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# Lecture Notes from the Series of Classes on Metal Forming Technology at Oakland University

## 1. Theory of Plasticity 9. Mechanics of Metal Forming 9. Advanced Metal Forming

L. M. Smith, Ph.D. L8SMITH@oakland.edu

## Chapter 9: Theory of Plasticity Overview

Engineering Strain: e =
where:

L f Lo

Lo

L
Lo

(9.1)

## L is the length change

L f is the final length
L0 is the initial length

## True Normal Strain: =

dL
L

Lf
1

ln
ln
ln
dL
L
L
=

=
f
o
L
Lo
Lo

Lf

(9.2)

L + L
= ln o
= ln (1 + e )
Lo

(9.3)

A
True Normal Strain: = ln o
Af

(9.4)

## The engineering normal stress may be defined as

Engineering Nornmal Stress: S =

P
Ao

(9.5)

## where: P is the applied force

Ao is the initial cross section area
The true normal stress is given as
True Normal Stress:

P
Af

(9.6)

## where: Af is the current or final cross section area

Equating the force, P (in 9.5 and 9.6) leads to

=S

Lf
L + L
Ao
=S
= S o
= S (1 + e)
Lo
Af
Lo

(9.7)

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Lecture Notes from the Series of Classes on Metal Forming Technology at Oakland University
1. Theory of Plasticity 9. Mechanics of Metal Forming 9. Advanced Metal Forming
L. M. Smith, Ph.D. L8SMITH@oakland.edu

The hardening curve or flow stress may be modeled via a number a different
expressions.
Power Law:

= K n

(9.8)

= K o +

(9.9)

## Four additional idealization of the stress-strain response are shown below.

Rigid-Perfectly Plastic

Elastic-Perfectly Plastic

## When the yield strength in tension is not equal to that in compression,

then the Bauschinger effect is said exist.

## One model for including Strain Rate Effects:

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= K n& m

(9.10)

Lecture Notes from the Series of Classes on Metal Forming Technology at Oakland University
1. Theory of Plasticity 9. Mechanics of Metal Forming 9. Advanced Metal Forming
L. M. Smith, Ph.D. L8SMITH@oakland.edu

11 12 13

ij = 21 22 23
31 32 33

Stress Tensor:

(9.11)

## Mohrs Circle for Transformation:

Center, C =

+ y

(9.12)

x
y

2

2
2
+ xy

(9.13)

m
~
Hydrostatic (or spherical) stress tensor: H = 0
0
1
m = xx + yy + zz
where:
3

m
0

0
0
m

(9.14)

## Deviatoric (or distortional):

XX m

~ D = yx
zx

1 u v
Small Strain : ij = +
2 y x
1 u w
2 z + x

1 u v
+
2 y x
v
y
1 v w
+
2 z y

xy
xz

yy m
yz (9.15)
zy
zz m

1 u w
+
2 z x
xx
1 v w
+ = yx
2 z y

w
zx

xy
yy
zy

xz

yz
zz

## For strain transformation analysis, the following substitutions may be made:

70

Lecture Notes from the Series of Classes on Metal Forming Technology at Oakland University
1. Theory of Plasticity 9. Mechanics of Metal Forming 9. Advanced Metal Forming
L. M. Smith, Ph.D. L8SMITH@oakland.edu

where:

and

(9.16)

xy

u v
+
y x

xz

w u
+
x z

yz

w v
+
y z

## and is called the engineering shear strain

For elastic, deformation of isotropic materials, Poissons ratio may be
defined as follows:

y
z
=
x
x

1
x ( y + z )
E
1
y = y ( z + x )
E
1
z = z ( x + y )
E
xy = G xy

x =

(9.17)

(9.18a)

(9.18b)

(9.18c)
(9.18d)

yz = G

yz

(9.18e)

xz = G

xz

(9.18f)

where:

## E is the elastic modulus (Youngs modulus)

G is the shear modulus (Modulus of Rigidity)

## Adding (9.18a), (9.18b) and (9.18c) yields

xx +

yy

+ zz =

1 2
1 2
xx + yy + zz =
3 m
E
E

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Lecture Notes from the Series of Classes on Metal Forming Technology at Oakland University
1. Theory of Plasticity 9. Mechanics of Metal Forming 9. Advanced Metal Forming
L. M. Smith, Ph.D. L8SMITH@oakland.edu

## Accordingly, the applied pressure is related to the change in volume as

follows.

xx

(9.19)

+ yy + zz K = m
where the bulk modulus, K =

E
3(1 2 )

The elastic strain energy, U, is the energy associated with the deformation
of an elastic body. Energy (or work) is equal to the applied force multiplied
by the distance over which the applied force acts. The elastic strain energy
can be determined by calculating the area under the load-deformation curve.
Since the load varies linearly with the deformation, U is simply defined as

