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Minerals

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Approximately 4% of the body's mass consists of Minerals


(McArdle et al. 2000)[2]. They are classified as trace minerals
(body requires less than 100 mg/day), and major minerals (body
requires more than 100 mg/day).

Trace Minerals
The trace minerals are iron, zinc, copper, selenium, iodine,
fluorine and chromium.

Major Minerals
The major minerals are sodium, potassium, calcium, phosphorus,
magnesium, manganese, sulphur, cobolt and chlorine.

Function
Minerals serve three roles (McArdle et al. 2000)[2]:

They provide structure in forming bones and teeth


They help maintain normal heart rhythm, muscle
contractility, neural conductivity, and acid-base balance
They help regulate cellular metabolism by becoming part
of enzymes and hormones that modulate cellular activity

Daily Requirements
Minerals cannot be made in the body and must be obtained in our
diet. The daily requirements of minerals required by the body can
be obtained from a well balanced diet but, like vitamins, excess
minerals can produce toxic effects.
The recommended daily requirements of minerals for men,
women are shown in the table below (NHS Direct Online 2007)[1].
Minerals

Calcium

Men

700mg

Women

700mg

Sources
milk, cheese
and other dairy
foods green
leafy
vegetables,
such as
broccoli,
cabbage and
okra, but not
spinach, soya

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Sports

beans, tofu,
soya drinks
with added
calcium, nuts,
bread and
anything made
with fortified
flour, fish
where you eat
the bones,
such as
sardines and
pilchards
Iodine

Iron

0.14mg

8.7mg

0.14mg

sea fish and


shellfish,
cereals, grains

14.8mg

liver, meat,
beans, nuts,
dried fruit,
such as dried
apricots,
wholegrains,
such as brown
rice, fortified
breakfast
cereals,
soybean flour,
most darkgreen leafy
vegetables,
such as
watercress and
curly kale

Betacarotene

7mg

7mg

yellow and
green (leafy)
vegetables,
such as
spinach,
carrots and red
peppers, yellow
fruit such as
mango, melon
and apricots

Boron

<6mg

<6mg

green
vegetables,
fruit, nuts

Chromium

0.025mg

0.025mg

meat,
wholegrains,
such as

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wholemeal
bread and
whole oats,
lentils, spices

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Track & Field

Cobalt

fish, nuts,
green leafy
vegetables,
such as
0.0015mg 0.0015mg
broccoli and
spinach,
cereals, such
as oats

Copper

1.2mg

Magnesium 300mg

Manganese <0.5mg

Phosphorus 550mg

1.2mg

nuts, shellfish,
offal

270mg

nuts, spinach,
bread, fish,
meat, dairy
foods

<0.5mg

tea, bread,
nuts, cereals,
green
vegetables
such as peas
and runner
beans

550mg

red meat, dairy


foods, fish,
poultry, bread,
rice, oats

Potassium

3,500mg

3,500mg

fruit such as
bananas,
vegetables,
pulses, nuts
and seeds,
milk, fish,
shellfish, beef,
chicken,
turkey, bread

Selenium

0.075mg

0.06mg

brazil nuts,
bread, fish,
meat, eggs

<6g

ready meals,
meat products,
such as bacon,
some breakfast
cereals,
cheese, some
tinned

Sodium
chloride
(salt)

<6g

vegetables,
some bread,
savoury snacks

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Zinc

9mg

7mg

meat, shellfish,
milk, dairy
foods, such as
cheese, bread,
cereal
products, such
as wheat germ.

Vitamin and mineral interactions


Many vitamins and minerals interact, working alongside each
other in groups e.g. a good balance of vitamin D, calcium,
phosphorus, magnesium, zinc, fluoride, chloride, manganese,
copper and sulphur is required for healthy bones.
Many of them can enhance or impair another vitamin or mineral's
absorption and functioning e.g. an excessive amount of iron can
cause a deficiency in zinc.

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Referenced Material
1. NHS Direct Online (2007) Vitamins and Minerals [WWW]
Available from: http://www.nhs.uk/Conditions/vitaminsminerals/Pages/vitamins-minerals.aspx [Accessed
08/08/2007]
2. McARDLE, W.D. et al. (2000) Micronutrints and Water. In:
McARDLE, W.D. et al., 2nd ed. Essentials of Exercise
Physiology,USA: Lippincott Williams and Wilkins, p. 75

Associated References
The following references provide additional information on this
topic:

SOETANo, K. O. et al. (2010) The importance of mineral


elements for humans, domestic animals and plants: A
review. African Journal of Food Science, 4 (5), p. 200-222
WALL, T. (2012) Natures Power: The Importance of
Minerals in a Healthy Diet. Xlibris Corporation

Page Reference
The reference for this page is:

MACKENZIE, B. (2001) Minerals [WWW] Available from:


http://www.brianmac.co.uk/minerals.htm

[Accessed 27/11/2014]

Associated Pages
The following Sports Coach pages should be read in conjunction
with this page:

Articles on Physiology
Protein
Vitamins

Additional Sources of Information


For further information on this topic see the following:

BEASHEL, P. & TAYLOR, J. (1996) Advan