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Education Department's Sanction Number :

Pra Shi Sa/2008-09/Manjuri 404 (44)/2297 Dated 8.4.2008

GEOGRAPHY
STANDARD SEVEN

First Edition : 2008


Third Reprint : 2011

Maharashtra State Bureau of Textbook Production


and Curriculum Research, Pune - 411004

Board of Editors for Geography :


Dr. S. R. Jog
Dr. Omprakash Shapurkar
Smt Vidya Pethe
Prof. Prasad Joshi
Smt Nivedita Kulkarni
Smt Preeti Oswal
R. J. Jadhav

All rights of the book rest with the Maharashtra


State Bureau of Textbook Production and
Curriculum Research. No part of this book should be
reproduced without the written permission of the
Director Maharashtra State Bureau of Textbook
Production and Curriculum Research Pune.

Convenor and Special officer


for Geography
Illustrations :
Shri Sahil Upalekar
Shri Anand Mande
Maps :
Shri R. J. Jahav
Co-ordination :
R. J. Jadhav
Special officer for Geography
V. S. Bansode
Subject Assistant, Geography

Preface
This book is for standard seven studentswho are
studying in Maharashtra State board Education. This
book will help student to get knowledge about world
and different countries in world and states in India.
This book is for standard seven studentswho are
studying in Maharashtra State board Education. This
book will help student to get knowledge about world
and different countries in world and states in India.
This book is for standard seven studentswho are
studying in Maharashtra State board Education. This
book will help student to get knowledge about world
and different countries in world and states in India.
This book is for standard seven studentswho are
studying in Maharashtra State board Education. This
book will help student to get knowledge about world
and different countries in world and states in India.

Translation :
Co-ordination :
Shri Sachchitanand Aphale,
Chif production officer
Shri Vinod Gawade,Production officer This book is for standard seven studentswho are
Smt Mitali Shitap, Production
studying in Maharashtra State board Education. This
Assistant
book will help student to get knowledge about world
and different countries in world and states in India.
Type setting :
Mudra Vibhag, Textbook Bureau, This book is for standard seven studentswho are
Pune.
studying in Maharashtra State board Education. This
book will help student to get knowledge about world
Paper: 70 G.S.M. Creamwove
and different countries in world and states in India.
Print Order Number, :N/PTG/2011-12
(150)
Printer:
Ajanta
Art
Printers,
Hydrabad. A.P.
Publisher :
Shri Vivek Uttam Gosavi,
Controller,
Maharashtra State Textbook Bureau
Sayani Road, Prabhadevi
Mumbai - 400 025

Contents
1. The Universe ....................................................................................................................................... 7
The Sky ................................................................................................................................................ 7
A Light Year ......................................................................................................................................... 7
Space ................................................................................................................................................... 8
The Universe ....................................................................................................................................... 9
Exercises : ............................................................................................................................................ 9

1. The Universe
The Sky
If we observe the clear sky in night
from an open ground, we see innumerable
stars against a dark background. It is hard to
imagine their distance from us or the distance
among them. The stars do not remain visible
during daytime, but we see clouds against a
blue background. At the time of dawn and
twilight, the same background appears to
have a yellow or reddish colour. This
background that appears like a vault is called
the sky.

express such distances, scientists have


devised a new unit. Light is the fastest
travelling thing known to us. Its speed is
around 300,000 km per second. What will be
the distance covered by the light if it travels
continuously from its source for a period of
one year? To find it, we will have to make
some calculations. These are given in the
table in this chapter.
In short, a ray of light within a year,
will cover a distance of 946080 core
kilometres. This entire distance has been
considered as a unit by scientist. It named as
light year. Remember a light year is unit of
measuring distance. One light year means a
distance of 9,46,080 core kilometres.
This distance also can be expressed in
smaller units such alight hours, light minutes
or light seconds. You will understand this from
the following example.
The sun is 1500 lakh kilometres away from
earth. The distance between earth and the
moon is 3,34,400 km. Can we express this
distance in terms of light years? Try to do this
and check if your answers tally with the
following.
The distance between sun and earth is 8.3
light minutes. This can be worked out as
follows:

Figure 1.1 The Sky

A Light Year
The stars that we see in the sky are at
immense distance from one another. Even
units like millions or billions of kilometres
prove to be inadequate to measure the
distance between the stars. In order to

To convert seconds in minutes divide answer


by 60.

So the distance between earth and sun is 8.3


light years.

Figure 1.2 The distance between the sun and earth

The distance between the earth and


the moon in this new unit is 1.28 light
seconds. You can work it out as explained
above.

Figure 1.4 Kalpana Chavla

Space
Many times you may have seen a
beam of light in your house or in the school. It
is full of floating dust particles, there are gaps
exist between the celestial bodies we see in
the sky. This gap between celestial bodies is a
near vacuum. However it may contain some
gases and dust particles. This contiguous near
vacuum between the celestial bodies is called
space.

Figure 1.3 Galaxy


Space research is considered as an important
subject in the present era. Many scientists like
Kalpana Chavla and Sunita Willams, have
carried out the research by going into space in
spacecrafts.

Figure 1.5 Sunita Williams

In this boundless space, there exist countless


clusters of stars. These clusters are formed
due to the attraction between the stars.
These clusters have a bulge in the central part
and they taper off toward the periphery. Such
a cluster is called a galaxy. The galaxy to which
our solar system belongs is called the Milky
Way. Our galaxy is nether the only one in
space not is it the biggest. Scientist believe
that there are as many as thousand core
galaxies. From this you can imagine how vast
the spread of these celestial bodies is.

The Universe
All the galaxies, the space within and
between them and the energy that exist are
all include in the universe. The entire universe
was not created all at once. It evolves with
time. Hence this is also considered as
component of the universe. Thus you will
realize that the universe is an all-inclusive
concept. The universe has no centre nor does
it have edges. Scientist believe that the
universe came into existence about 1300
crore years ago. Since then, it has been
continuously expanding.

2. Answer in one sentence


1) Which is the fastest travelling thing
known to humans?
2) How many light seconds is the
distance between the earth and the
moon?
3) What is the general shape of galaxy
like?
3. Answer in one, two or three sentences.
1) What is space?
2) What is a light year?
3) What is a galaxy?
4) What does the universe comprise?
Activity

Figure 1.7 Earth's Location In Universe

Observe the sky during the night. In different


months. Note when the different planets and
other clusters of stars rise in the sky. Observe
their positions.

Exercises :
1. Using the proper options, complete the
following sentences.
1) Light travels .......... km in one
second.
(3 lakh, 30 lakh, 3 crore)
2) The galaxy to which our solar
system belong is called .......... .
(Milky Way, Nebula, Cluster of stars)

Figure 1.8 Andromeda Galaxy