U=

1
P
2

(P = load, = deflection)

(9.20)

For an elemental cube subject only to a tensile stress along the x axis, the
elastic strain energy is given by

dU =

1
1
1
Pdu = (A)(dx) = ( )( Adx)
2
2
2

The strain energy per unit volume (or strain energy density) is given, by

Uo =

1
12 1 2
=
= E
2
2 E
2

(9.21)

## Similarly, the U o due to shear action is given by

Uo =

1
12 1 2
=
= G
2
2 G 2

(9.22)

For a full three-dimensional case, the elastic strain energy density is given
as
1
U o = x x + y y + z z + xy xy + yz yz + zx zx
(9.23)
2

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Lecture Notes from the Series of Classes on Metal Forming Technology at Oakland University
1. Theory of Plasticity 9. Mechanics of Metal Forming 9. Advanced Metal Forming
L. M. Smith, Ph.D. L8SMITH@oakland.edu

## The ratio of width-strain ( w ) to thickness-strain ( t ) is defined to be the

normal anisotropy ratio.
Normal Anisotropy Ratio =

w
t

## The following notation is enforced.

Normal anisotropy ratio at = 0 degrees:
Normal anisotropy ratio at = 45 degrees:
Normal anisotropy ratio at = 90 degrees:

R0
R45
R90

R + 2R + R
45
90
R= 0
4

max

min

=Y

(9.24)

1
2

2
2
+ + = 2Y 2
2
3
3
1

(9.25)

## Hill 1948 with in-plane anisotropy

2
2
R R x y + R y z + R ( z x )2 +
0 90
0
90

2 = R 1 + R X 2
2R
+ 1 R + R R xy

45 0
90 90
90
0

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(9.26a)

Lecture Notes from the Series of Classes on Metal Forming Technology at Oakland University
1. Theory of Plasticity 9. Mechanics of Metal Forming 9. Advanced Metal Forming
L. M. Smith, Ph.D. L8SMITH@oakland.edu

## Hill 1948 with in-plane isotropy

2
2
2
R + + = ( R + 1)Y 2
1
2
2
3
3
1

(9.26b)

## Through both experimental observations and polycrystal plasticity analysis,

it has been shown that the Hill 48 model tends to overestimate the effect
of the R-value. Another model, Hosford 1979, offers the advantage of being
able to capture the effect of the R-value more accurately.
Hosford 1979 with even-integer exponent and anisotropy

a
Ro R90 1 2 + R90 1a + R0 a2 = R90 R0 + 1 X a

(9.27a)

## Hosford 1979 with even-integer exponent and in-plane isotropy

a
R 1 2 + 1a + a2 = ( R + 1) X a

## Effective Strain (von Mises):

(9.27b)

(1 + )
= d =
1+ 2

d 1
1
2

(9.28)

Effective Stress: Most often defined via the yield stress model as shown in
class.
Flow Rule: d i =
where:

F
d
i

(9.29)

## F = stress potential function

d = magnitude

74

Lecture Notes from the Series of Classes on Metal Forming Technology at Oakland University
1. Theory of Plasticity 9. Mechanics of Metal Forming 9. Advanced Metal Forming
L. M. Smith, Ph.D. L8SMITH@oakland.edu

F
= direction of the plastic strain increment
i
If F is defined in terms of the yield function, then (9.29) is said to be the
associated flow rule.
From the flow rule: =
where:

2 1
2

(9.30)

d
, 3 and = 2
1
1
d 1
1

## Figure 9.2: Kinematic hardening illustration. The yield surface

translates in the direction of the plastic strain increment.

## Figure 9.3: Isotropic hardening illustration. The yield surface

increases in size in proportion to the plastic strain increment.

75

Lecture Notes from the Series of Classes on Metal Forming Technology at Oakland University
1. Theory of Plasticity 9. Mechanics of Metal Forming 9. Advanced Metal Forming
L. M. Smith, Ph.D. L8SMITH@oakland.edu

[(

2
1 +

where:

and

1 + ( )

1 + 2 C + C

2
1

1
C + C ( 1) 2
2
1

1
2
1

(9.31)

C = 2 , C = 2R
1 R +1
2 R +1

2 + C + C (1 )
2
1
=
2+C
2

or

2 C 2 C1
2 C 2 C1

=
1
1 + 2

1 + ( ) K
n

1 1+n 1

C + C 1 2
2
1

= K n
1

## In-class discussion of geometric vs. material effects in hardening, diffuse

necking, local necking, instability, UTS, yield, instability strain, effect of nvalue, imperfections.

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