jaime White

design of beams and cables. this file contains two different files. one for beam and another for cables.

- Extended Abstract
- A Critical Comparative Study of is 800-2007andis 800-1984-2
- Zicks Formula
- NAME 481 Course Outline
- art%3A10.1007%2Fs40940-016-0008-3
- Strengthening of web opening in non-compact steel girders
- C Section M312-Report1
- Design of Timber Structures 3 2016
- Discussion Design Example for Beams With Web Openings
- ZICK
- Design of Steel Structure beam
- 306820930 SN017 NCCI Shear Resistance of a Fin Plate Connection
- 5-UnrestrainedBeam
- ICE PAPER Biaxial Bending of RC Beam
- Efect of Brazier
- Beam-Columns AISC Summary BEAM COLUMNS
- A comparative study of static and response spectrum analysis of a rc building
- 100-s67
- 4 Beams
- Report Connection

You are on page 1of 95

CHAPTER 2

BEAM

FORMULAS

Copyright 2004 The McGraw-Hill Companies. All rights reserved.

Any use is subject to the Terms of Use as given at the website.

BEAM FORMULAS

16

CHAPTER TWO

In analyzing beams of various types, the geometric properties of a variety of cross-sectional areas are used. Figure 2.1

gives equations for computing area A, moment of inertia I,

section modulus or the ratio S I/c, where c distance

from the neutral axis to the outermost ber of the beam or

other member. Units used are inches and millimeters and

their powers. The formulas in Fig. 2.1 are valid for both

USCS and SI units.

Handy formulas for some dozen different types of

beams are given in Fig. 2.2. In Fig. 2.2, both USCS and SI

units can be used in any of the formulas that are applicable

to both steel and wooden beams. Note that W load, lb

(kN); L length, ft (m); R reaction, lb (kN); V shear,

lb (kN); M bending moment, lb ft (N m); D deection, ft (m); a spacing, ft (m); b spacing, ft (m); E

modulus of elasticity, lb/in2 (kPa); I moment of inertia,

in4 (dm4); less than; greater than.

Figure 2.3 gives the elastic-curve equations for a variety

of prismatic beams. In these equations the load is given as

P, lb (kN). Spacing is given as k, ft (m) and c, ft (m).

CONTINUOUS BEAMS

Continuous beams and frames are statically indeterminate.

Bending moments in these beams are functions of the

geometry, moments of inertia, loads, spans, and modulus of

elasticity of individual members. Figure 2.4 shows how any

span of a continuous beam can be treated as a single beam,

with the moment diagram decomposed into basic components. Formulas for analysis are given in the diagram.

Reactions of a continuous beam can be found by using the

formulas in Fig. 2.5. Fixed-end moment formulas for

beams of constant moment of inertia (prismatic beams) for

Downloaded from Digital Engineering Library @ McGraw-Hill (www.digitalengineeringlibrary.com)

Copyright 2004 The McGraw-Hill Companies. All rights reserved.

Any use is subject to the Terms of Use as given at the website.

BEAM FORMULAS

17

Downloaded from Digital Engineering Library @ McGraw-Hill (www.digitalengineeringlibrary.com)

Copyright 2004 The McGraw-Hill Companies. All rights reserved.

Any use is subject to the Terms of Use as given at the website.

BEAM FORMULAS

18

Downloaded from Digital Engineering Library @ McGraw-Hill (www.digitalengineeringlibrary.com)

Copyright 2004 The McGraw-Hill Companies. All rights reserved.

Any use is subject to the Terms of Use as given at the website.

BEAM FORMULAS

19

Downloaded from Digital Engineering Library @ McGraw-Hill (www.digitalengineeringlibrary.com)

Copyright 2004 The McGraw-Hill Companies. All rights reserved.

Any use is subject to the Terms of Use as given at the website.

BEAM FORMULAS

20

Downloaded from Digital Engineering Library @ McGraw-Hill (www.digitalengineeringlibrary.com)

Copyright 2004 The McGraw-Hill Companies. All rights reserved.

Any use is subject to the Terms of Use as given at the website.

BEAM FORMULAS

21

Downloaded from Digital Engineering Library @ McGraw-Hill (www.digitalengineeringlibrary.com)

Copyright 2004 The McGraw-Hill Companies. All rights reserved.

Any use is subject to the Terms of Use as given at the website.

BEAM FORMULAS

22

Downloaded from Digital Engineering Library @ McGraw-Hill (www.digitalengineeringlibrary.com)

Copyright 2004 The McGraw-Hill Companies. All rights reserved.

Any use is subject to the Terms of Use as given at the website.

BEAM FORMULAS

23

Downloaded from Digital Engineering Library @ McGraw-Hill (www.digitalengineeringlibrary.com)

Copyright 2004 The McGraw-Hill Companies. All rights reserved.

Any use is subject to the Terms of Use as given at the website.

BEAM FORMULAS

24

Downloaded from Digital Engineering Library @ McGraw-Hill (www.digitalengineeringlibrary.com)

Copyright 2004 The McGraw-Hill Companies. All rights reserved.

Any use is subject to the Terms of Use as given at the website.

BEAM FORMULAS

25

Downloaded from Digital Engineering Library @ McGraw-Hill (www.digitalengineeringlibrary.com)

Copyright 2004 The McGraw-Hill Companies. All rights reserved.

Any use is subject to the Terms of Use as given at the website.

BEAM FORMULAS

26

Downloaded from Digital Engineering Library @ McGraw-Hill (www.digitalengineeringlibrary.com)

Copyright 2004 The McGraw-Hill Companies. All rights reserved.

Any use is subject to the Terms of Use as given at the website.

BEAM FORMULAS

27

BEAM FORMULAS

Curves (Fig. 2.7) can be used to speed computation of

xed-end moments in prismatic beams. Before the curves

in Fig. 2.7 can be used, the characteristics of the loading

must be computed by using the formulas in Fig. 2.8. These

include xL, the location of the center of gravity of the loading with respect to one of the loads; G2 b 2n Pn/W, where

bnL is the distance from each load Pn to the center of

gravity of the loading (taken positive to the right); and S 3

b 3n Pn/W. These values are given in Fig. 2.8 for some common types of loading.

Formulas for moments due to deection of a xed-end

beam are given in Fig. 2.9. To use the modied moment

distribution method for a xed-end beam such as that in

Fig. 2.9, we must rst know the xed-end moments for a

beam with supports at different levels. In Fig. 2.9, the right

end of a beam with span L is at a height d above the left

end. To nd the xed-end moments, we rst deect the

beam with both ends hinged; and then x the right end,

leaving the left end hinged, as in Fig. 2.9b. By noting that a

line connecting the two supports makes an angle approximately equal to d/L (its tangent) with the original position

of the beam, we apply a moment at the hinged end to produce an end rotation there equal to d/L. By the denition of

stiffness, this moment equals that shown at the left end of

Fig. 2.9b. The carryover to the right end is shown as the top

formula on the right-hand side of Fig. 2.9b. By using the

law of reciprocal deections, we obtain the end moments of

the deected beam in Fig. 2.9 as

M FL K FL (1 C FR)

d

L

(2.1)

M FR K FR (1 C FL )

d

L

(2.2)

Copyright 2004 The McGraw-Hill Companies. All rights reserved.

Any use is subject to the Terms of Use as given at the website.

BEAM FORMULAS

28

Downloaded from Digital Engineering Library @ McGraw-Hill (www.digitalengineeringlibrary.com)

Copyright 2004 The McGraw-Hill Companies. All rights reserved.

Any use is subject to the Terms of Use as given at the website.

FIGURE 2.2 Beam formulas. (From J. Callender, Time-Saver Standards for Architectural Design Data,

6th ed., McGraw-Hill, N.Y.)

