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AUGMENTATION OF MUSCLE

POWER

Prepared by:
Avinash Kumar

-1411MT03

Krishna Kanhaiya -1411MT05


Llewellyn Dsa

-1411MT06

Priteem R. Behera -1411MT09


Rahul Kumar Singh -1411MT10

Objective
To prepare a wearable robotic model to augment human muscle power.

In this project we need to develop an exoskeleton model.


This is a powered exoskeleton which helps people during normal walking motion.
It is helpful for those whose muscle strength has reduced or are unable to walk
properly.

Basic Model

Figure showing placement of motors

A total of 4 servo-motors are placed at hip-joint and knee-joint of both legs.


Rotary potentiometers were placed along with the motors.
The motors are driven by controller, which is placed in a back-pack attached with the
rest of the structure.
The power supply is also placed in the back-pack.

Control Algorithm
The start and stop phase of walking cycle are decided by a motion sensor placed at the waist
portion.

Figure showing working of motion sensors

MOTION SENSORS
There are various motion sensors available, among which one of them is shown below. PIR
sensors allow us to sense motion, almost always used to detect whether a human has
moved in or out of the sensors range. They are small, inexpensive, low-power, easy to use
and don't wear out. For that reason they are commonly found in appliances and gadgets
used in homes or businesses. They are often referred to as PIR, "Passive Infrared",
"Pyroelectric", or "IR motion" sensors.

Figure showing Motion sensors


Control of WALK CYCLE
The analysis of gait cycle gives us insight of the control for the walk cycle.

Sign convention of walk cycle

Angle and torque sign conventions. Each joint angle is measured as the positive
counterclockwise displacement of the distal link from the proximal link (zero in the standing
position).

Calculated values of knee and hip joint


Here [14], [15] and [16] are different sets of data.
1. HIP JOINT

2. KNEE JOINT

Calculations
Let us consider the following biped model shown:

L1
1

L2
2

Let r be the position vector of the CG of the link L1 .


So

= ++
Where , , are functions of time . Upon differentiation we get the velocity and
acceleration

= + +

= + +

1 = 1 /2(1 + 1 )
1
1 = (1 1 )
2
1
1 = (1 1 )
2

The values of 1 are substituted from the plots already available from the
literatures.

Procedure

Based on the calculated values of torque in the same time diagram each of the four
motors will be subjected to corresponding torque values by the controller.
The controller varies the acceleration for the knee joint which is moving forward. As
that is the only joint which has variable acceleration corresponding to other joints.
The required knee torque has both positive and negative components, indicating the need for a
bidirectional actuator. The highest peak torque is extension in early stance (~60 Nm); hence,
symmetric actuators should be biased to provide greater extension torque.

Flow Chart
Start

Motion Sensor

No Action

No change

Sensor
Data
Forward

Start walking
Cycle

Continue until
sensor data is
changed

Backward

Bring all motors to


home position

Controller design
In this case we would like to control both the position of the motors and force applied by
the motors. For this we need hybrid controller which takes both position and force as its
parameters.

Where
J = Jacobian Matrix
S = Switching Matrix
Xd = desired position
fd = desired force

References
1. Biomechanical Design of the Berkeley Lower Extremity Exoskeleton
(BLEEX)
Adam B. Zoss, H. Kazerooni, Member, IEEE, and Andrew Chu
2. Hybrid Position Force Control: A Correct Formulation
Dr. William D. Fisher, Dr. M. Shahid Mujtaba
Measurement & Manufacturing Systems Laboratory
HPL-91-140
October, 1991
3. www.indego.com