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ALLOY

1. What means alloy?


2. What is the purpose in making alloy?
i)
ii)
iii)
3. Examples of alloy and their component.
Alloy

Composition

Brass
Bronze

Uses
Making musical instruments, kitchenware

90% copper, 10% tin

Steel
Stainless
steel

Making cutlery,surgical instruments

Duralumin
Pewter

4. Experiment
a)Aim: To compare the hardness of a pure metal and its alloy
Observation: Diameter of dent on the copper block is bigger than the diameter of dent on
the bronze block.
Inference:
1.The Copper is __________ than bronze.
2.Bronze is alloy made from copper and tin. The presence of tin atoms disturb the _________
___________ of copper atoms. So the layers of copper now no longer _________ _________ over
one another.
Conclusion:
Bronze (alloy) is harder than copper ( pure metal).

b)Aim: To compare the rusting resistance of a pure metal and its alloy
Type of nail

Observation

Inference

iron nail

A lot of blue spots is formed around the


iron nail

rusting occur

steel nail

A little blue spots is formed around the


steel nail

a little rusting occur

stainless steel
nail

No blue spots is formed around the


stainless steel nail

no rusting

1.The stainless steel has the ________ rusting resistance and it does not rusted.
Conclusion:
Stainless steel has highest rusting resistance, followed by steel, the iron(pure metal) has the
lowest rusting resistance.

5. Structure of pure metal and alloy

Copper

Synthetic polymer
1. What means polymer?
2. Polymers can be divided into two:
naturally polymers and synthetic polymers
3. Examples of naturally polymers:
4. Examples of synthetic polymers:
5. Monomer for polymers
i) polythene
ii)polypropene iii)polyvinyl chloride-

bronze

Glass and Ceramics


1. Component of glass
Glass

Ceramic

Component

silica or silicon dioxide , SiO2.

Properties
(similarities)

(a) hard but brittle


(b) Chemically inert and does not
corrode
(c) Good insulator of electricity
and heat
(d) Resist compression
i)Transparent
ii)Melt when heated
a) borosilicate glass

kaolinite
(hydrated aluminosilicate,
Al2O3.2SiO2.2H2O)
(a) hard but brittle
(b) Chemically inert and does not
corrode
(c) Good insulator of electricity
and heat
(d) Resist compression
i)opaque
ii)withstand high temperature and
do not melt easily
a) tiles

b)fused glass

b)cements

c)soda-lime glass

c)bricks

d)lead crystal glass

d)porcelain

Differences
Types

Composite Materials
1. What is composite material?
2.Types of composite material

How it
produced?

Properties
(similaritie
s)

Reinforced
concrete
Concrete
reinforced with
steel wires, steel
bars or any
polymer fibres

Superconducto
r
Alloys or
ceramics of
metal oxide

Fibre Optic

High-rise
buildings,
bridges, oil
platforms

-bullet train
-transfomers
-generators

Able to
transmit
data,
voice and

Bundle of
glass or
plastic
thread
which
surrounde
d by a
glass
cladding

Fibre
Glass
Glass
fibres
used to
reinforce
plastic

Make
storage
tank,
badminto

Photochro
mic Glass
Embedding
silver
chloride
crystals in
glass or
transparen
t polymers
*becomes
transparen
t when the
light dims
& darken
when
exposed to
light
Optical
lenses, car
windshield,
smart

Difference
s

-cheap
Easily moulded
and shaped

-low power
dissipation
-high speed
operation
High sensitivity

image in
digital
format
Use to
replace
copper
wire in
long
distance
telephone
lines,mobil
e
phones,vid
eo camera
etc

n racket, energy
small
boat, skin
and
helmets

-low
material
cost
-high
transmissi
on
capacity
-chemical
stability
-less
susceptibl
e

High
tensile
strength
Can be
made
into thin
layers
Easily
moulded
and
shaped