BEAM FORMULAS

29

Downloaded from Digital Engineering Library @ McGraw-Hill (www.digitalengineeringlibrary.com)

Copyright 2004 The McGraw-Hill Companies. All rights reserved.

Any use is subject to the Terms of Use as given at the website.

BEAM FORMULAS

30

Downloaded from Digital Engineering Library @ McGraw-Hill (www.digitalengineeringlibrary.com)

Copyright 2004 The McGraw-Hill Companies. All rights reserved.

Any use is subject to the Terms of Use as given at the website.

Beam formulas.

BEAM FORMULAS

31

Downloaded from Digital Engineering Library @ McGraw-Hill (www.digitalengineeringlibrary.com)

Copyright 2004 The McGraw-Hill Companies. All rights reserved.

Any use is subject to the Terms of Use as given at the website.

BEAM FORMULAS

32

Downloaded from Digital Engineering Library @ McGraw-Hill (www.digitalengineeringlibrary.com)

Copyright 2004 The McGraw-Hill Companies. All rights reserved.

Any use is subject to the Terms of Use as given at the website.

Beam formulas.

BEAM FORMULAS

33

Downloaded from Digital Engineering Library @ McGraw-Hill (www.digitalengineeringlibrary.com)

Copyright 2004 The McGraw-Hill Companies. All rights reserved.

Any use is subject to the Terms of Use as given at the website.

BEAM FORMULAS

34

Downloaded from Digital Engineering Library @ McGraw-Hill (www.digitalengineeringlibrary.com)

Copyright 2004 The McGraw-Hill Companies. All rights reserved.

Any use is subject to the Terms of Use as given at the website.

Beam formulas.

BEAM FORMULAS

35

Downloaded from Digital Engineering Library @ McGraw-Hill (www.digitalengineeringlibrary.com)

Copyright 2004 The McGraw-Hill Companies. All rights reserved.

Any use is subject to the Terms of Use as given at the website.

BEAM FORMULAS

36

Downloaded from Digital Engineering Library @ McGraw-Hill (www.digitalengineeringlibrary.com)

Copyright 2004 The McGraw-Hill Companies. All rights reserved.

Any use is subject to the Terms of Use as given at the website.

BEAM FORMULAS

37

Downloaded from Digital Engineering Library @ McGraw-Hill (www.digitalengineeringlibrary.com)

Copyright 2004 The McGraw-Hill Companies. All rights reserved.

Any use is subject to the Terms of Use as given at the website.

BEAM FORMULAS

38

Downloaded from Digital Engineering Library @ McGraw-Hill (www.digitalengineeringlibrary.com)

Copyright 2004 The McGraw-Hill Companies. All rights reserved.

Any use is subject to the Terms of Use as given at the website.

Beam formulas.

BEAM FORMULAS

39

Downloaded from Digital Engineering Library @ McGraw-Hill (www.digitalengineeringlibrary.com)

Copyright 2004 The McGraw-Hill Companies. All rights reserved.

Any use is subject to the Terms of Use as given at the website.

FIGURE 2.3 Elastic-curve equations for prismatic beams. (a) Shears, moments, deections for full uniform load on a simply supported prismatic beam. (b) Shears and moments for uniform load over part of

a simply supported prismatic beam. (c) Shears, moments, deections for a concentrated load at any point

of a simply supported prismatic beam.

BEAM FORMULAS

40

Copyright 2004 The McGraw-Hill Companies. All rights reserved.

Any use is subject to the Terms of Use as given at the website.

FIGURE 2.3 (Continued) Elastic-curve equations for prismatic beams. (d) Shears, moments, deections for a concentrated load at midspan of a simply supported prismatic beam. (e) Shears, moments, deections for two equal concentrated loads on a simply supported prismatic beam. ( f ) Shears, moments,

deections for several equal loads equally spaced on a simply supported prismatic beam.

BEAM FORMULAS

41

Copyright 2004 The McGraw-Hill Companies. All rights reserved.

Any use is subject to the Terms of Use as given at the website.

FIGURE 2.3 (Continued) Elastic-curve equations for prismatic beams. (g) Shears, moments, deections for a concentrated load on a beam overhang. (h) Shears, moments, deections for a concentrated load

on the end of a prismatic cantilever. (i) Shears, moments, deections for a uniform load over the full length

of a beam with overhang.

BEAM FORMULAS

42

Copyright 2004 The McGraw-Hill Companies. All rights reserved.

Any use is subject to the Terms of Use as given at the website.

FIGURE 2.3 (Continued) Elastic-curve equations for prismatic beams. (j) Shears, moments, deections

for uniform load over the full length of a cantilever. (k) Shears, moments, deections for uniform load on a

beam overhang. (l) Shears, moments, deections for triangular loading on a prismatic cantilever.

BEAM FORMULAS

43

Copyright 2004 The McGraw-Hill Companies. All rights reserved.

Any use is subject to the Terms of Use as given at the website.

ing uniformly to one end.

BEAM FORMULAS

44

Downloaded from Digital Engineering Library @ McGraw-Hill (www.digitalengineeringlibrary.com)

Copyright 2004 The McGraw-Hill Companies. All rights reserved.

Any use is subject to the Terms of Use as given at the website.

ing uniformly to center.

BEAM FORMULAS

45

Downloaded from Digital Engineering Library @ McGraw-Hill (www.digitalengineeringlibrary.com)

Copyright 2004 The McGraw-Hill Companies. All rights reserved.

Any use is subject to the Terms of Use as given at the website.

FIGURE 2.3 (Continued) Elastic-curve equations for prismatic beams. (o) Simple beamuniform load

partially distributed at one end.

BEAM FORMULAS

46

Downloaded from Digital Engineering Library @ McGraw-Hill (www.digitalengineeringlibrary.com)

Copyright 2004 The McGraw-Hill Companies. All rights reserved.

Any use is subject to the Terms of Use as given at the website.

trated load at free end.

BEAM FORMULAS

47

Downloaded from Digital Engineering Library @ McGraw-Hill (www.digitalengineeringlibrary.com)

Copyright 2004 The McGraw-Hill Companies. All rights reserved.

Any use is subject to the Terms of Use as given at the website.

concentrated load at center.

Elastic-curve equations for prismatic beams. (q) Beam xed at both ends

BEAM FORMULAS

48

Downloaded from Digital Engineering Library @ McGraw-Hill (www.digitalengineeringlibrary.com)

Copyright 2004 The McGraw-Hill Companies. All rights reserved.

Any use is subject to the Terms of Use as given at the website.

FIGURE 2.4 Any span of a continuous beam (a) can be treated as a simple beam, as shown in (b) and (c).

In (c), the moment diagram is decomposed into basic components.

BEAM FORMULAS

49

Downloaded from Digital Engineering Library @ McGraw-Hill (www.digitalengineeringlibrary.com)

Copyright 2004 The McGraw-Hill Companies. All rights reserved.

Any use is subject to the Terms of Use as given at the website.

BEAM FORMULAS

50

CHAPTER TWO

the beam statically determinate. (b) Deections computed with

interior supports removed. (c), (d), and (e) Deections calculated

for unit load over each removed support, to obtain equations for

each redundant.

Copyright 2004 The McGraw-Hill Companies. All rights reserved.

Any use is subject to the Terms of Use as given at the website.

BEAM FORMULAS

BEAM FORMULAS

51

concentrated load. (b) For a uniform load. (c) For two equal concentrated loads. (d) For three equal concentrated loads.

one end hinged and the supports at different levels can be

found from

MF K

d

L

(2.3)

where K is the actual stiffness for the end of the beam that

is xed; for beams of variable moment of inertia K equals

the xed-end stiffness times (1 C FL C FR).

Downloaded from Digital Engineering Library @ McGraw-Hill (www.digitalengineeringlibrary.com)

Copyright 2004 The McGraw-Hill Companies. All rights reserved.

Any use is subject to the Terms of Use as given at the website.

BEAM FORMULAS

FIGURE 2.7

loading.

Downloaded from Digital Engineering Library @ McGraw-Hill (www.digitalengineeringlibrary.com)

Copyright 2004 The McGraw-Hill Companies. All rights reserved.

Any use is subject to the Terms of Use as given at the website.

BEAM FORMULAS

BEAM FORMULAS

53

Characteristics of loadings.

ULTIMATE STRENGTH OF

CONTINUOUS BEAMS

Methods for computing the ultimate strength of continuous

beams and frames may be based on two theorems that x

upper and lower limits for load-carrying capacity:

1. Upper-bound theorem. A load computed on the basis of

an assumed link mechanism is always greater than, or at

best equal to, the ultimate load.

Downloaded from Digital Engineering Library @ McGraw-Hill (www.digitalengineeringlibrary.com)

Copyright 2004 The McGraw-Hill Companies. All rights reserved.

Any use is subject to the Terms of Use as given at the website.

BEAM FORMULAS

54

CHAPTER TWO

equilibrium condition with arbitrarily assumed values

for the redundants is smaller than, or at best equal to, the

ultimate loadingprovided that everywhere moments

do not exceed MP. The equilibrium method, based on

the lower bound theorem, is usually easier for simple

cases.

Copyright 2004 The McGraw-Hill Companies. All rights reserved.

Any use is subject to the Terms of Use as given at the website.

BEAM FORMULAS

55

BEAM FORMULAS

plastic moment for the end spans is k times that for the center span (k 1).

Figure 2.10b shows the moment diagram for the beam

made determinate by ignoring the moments at B and C and

the moment diagram for end moments MB and MC applied

to the determinate beam. Then, by using Fig. 2.10c, equilibrium is maintained when

MP

wL2

1

1

M

M

4

2 B

2 C

wL2

4 kM P

wL2

4(1 k)

(2.4)

frames of constant section with xed bases, as in Fig. 2.11.

Using this method with the vertical load at midspan equal

to 1.5 times the lateral load, the ultimate load for the frame

is 4.8MP /L laterally and 7.2M P /L vertically at midspan.

Maximum moment occurs in the interior spans AB and

CD when

x

M

L

2

wL

(2.5)

or if

M kM P

when

x

L

kM P

2

wL

(2.6)

kMP. For equilibrium,

Copyright 2004 The McGraw-Hill Companies. All rights reserved.

Any use is subject to the Terms of Use as given at the website.

BEAM FORMULAS

56

CHAPTER TWO

much uniform load in the center span as in the side span. In (b) are

shown the moment diagrams for this loading condition with redundants removed and for the redundants. The two moment diagrams

are combined in (c), producing peaks at which plastic hinges are

assumed to form.

Copyright 2004 The McGraw-Hill Companies. All rights reserved.

Any use is subject to the Terms of Use as given at the website.

FIGURE 2.11 Ultimate-load possibilities for a rigid frame of constant section with xed bases.

BEAM FORMULAS

57

Downloaded from Digital Engineering Library @ McGraw-Hill (www.digitalengineeringlibrary.com)

Copyright 2004 The McGraw-Hill Companies. All rights reserved.

Any use is subject to the Terms of Use as given at the website.

BEAM FORMULAS

58

CHAPTER TWO

kM P

w

x

x (L x)

kM P

2

L

w

2

1

kM

kM

L2 kMwL L2 KM

wL 2

wL

P

P

2

leading to

k 2M 2P

wL2

3kM P

0

2

wL

4

(2.7)

7k 2 4k 4

or

k (k 47) 47

wL

M

4M P (1 k)

6.1 P

L

L

(2.8)

section is equal to the bending moment at any other section,

plus the shear at that section times its arm, plus the product

of all the intervening external forces times their respective

arms. Thus, in Fig. 2.12,

Vx R 1 R 2 R 3 P1 P2 P3

M x R 1 (l 1 l 2 x) R 2 (l 2 x) R 3x

P1 (l 2 c x) P2 (b x) P3a

M x M 3 V3x P3a

Table 2.1 gives the value of the moment at the various

supports of a uniformly loaded continuous beam over equal

Copyright 2004 The McGraw-Hill Companies. All rights reserved.

Any use is subject to the Terms of Use as given at the website.

BEAM FORMULAS

BEAM FORMULAS

59

spans, and it also gives the values of the shears on each side

of the supports. Note that the shear is of the opposite sign

on either side of the supports and that the sum of the two

shears is equal to the reaction.

Figure 2.13 shows the relation between the moment and

shear diagrams for a uniformly loaded continuous beam of

four equal spans. (See Table 2.1.) Table 2.1 also gives the

maximum bending moment that occurs between supports,

in addition to the position of this moment and the points of

a uniformly loaded continuous beam of four equal spans.

Copyright 2004 The McGraw-Hill Companies. All rights reserved.

Any use is subject to the Terms of Use as given at the website.

Notation

of

support

of span

1 or 2

1

2

1

2

1

2

3

1

Number

of

supports

0

10

0

10

10

11

28

28

28

15

38

0

10

0

28

28

0

13

17

13

15

28

28

0

2

0

1

8

0

5

8

0

8

5

8

Moment

over each

support

of support. L left,

R right. Reaction at

any support is L R

L

R

0.0364

0.0364

0.0779

0.080

0.025

0.0772

0.0703

0.0703

0.125

0.536

0.464

0.395

0.400

0.500

0.393

0.375

0.625

0.500

Distance to

point of

max moment,

measured to

Max

right from

moment in

from

each span

support

0.266, 0.806

0.194, 0.734

0.789

0.800

0.276, 0.724

0.786

0.750

0.250

None

Distance to

point of

inection,

measured to

right from

support

BEAM FORMULAS

60

Copyright 2004 The McGraw-Hill Companies. All rights reserved.

Any use is subject to the Terms of Use as given at the website.

3

4

1

2

3

4

104

104

56

142

142

142

71

142

142

142

72

142

wl

67

86

53

49

wl

70

75

53

51

19

104

104

0

20

38

38

41

104

55

104

18

38

38

0

63

104

23

38

38

0

11

104

104

104

0

142

142

12

142

wl 2

11

15

wl 2

0.0338

0.0440

0.0405

0.0433

0.0433

0.0778

0.0332

0.0461

0.0777

0.0340

The numerical values given are coefcients of the expressions at the foot of each column.

Values apply to

2

3

1

2

0.528

0.493

0.500

0.490

0.510

0.394

0.526

0.500

0.394

0.533

0.268, 0.788

0.196, 0.790

0.215, 0.785

0.196, 0.785

0.215, 0.804

0.789

0.268, 0.783

0.196, 0.804

0.788

0.268, 0.790

BEAM FORMULAS

61

Copyright 2004 The McGraw-Hill Companies. All rights reserved.

Any use is subject to the Terms of Use as given at the website.

BEAM FORMULAS

62

CHAPTER TWO

continuous beam resting on three equal spans with four supports.

a uniformly loaded continuous beam resting on three equal

spans with four supports.

Maxwells Theorem

When a number of loads rest upon a beam, the deection at

any point is equal to the sum of the deections at this point

due to each of the loads taken separately. Maxwells theorem states that if unit loads rest upon a beam at two points,

A and B, the deection at A due to the unit load at B equals

the deection at B due to the unit load at A.

Castiglianos Theorem

This theorem states that the deection of the point of

application of an external force acting on a beam is equal

Copyright 2004 The McGraw-Hill Companies. All rights reserved.

Any use is subject to the Terms of Use as given at the website.

BEAM FORMULAS

BEAM FORMULAS

63

respect to this force. Thus, if P is the force, f is the deection, and U is the work of deformation, which equals the

resilience:

dU

f

dP

According to the principle of least work, the deformation of any structure takes place in such a manner that the

work of deformation is a minimum.

Beams of uniform strength so vary in section that the unit

stress S remains constant, and I/c varies as M. For rectangular beams of breadth b and depth d, I/c I/c bd 2/6 and

M Sbd2/6. For a cantilever beam of rectangular cross section, under a load P, Px Sbd 2/6. If b is constant, d 2 varies

with x, and the prole of the shape of the beam is a parabola,

as in Fig. 2.15. If d is constant, b varies as x, and the beam

is triangular in plan (Fig. 2.16).

Shear at the end of a beam necessitates modication of

the forms determined earlier. The area required to resist

shear is P/Sv in a cantilever and R/Sv in a simple beam. Dotted extensions in Figs. 2.15 and 2.16 show the changes necessary to enable these cantilevers to resist shear. The waste

in material and extra cost in fabricating, however, make

many of the forms impractical, except for cast iron. Figure

2.17 shows some of the simple sections of uniform

strength. In none of these, however, is shear taken into

account.

Copyright 2004 The McGraw-Hill Companies. All rights reserved.

Any use is subject to the Terms of Use as given at the website.

BEAM FORMULAS

64

CHAPTER TWO

OF VARIOUS TYPES

Table 2.2 gives 32 formulas for computing the approximate

safe loads on steel beams of various cross sections for an

allowable stress of 16,000 lb/in2 (110.3 MPa). Use these

formulas for quick estimation of the safe load for any steel

beam you are using in a design.

Copyright 2004 The McGraw-Hill Companies. All rights reserved.

Any use is subject to the Terms of Use as given at the website.

BEAM FORMULAS

BEAM FORMULAS

65

Table 2.2 for various methods of support and loading.

When combined with Table 2.2, the two sets of formulas

provide useful time-saving means of making quick safeload computations in both the ofce and the eld.

Copyright 2004 The McGraw-Hill Companies. All rights reserved.

Any use is subject to the Terms of Use as given at the website.

wL3

38AD 2

wL3

24AD 2

1,333AD

L

1,333(AD ad)

L

667AD

L

667(AD ad)

L

Solid cylinder

Hollow cylinder

wL3

24(AD 2 ad 2)

wL3

38(AD 2 ad 2)

wL3

52(AD 2 ad 2)

wL3

32(AD 2 ad 2)

1,780(AD ad)

L

890(AD ad)

L

Hollow rectangle

wL3

52AD 2

wL

32AD 2

1,780AD

L

890AD

L

Solid rectangle

Load distributed

Load in middle

Load distributed

Deection, in

Load in middle

Shape of section

(Beams supported at both ends; allowable ber stress for steel, 16,000 lb/in2 (1.127 kgf/cm2) (basis of table)

for iron, reduce values given in table by one-eighth)

BEAM FORMULAS

66

Copyright 2004 The McGraw-Hill Companies. All rights reserved.

Any use is subject to the Terms of Use as given at the website.

wL3

85AD 2

wL3

80AD 2

wL3

93AD 2

wL3

53AD 2

wL3

50AD 2

wL3

58AD 2

3,050AD

L

2,760AD

L

3,390AD

L

1,525AD

L

1,380AD

L

1,795AD

L

Channel or Z bar

Deck beam

I beam

*

L distance between supports, ft (m); A sectional area of beam, in2 (cm2); D depth of beam, in (cm);

a interior area, in2 (cm2); d interior depth, in (cm); w total working load, net tons (kgf).

wL3

52AD 2

wL3

32AD 2

1.770AD

L

885AD

L

BEAM FORMULAS

67

Copyright 2004 The McGraw-Hill Companies. All rights reserved.

Any use is subject to the Terms of Use as given at the website.

Load uniformly distributed over span

Load concentrated at center of span

Two equal loads symmetrically concentrated

Load increasing uniformly to one end

Load increasing uniformly to center

Load decreasing uniformly to center

Conditions of loading

1.0

1

2

l/4c

0.974

3

4

3

2

Max relative

safe load

TABLE 2.3 Coefcients for Correcting Values in Table 2.2 for Various Methods

of Support and of Loading

0.976

0.96

1.08

1.0

0.80

Max relative

deection under

max relative safe

load

BEAM FORMULAS

68

Copyright 2004 The McGraw-Hill Companies. All rights reserved.

Any use is subject to the Terms of Use as given at the website.

4

8

3

8

l2/4a2

l/(l 4a)

5.83

l/4a

2.40

3.20

1.92

l length of beam; c distance from support to nearest concentrated load; a distance from support to end

of beam.

Load uniformly distributed over span

1. If distance a 0.2071l

2. If distance a 0.2071l

3. If distance a 0.2071l

Two equal loads concentrated at ends

Load uniformly distributed over span

Load concentrated at end

Load increasing uniformly to xed end

BEAM FORMULAS

69

Copyright 2004 The McGraw-Hill Companies. All rights reserved.

Any use is subject to the Terms of Use as given at the website.

BEAM FORMULAS

70

Downloaded from Digital Engineering Library @ McGraw-Hill (www.digitalengineeringlibrary.com)

Copyright 2004 The McGraw-Hill Companies. All rights reserved.

Any use is subject to the Terms of Use as given at the website.

BEAM FORMULAS

71

Downloaded from Digital Engineering Library @ McGraw-Hill (www.digitalengineeringlibrary.com)

Copyright 2004 The McGraw-Hill Companies. All rights reserved.

Any use is subject to the Terms of Use as given at the website.

BEAM FORMULAS

72

Downloaded from Digital Engineering Library @ McGraw-Hill (www.digitalengineeringlibrary.com)

Copyright 2004 The McGraw-Hill Companies. All rights reserved.

Any use is subject to the Terms of Use as given at the website.

BEAM FORMULAS

73

Downloaded from Digital Engineering Library @ McGraw-Hill (www.digitalengineeringlibrary.com)

Copyright 2004 The McGraw-Hill Companies. All rights reserved.

Any use is subject to the Terms of Use as given at the website.

BEAM FORMULAS

74

Downloaded from Digital Engineering Library @ McGraw-Hill (www.digitalengineeringlibrary.com)

Copyright 2004 The McGraw-Hill Companies. All rights reserved.

Any use is subject to the Terms of Use as given at the website.

BEAM FORMULAS

75

Downloaded from Digital Engineering Library @ McGraw-Hill (www.digitalengineeringlibrary.com)

Copyright 2004 The McGraw-Hill Companies. All rights reserved.

Any use is subject to the Terms of Use as given at the website.

BEAM FORMULAS

76

Downloaded from Digital Engineering Library @ McGraw-Hill (www.digitalengineeringlibrary.com)

Copyright 2004 The McGraw-Hill Companies. All rights reserved.

Any use is subject to the Terms of Use as given at the website.

BEAM FORMULAS

77

Downloaded from Digital Engineering Library @ McGraw-Hill (www.digitalengineeringlibrary.com)

Copyright 2004 The McGraw-Hill Companies. All rights reserved.

Any use is subject to the Terms of Use as given at the website.

BEAM FORMULAS

78

Downloaded from Digital Engineering Library @ McGraw-Hill (www.digitalengineeringlibrary.com)

Copyright 2004 The McGraw-Hill Companies. All rights reserved.

Any use is subject to the Terms of Use as given at the website.

BEAM FORMULAS

79

BEAM FORMULAS

Rolling and moving loads are loads that may change their

position on a beam or beams. Figure 2.18 shows a beam

with two equal concentrated moving loads, such as two

wheels on a crane girder, or the wheels of a truck on a

bridge. Because the maximum moment occurs where the

shear is zero, the shear diagram shows that the maximum

moment occurs under a wheel. Thus, with x a/2:

R1 P 1

M2

Pl

a

2x a

4x 2

1

2

2

l

l l

l

R2 P 1

M1

2x

a

l

l

Pl

2

2x

a

l

l

1 al 2al

2x 3a

4x 2

2

l l

l

M1 max when x 34a

M max

Pl

2

1

a

2l

P

2l

l

a

2

are equally distant on opposite sides of the center of the

beam. The moment is then equal under the two loads.

Copyright 2004 The McGraw-Hill Companies. All rights reserved.

Any use is subject to the Terms of Use as given at the website.

BEAM FORMULAS

FIGURE 2.19 Two equal moving loads equally distant on opposite sides of the center.

80

Downloaded from Digital Engineering Library @ McGraw-Hill (www.digitalengineeringlibrary.com)

Copyright 2004 The McGraw-Hill Companies. All rights reserved.

Any use is subject to the Terms of Use as given at the website.

BEAM FORMULAS

BEAM FORMULAS

81

If two moving loads are of unequal weight, the condition for maximum moment is the maximum moment occurring under the heavier wheel when the center of the beam

bisects the distance between the resultant of the loads and

the heavier wheel. Figure 2.20 shows this position and the

shear and moment diagrams.

When several wheel loads constituting a system are on a

beam or beams, the several wheels must be examined in

turn to determine which causes the greatest moment. The

position for the greatest moment that can occur under a given

Downloaded from Digital Engineering Library @ McGraw-Hill (www.digitalengineeringlibrary.com)

Copyright 2004 The McGraw-Hill Companies. All rights reserved.

Any use is subject to the Terms of Use as given at the website.

BEAM FORMULAS

82

CHAPTER TWO

bisects the distance between the wheel in question and the

resultant of all loads then on the span. The position for maximum shear at the support is when one wheel is passing off

the span.

CURVED BEAMS

The application of the flexure formula for a straight beam

to the case of a curved beam results in error. When all

fibers of a member have the same center of curvature,

the concentric or common type of curved beam exists

(Fig. 2.21). Such a beam is defined by the WinklerBach

theory. The stress at a point y units from the centroidal

axis is

S

M

AR

1 Z (Ry y)

M is the bending moment, positive when it increases curvature; y is positive when measured toward the convex side; A

is the cross-sectional area; R is the radius of the centroidal

axis; Z is a cross-section property dened by

Z

1

A

y

dA

Ry

in Table 2.4. Z can also be found by graphical integration

methods (see any advanced strength book). The neutral

surface shifts toward the center of curvature, or inside ber,

an amount equal to e ZR/(Z 1). The WinklerBach

Copyright 2004 The McGraw-Hill Companies. All rights reserved.

Any use is subject to the Terms of Use as given at the website.

Section

ln RR CC

2

Expression

Z 1

R C2

R

b ln

A

R C2

A 2 [(t b)C1 bC2]

Z 1

(t b) ln RR CC

R

t ln (R C1) (b t) ln (R C0) b ln (R C2)

A

and A tC1 (b t) C3 bC2

Rr Rr Rr 1

R

h

Z 1 2

Z 1

BEAM FORMULAS

83

Copyright 2004 The McGraw-Hill Companies. All rights reserved.

Any use is subject to the Terms of Use as given at the website.

BEAM FORMULAS

84

CHAPTER TWO

stresses as well as lateral deformations and assumes pure

bending. The maximum stress occurring on the inside ber

is S Mhi /AeRi, whereas that on the outside ber is S

Mh0 /AeR0.

The deection in curved beams can be computed by

means of the moment-area theory.

The resultant deection is then equal to 0 2x 2y

in the direction dened by tan y / x. Deections can

also be found conveniently by use of Castiglianos theorem.

It states that in an elastic system the displacement in the

direction of a force (or couple) and due to that force (or couple) is the partial derivative of the strain energy with respect

to the force (or couple).

A quadrant of radius R is xed at one end as shown in

Fig. 2.22. The force F is applied in the radial direction at

free-end B. Then, the deection of B is

Downloaded from Digital Engineering Library @ McGraw-Hill (www.digitalengineeringlibrary.com)

Copyright 2004 The McGraw-Hill Companies. All rights reserved.

Any use is subject to the Terms of Use as given at the website.

BEAM FORMULAS

85

BEAM FORMULAS

By moment area,

y R sin x R(1 cos )

ds Rd M FR sin

B x

FR 3

4EI

and B

FR3

2EI

B y

1

x tan 1

at

tan 1

FR 3

2EI

2

4

FR 3

4EI

2EI

FR 3

32.5

By Castigliano,

B x

FR3

4EI

B y

FR3

2EI

Downloaded from Digital Engineering Library @ McGraw-Hill (www.digitalengineeringlibrary.com)

Copyright 2004 The McGraw-Hill Companies. All rights reserved.

Any use is subject to the Terms of Use as given at the website.

BEAM FORMULAS

86

CHAPTER TWO

These beams (Fig. 2.23) are bounded by arcs having different centers of curvature. In addition, it is possible for either

radius to be the larger one. The one in which the section

depth shortens as the central section is approached may be

called the arch beam. When the central section is the

largest, the beam is of the crescent type.

Crescent I denotes the beam of larger outside radius and

crescent II of larger inside radius. The stress at the central

section of such beams may be found from S KMC/I.

In the case of rectangular cross section, the equation

becomes S 6KM/bh2, where M is the bending moment, b

is the width of the beam section, and h its height. The stress

factors, K for the inner boundary, established from photoelastic data, are given in Table 2.5. The outside radius

Downloaded from Digital Engineering Library @ McGraw-Hill (www.digitalengineeringlibrary.com)

Copyright 2004 The McGraw-Hill Companies. All rights reserved.

Any use is subject to the Terms of Use as given at the website.

BEAM FORMULAS

87

BEAM FORMULAS

(see Fig. 2.23)

1. For the arch-type beams

h

Ro Ri

if

Ro Ri

5

h

Ro Ri

h

10

if

5

Ro Ri

h

(c) In the case of larger section ratios use the equivalent beam

solution

(b) K 0.899 1.181

(a) K 0.570 1.536

h

Ro Ri

if

Ro Ri

2

h

h

Ro Ri

if

2

(c) K 1.092

R h R

Ro Ri

20

h

0.0298

Ro Ri

20

h

if

h

Ro Ri

(b) K 1.119

Ro Ri

8

h

R h R

if

8

R h R

if

Ro Ri

20

h

0.0378

(c) K 1.081

if

0.0270

Ro Ri

20

h

crescent beams is such that the stress can be larger in offcenter sections. The stress at the central section determined

above must then be multiplied by the position factor k,

Downloaded from Digital Engineering Library @ McGraw-Hill (www.digitalengineeringlibrary.com)

Copyright 2004 The McGraw-Hill Companies. All rights reserved.

Any use is subject to the Terms of Use as given at the website.

BEAM FORMULAS

88

CHAPTER TWO

surface shifts slightly toward the inner boundary. (See

Vidosic, Curved Beams with Eccentric Boundaries,

Transactions of the ASME, 79, pp. 13171321.)

When lateral buckling of a beam occurs, the beam undergoes a combination of twist and out-of-plane bending

(Fig. 2.24). For a simply supported beam of rectangular

cross section subjected to uniform bending, buckling occurs

at the critical bending moment, given by

Mcr

where

EIyGJ

E modulus of elasticity

Iy moment of inertial about minor axis

G shear modulus of elasticity

J torsional constant

bending stiffness EIy /L and the torsional stiffness of the

member GJ/L.

For the case of an open section, such as a wide-ange or

I-beam section, warping rigidity can provide additional torsional stiffness. Buckling of a simply supported beam of open

cross section subjected to uniform bending occurs at the

critical bending moment, given by

Copyright 2004 The McGraw-Hill Companies. All rights reserved.

Any use is subject to the Terms of Use as given at the website.

BEAM FORMULAS

89

BEAM FORMULAS

Mcr

EIy GJ ECw

2

L2

where Cw is the warping constant, a function of crosssectional shape and dimensions (Fig. 2.25).

In the preceding equations, the distribution of bending

moment is assumed to be uniform. For the case of a nonuniform bending-moment gradient, buckling often occurs at

(see Fig. 2.23)

Angle ,

degree

10

20

30

40

50

60

70

80

90

k

Inner

1 0.055 H/h

1 0.164 H/h

1 0.365 H / h

1 0.567 H / h

(0.5171 1.382 H/h)1/2

1.521

1.382

(0.2416 0.6506 H/h)1/2

1.756

0.6506

(0.4817 1.298 H/h)1/2

2.070

0.6492

(0.2939 0.7084 H/h)1/2

2.531

0.3542

Outer

1 0.03 H/h

1 0.10 H/h

1 0.25 H/h

1 0.467 H/h

1 0.733 H/h

1 1.123 H/h

1 1.70 H/h

1 2.383 H/h

1 3.933 H/h

Note: All formulas are valid for 0 H/h
0.325. Formulas for the inner

boundary, except for 40 degrees, may be used to H/h
0.36. H distance

between centers.

Copyright 2004 The McGraw-Hill Companies. All rights reserved.

Any use is subject to the Terms of Use as given at the website.

BEAM FORMULAS

90

CHAPTER TWO

(b) Elastic lateral buckling of the beam.

bending moment, Mcr may be obtained by multiplying Mcr

given by the previous equations by an amplication factor

M cr Cb Mcr

where Cb

12.5Mmax

2.5Mmax 3MA 4MB 3MC

Copyright 2004 The McGraw-Hill Companies. All rights reserved.

Any use is subject to the Terms of Use as given at the website.

BEAM FORMULAS

BEAM FORMULAS

91

A cross-sectional area; Ix moment of inertia about xx axis;

Iy moment of inertia about yy axis. (After McGraw-Hill, New

York). Bleich, F., Buckling Strength of Metal Structures.

unbraced beam segment

MA absolute value of moment at quarter point of

the unbraced beam segment

MB absolute value of moment at centerline of the

unbraced beam segment

MC absolute value of moment at three-quarter

point of the unbraced beam segment

Downloaded from Digital Engineering Library @ McGraw-Hill (www.digitalengineeringlibrary.com)

Copyright 2004 The McGraw-Hill Companies. All rights reserved.

Any use is subject to the Terms of Use as given at the website.

BEAM FORMULAS

92

CHAPTER TWO

where the moment within a signicant portion of the

unbraced segment is greater than, or equal to, the larger of

the segment end moments.

For short beams, subjected to both transverse and axial

loads, the stresses are given by the principle of superposition

if the deection due to bending may be neglected without

serious error. That is, the total stress is given with sufcient

accuracy at any section by the sum of the axial stress and

the bending stresses. The maximum stress, lb/in2 (MPa),

equals

f

where

P

Mc

A

I

P axial load, lb (N )

A cross-sectional area, in2 (mm2)

M maximum bending moment, in lb (Nm)

c distance from neutral axis to outermost ber at

the section where maximum moment occurs,

in (mm)

I moment of inertia about neutral axis at that

section, in4 (mm4)

axial load produces bending stresses that cannot be neglected, the maximum stress is given by

Downloaded from Digital Engineering Library @ McGraw-Hill (www.digitalengineeringlibrary.com)

Copyright 2004 The McGraw-Hill Companies. All rights reserved.

Any use is subject to the Terms of Use as given at the website.

BEAM FORMULAS

BEAM FORMULAS

f

93

P

c

(M Pd)

A

I

where d is the deection of the beam. For axial compression, the moment Pd should be given the same sign as M;

and for tension, the opposite sign, but the minimum value

of M Pd is zero. The deection d for axial compression

and bending can be closely approximated by

d

do

1 (P/Pc)

(mm); and Pc critical buckling load

2EI / L2, lb (N).

UNSYMMETRICAL BENDING

When a beam is subjected to loads that do not lie in a plane

containing a principal axis of each cross section, unsymmetrical bending occurs. Assuming that the bending axis of

the beam lies in the plane of the loads, to preclude torsion,

and that the loads are perpendicular to the bending axis, to

preclude axial components, the stress, lb/in2 (MPa), at any

point in a cross section is

f

where

Mx y

M x

y

Ix

Iy

in lb (Nm)

My bending moment about principal axis YY,

in lb (Nm)

Copyright 2004 The McGraw-Hill Companies. All rights reserved.

Any use is subject to the Terms of Use as given at the website.

BEAM FORMULAS

94

CHAPTER TWO

computed to YY axis, in (mm)

y distance from point to XX axis, in (mm)

Ix moment of inertia of cross section about XX,

in (mm4)

Iy moment of inertia about YY, in (mm4)

If the plane of the loads makes an angle with a principal

plane, the neutral surface forms an angle with the other

principal plane such that

tan

Ix

tan

Iy

ECCENTRIC LOADING

If an eccentric longitudinal load is applied to a bar in the

plane of symmetry, it produces a bending moment Pe,

where e is the distance, in (mm), of the load P from the

centroidal axis. The total unit stress is the sum of this

moment and the stress due to P applied as an axial load:

f

P

Pec

P

A

I

A

1 ecr

2

c distance from neutral axis to outermost ber, in

(mm)

Downloaded from Digital Engineering Library @ McGraw-Hill (www.digitalengineeringlibrary.com)

Copyright 2004 The McGraw-Hill Companies. All rights reserved.

Any use is subject to the Terms of Use as given at the website.

BEAM FORMULAS

BEAM FORMULAS

95

axis, in4 (mm4)

r radius of gyration I/A, in (mm)

Figure 2.1 gives values of the radius of gyration for several

cross sections.

If there is to be no tension on the cross section under

a compressive load, e should not exceed r 2/c. For a rectangular

section with width b, and depth d, the eccentricity, therefore, should be less than b/6 and d/6 (i.e., the load should

not be applied outside the middle third). For a circular cross

section with diameter D, the eccentricity should not exceed

D/8.

When the eccentric longitudinal load produces a deection too large to be neglected in computing the bending

stress, account must be taken of the additional bending

moment Pd, where d is the deection, in (mm). This deection may be closely approximated by

d

4eP/Pc

(1 P/Pc)

2EI/L2, lb (N).

If the load P, does not lie in a plane containing an axis

of symmetry, it produces bending about the two principal

axes through the centroid of the section. The stresses, lb/in2

(MPa), are given by

f

P

Pexcx

Peycy

A

Iy

Ix

ex eccentricity with respect to principal axis YY,

in (mm)

Downloaded from Digital Engineering Library @ McGraw-Hill (www.digitalengineeringlibrary.com)

Copyright 2004 The McGraw-Hill Companies. All rights reserved.

Any use is subject to the Terms of Use as given at the website.

BEAM FORMULAS

96

CHAPTER TWO

in (mm)

cx distance from YY to outermost ber, in (mm)

cy distance from XX to outermost ber, in (mm)

Ix moment of inertia about XX, in4 (mm4)

Iy moment of inertia about YY, in4 (mm4)

The principal axes are the two perpendicular axes through

the centroid for which the moments of inertia are a maximum or a minimum and for which the products of inertia

are zero.

AND NATURAL PERIODS OF VIBRATION

OF PRISMATIC BEAMS

Figure 2.26 shows the characteristic shape and gives constants for determination of natural circular frequency and

natural period T, for the rst four modes of cantilever,

simply supported, xed-end, and xed-hinged beams. To

obtain , select the appropriate constant from Fig. 2.26 and

multiply it by EI/wL4. To get T, divide the appropriate

constant by EI/wL4.

In these equations,

natural frequency, rad/s

W beam weight, lb per linear ft (kg per linear m)

L beam length, ft (m)

Downloaded from Digital Engineering Library @ McGraw-Hill (www.digitalengineeringlibrary.com)

Copyright 2004 The McGraw-Hill Companies. All rights reserved.

Any use is subject to the Terms of Use as given at the website.

FIGURE 2.26 Coefcients for computing natural circular frequencies and natural periods of vibration of

prismatic beams.

BEAM FORMULAS

97

Downloaded from Digital Engineering Library @ McGraw-Hill (www.digitalengineeringlibrary.com)

Copyright 2004 The McGraw-Hill Companies. All rights reserved.

Any use is subject to the Terms of Use as given at the website.

BEAM FORMULAS

98

CHAPTER TWO

I moment of inertia of beam cross section, in4 (mm4)

T natural period, s

To determine the characteristic shapes and natural periods for beams with variable cross section and mass, use the

Rayleigh method. Convert the beam into a lumped-mass

system by dividing the span into elements and assuming the

mass of each element to be concentrated at its center. Also,

compute all quantities, such as deection and bending moment,

at the center of each element. Start with an assumed characteristic shape.

]

Copyright 2004 The McGraw-Hill Companies. All rights reserved.

Any use is subject to the Terms of Use as given at the website.

tHA (xA xH) + tHB (xB xH) + tHO (xO xH) = 0 _____ (1)

tHA (yA yH) + tHB (yB yH) + tHO (yO yH) = 0 _____ (2)

tHA (zA zH) + tHB (zB zH) + tHO (zO zH) + PHY = 0 ____ (3)

- 2 tHA + 2 tHB = 0 ______ (1)

- 2.143 tHA 2.143 tHB 9.143 tHO = 0 ______ (2)

- 4.051 (tHA + tHB + tHO) 100 = 0 ______ (3)

From eqn (1): tHA = tHB

From eqn (2): -2 x 2.143 tHA = 9.143 tHO, ? tHA = -2.1332 tHO

From Eqn (3): - 4.051 (-2.1332 2.1332 1) tHO = 100, tHO = 7.5573

tHA = tHB = - 2.1332 x 7.5573 = 16.1213

THO = tHO LHO = 7.5573 x 10 = 75.57 kN

CHA, CHB = thrust in shear legs HA and HB

CHA = CHB = 16.1213 x 5 = 80.61 kN

10 CABLES AND ARCHES

10.1 Cables

Cable is a very efficient structural form as it is almost perfectly flexible. Cable has no

flexural and shear strength. It has also no resistance to thrust, hence, it carries loads by

simple tension only. Cable adjusts its shape to equilibrium link polygon of loads to which

it is subjected. A cable has a shape of catenary under its own weight. If a large point load

W compared to its own weight is applied to the cable its shape changes to two straight

segments. If W is small compared to its own weight the change in shape is insignificant

as shown in figure 10.1. From equilibrium point of view a small segment of horizontal

length dx shown in Fig.10.2 should satisfy two equations of equilibrium Fx = 0 and Fy

= 0. The cable maintains its equilibrium by changing its tension and slope that is shape.

One unknown cable tension T can not satisfy two equilibrium equations, hence, one

additional unknown of slope T is required. The cables are used in suspension and cable

stayed bridges, cable car systems, radio towers and guys in derricks and chimneys. By

assuming the shape of cable as parabolic, analysis is greatly simplified.

-26-

horizontal span L. Line joining supports makes angle v with horizontal. Therefore

elevation difference between supports is represented by L tan v as shown in Fig 10.3.

W =

W = W1 + W2 + ---- + Wi + ----- + Wn

i 1

a=

6Wi a i

, b

6W

6Wi b i

6W

B

B.

M = bW

B

M

B

RA = Vertical reaction at A =

RB = (W + H tan v -

- H tan v

M

B

Consider a point X on cable at horizontal coordinate x from A and vertical dip y from

chord.

X1 X2 = x tan v, XX2 = y, XX1 = (x tan v - y)

X

Since cable is assumed to be perfectly flexible the bending moment at any point of cable

is zero. Considering moment equilibrium of segment of cable on left of X the relation

between H, x and y is obtained which defines general cable theorem.

-27H (XX1) =

M - RA x

X

H (x tan v - y) =

M - (

M

B

- H tan v) x

Hy = M - M

X

L B

shown in Fig.10.3. Let VA be reaction at A and MX bending moment at section X at

coordinate x.

b

VA = W

L

MX = VAx -

M

B

M =

X

M

B

x-

M

X

Thus: Hy = MX

The general cable theorem therefore states that at any point on the cable subjected to

vertical loads, Hy the product of horizontal component of tension in cable and the vertical

dip of that point from cable chord is equal to the bending moment MX at the same

horizontal coordinate in a simply supported beam of same span as cable and subjected to

same vertical loading as the cable.

TA, TB = Tensions in cable at the supports

TA =

H 2 R 2A , TA = tan-1

RA

H

TB =

H 2 R 2B , TB = tan-1

RB

H

shown in Fig.10.4, then:

Hy = MX =

ZL

2

x-Z

x2

2

ZL2

Hh =

H=

L

and y = h the dip of cable.

2

ZL2

ZL2

ZL2

8h

Hy = MX

ZL2

8h

y=

y=

ZL

2

x-Z

x2

2

4h

x (L x)

L2

This is the equation of cable curve with respect to cable chord. The cable thus takes the

shape of parabola under the action of udl. The same equation is valid when chord is

horizontal as shown in Fig.10.5.

10.4 Length of cable with both ends at same level

S=

ds

1 dy

O dx

dx

dy

4h

= 2 (L 2x)

dx

L

1

2

16h 2

2

S = 1 2 L - 2x dx

O

L

8

S = L 1

3

h2

32

2

5

L

h4

L4

256 h 6

7 L6

......

-29-

8

S = L 1

3

h

1

d , only two terms are retained.

L 10

h2

L2

10.5 Example

A flexible cable weighing 1 N/m horizontally is suspended over a span of 40 m as shown

in Fig.10.6. It carries a concentrated load of 300 N at point P at horizontal coordinate 10

m from left hand support. Find dip at P so that tension in cable does not exceed 1000 N.

RA =

300 x 30 1 x 40 x 20

40

= 245 N

RB = (300 + 40 x 1) 245 = 95 N

RA + RB = 340 N = Total vertical load (ok)

Since RB RA, maximum tension will occur at A.

H 2 245 2 = 1000

H = 970 N

Considering segment left of P, the clockwise moment at P is computed and set to zero

since cable is flexible.

MP = RA x 10 Hh 10 x 5 = 2450 970 h 50 = 2400 970 h = 0

h=

2400

= 2.474 m.

970

10.6. Arches

An arch is a curved beam circular or parabolic in form supported at its ends and is

subjected to inplane loading. The internal forces developed in the arch are axial force,

shear force and bending moment. Depending upon number of hinges the arches are

-30-

classified as (1) three hinged arch (2) two hinged arch (3) single hinged arch and (4) fixed

arch as shown in figures 10.7 to 10.10. A three hinged arch is statically determinate. The

remaining three are statically indeterminate to first, second and third degree respectively.

Here only determinate three hinged arch will be considered.

Arch under vertical point loads shown in figure 10.11 is a three hinged arch subjected to

vertical loads W1 to Wn. The reactions developed at the supports are shown. It may be

noted that moment at the hinge at C in the arch is zero, hence, horizontal component of

reaction can be computed from this condition.

RA =

b6W

a6W

, RB =

, W = W1 + .. + Wn

L

L

M = RA

C

b6W

L

H=

L

- Hh

2

M

C

M = Counter clockwise moment about C of all applied vertical loads acting left of C

C

At any point P on the arch as shown in Fig.10.12, the internal forces Fx,Fy and Mz can

easily be computed as explained previously. From Fx and Fy shear force and thrust in the

arch can be computed.

T = Slope of arch axis at P.

V = Shear at P

C = Thrust at P

M = Bending moment at P

M = Mz

V = Fy cos T - Fx Sin T

C = - Fy Sin T - Fx cos T

The three hinged arch under udl is shown in Fig.10.13.

The equation of axis of arch is:

4h

x (L x)

L2

y=

RA = RB =

ZL

2

RA

ZL L

L

- Hh =0

2

2 4

H=

1 ZL2 ZL2

h 8

4

ZL2

8h

Mx =

ZL

2

ZL

2

ZL

ZL2

x -

2

8h

x-

x-

Zx 2

2

Zx 2

2

Zx 2

y 2

ZL2 4h

x (L - x)

2

8h L

ZLx

2

Zx 2

2

=0

10.8. Example

A three hinged parabolic arch of 20 m span and 4 m central rise as shown in Fig.10.14

carries a point load of 40 kN at 4 m horizontally from left support. Compute BM, SF and

AF at load point. Also determine maximum positive and negative bending moments in

the arch and plot the bending moment diagram.

-32y=

4h

4x4

x (L x) =

x (20 x)

2

400

L

y=

x

(20 x)

25

RB =

4

16

x 40 = 8 kN, RA =

x 40 = 32 kN

20

20

MC = 0, 4H = 32 x 10 40 x 6 = 80, H = 20 kN

0 dxd 4m

Mx = 32 x 20

x

4 2

(20 x) = 16 x +

x

25

5

x = 4, Mx = 16 x 4 +

4 x 16

= 76.8 kNm

5

4 m d x d 20 m

Mx = 32 x 20

x

4 2

(20 x) 40 (x 4) = 160 24 x +

x

25

5

x = 10, Mx = 160 240 + 80 = 0

x = 15, Mx = 160 24 x 15 +

4

x 225 = - 20 kNm

5

x = 20, Mx = 0 (ok)

The bending moment diagram is parabolic as shown in Fig.10.15.

11. INFLUENCE LINES FOR DETERMINATE STRUCTURES

An influence line is a graph or curve showing the variation of any function such as

reaction, bending moment, shearing farce, axial force, torsion moment, stress or stress

resultant and displacement at a given section or point of structure, as a unit load acting

parallel to a given direction crosses the structure. The influence line gives the value of the

function at only one point or section of the structure and at no other point. A separate

influence line is to be drawn for the function at any other point.

- Extended AbstractUploaded byafegao2
- A Critical Comparative Study of is 800-2007andis 800-1984-2Uploaded byIAEME Publication
- Zicks FormulaUploaded byJoann Du
- NAME 481 Course OutlineUploaded byMauricio Gomes de Barros
- art%3A10.1007%2Fs40940-016-0008-3Uploaded byatalayy
- Strengthening of web opening in non-compact steel girdersUploaded byIOSRjournal
- C Section M312-Report1Uploaded bySreejit Pillai
- Design of Timber Structures 3 2016Uploaded byGregor
- Discussion Design Example for Beams With Web OpeningsUploaded byrmartinson8
- ZICKUploaded bysohelpanwala
- Design of Steel Structure beamUploaded byShahrah Man
- 306820930 SN017 NCCI Shear Resistance of a Fin Plate ConnectionUploaded byDJordje Jovanovic
- 5-UnrestrainedBeamUploaded bybsitler
- ICE PAPER Biaxial Bending of RC BeamUploaded byMARK Ho
- Efect of BrazierUploaded byAngiesGarcia
- Beam-Columns AISC Summary BEAM COLUMNSUploaded bySaleem Malik
- A comparative study of static and response spectrum analysis of a rc buildingUploaded byRiliToma
- 100-s67Uploaded byNacho
- 4 BeamsUploaded byNilesh Balkrishna Sunita Apte
- Report ConnectionUploaded bytuong bui
- Superslim Technical InformationUploaded byWai Wai Lee
- Experiments on Castellated Steel BeamsUploaded byLuiz Flávio Vieira Brant
- Simplified Structural Analysis of Steel Portal Frames Developed From Structural OptimizationUploaded byHarjasa Adhi
- Title Page and ContentsUploaded byMuhammad Rizwan
- Design of Beam Column [Compatibility Mode]Uploaded bySérgio Moraes
- Shear Force & Bending MomentUploaded byAhmed Elqazaz
- RidhamUploaded byRidham Arora
- Stability of Steel Structure Chapter 2Uploaded bySilviuGC
- Bruhn + Supplement.pdfUploaded byCraig Swenson
- Beam Design of Reinforced ConcreteUploaded byAmanda Smith

- Stokes_Law.pdfUploaded bymartim_martins
- 481552Uploaded byAn Zamb
- harmonic pattern by jay purohitUploaded byNickKr
- Test Q&AUploaded byEngr.Mmosaad
- Tutorial_13_Rapid_Drawdown.pdfUploaded bybycm
- 2016 Seismic assessment of guyed towers A casestudy combining ﬁeld measurements and pushover analysis.pdfUploaded byAhmed Taha
- Advanced Pattern Cumulative Test-1 SolutionsUploaded byAAVANI
- r05410410 Data Base Management SystemsUploaded byandhracolleges
- 5 IJAEST Volume No 1 Issue No 1 Analysis of ion Buckling and Post Buckling of Composite Structure by Generalized Differential Quadrature Method (GDQM)Uploaded byiserp
- Physics of Music - NotesUploaded byadrisor1409
- Petri NetUploaded byArthur_Kerr90
- Results GraphUploaded byHomero Castilla
- Invited Lecture IEEE_PES dr Zeljko Despotovic dipl.ingUploaded byDr Zeljko Despotovic
- Back propagation in NNUploaded byShubham
- CHAP09 Finitely Generated Abelian GroupsUploaded byDaniél Cárdenas
- 31380081_SF_2012-02 - CopyUploaded byHassan Muhammad Tunde
- Determination water gas shift reaction.pdfUploaded byStephen Nichols
- ZoquiapanUploaded byJose Luis Atriano Mendoza
- IJCIS 020405Uploaded byijcisjournal
- 2946-2951-1-PBUploaded byxolbix
- EvolutionGranSynth_9Jun06Uploaded byjfk
- elementary Linear AlgebraUploaded byPhani Krishna
- Curriculum 2013 MTech VLSIUploaded byVenkat Ramanan
- Nakod PaperUploaded byRuddy Perez
- Sixteen Quality Indicators 2000Uploaded byPencho Mihnev
- Standpipe PressureUploaded byRagha Rag
- Mobile and Wireless Communication Complete Lecture Notes #3Uploaded byStudent Lecture Notes
- String rUploaded bylinkranjit
- Cubical Homology in Digital ImagesUploaded bySEP-Publisher
- Ebay Inc Sample Programming Placement Paper Level1Uploaded byplacementpapersample