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Site Visit Report

TWO-RIVERS PROJECT
Date: 22

nd

August 2014

Student: Maurice Kagwi

Supervisors: Mr.Paul Ikileng & Mr Kenneth


Mugambi

INTRODUCTION

Two Rivers Development


is an ongoing
Project
project now in construction phase, encompassing a mega mall,
hotels, residential units, water and road works in an area of approximately 100
acres.
The development is set to become the preferred destination in East Africa in which
to
invest,
do business,a live,
shop
and experience
unique urban lifestyle.
The project is located off the Northern Bypass on one side and off Limuru Road on
the
other,near
Ruaka
Township,
Nairobi.
Howard Humphreys Engineers (EA) is the consultant in charge of the structural
designs of this development.
OBJECTIVE OF THE SITE VISIT
The objective of this site visit was to expose myself to the practical structural
engineering
ofWorks),
design supervision and quality control.
(Reinforced aspects
Concrete
ACTIVITIES DONE

Inspection of steel reinforcement detailing in ongoing works as per the drawings

Inspection of bar curtailing and lapping on top of columns, in beams and


slabs
Inspection of lap lengths and their positions in beams and
slabs
Inspection of the laying of
formwork
Inspection of the column footings being
General assessment on the progress of the
casted
ITwo
LESSONS
wasWay
able
works.
Slabs
toLEARNT
identify individual panels and their reinforcement.

Where slabs are continuous over beam edges, top rebar which stretches
into
onthe
thatnegative moments normally over the
beamboth
waspanels
noted meeting
to counter
whole length of that support.
At mid spans on both directions, main rebar is placed at bottom where
high bending moments dominate.
Particular note was made on the reinforcement at discontinuous edges
of
slabsachieved
where a by
double
layer was
noted,
u-bending
of bottom rebar for a distance into the
span
(ascracking
top rebar).
is done
to
prevent
dueThis
to some
torsional
action (as
on the
stipulated
edges on the BS8110-pt1 clause 3.5.3.5)
Flat Slabs
These are slabs bearing on columns or column heads with drops, unlike
in
thebear
conventional
slabs
on beamspractice where
These slabs are reinforced in strips- in theory idealized as column strips
and middle
strips
running
in theoflong
span
and short
span
(two way)
the panels.
Each strip is reinforced like a beam.
The middle and column strips were distinct, their reinforcement being
done individually.
The main rebar for each strip (middle and column strips both directions)
was
at the on
support
zonesplaced
and atonthetop
bottom
the mid spans. This is due to the fact that
negative
dominate
the dominate over mid-spans.
supports moments
and positive
saggingover
moments
At points where these rebar groups meet, tension and compression laps
are provided.
Main reinforcement bars are carried through the column drop and
nominal
the drop.rebar provided at the bottom of
At the column-slab interfaces, shear links in single legs were also noted,
bent around
bottom
rebar in the
drop
and topthe
main
reinforcement
of the slab. These links are put around
the
critical
perimeters
to these supports.
counter
theshear
high shear
around
Beams
Beams are members designed primarily for flexure.
In the field reinforcement is checked in mid spans and at supports.
Whereare
internal
high
supports.
tiedshear
across
Tension
is expected,
the whole
laps as
are
span
inprovided
the
of beam
regions
atbeing
regions
nearclosely
thewhere
supports
spaced
the rebar
innearis
For
a
beam,
main
reinforcement
is
placed
at
the
bottom
around
the
mid
no
predominates.
highly
bars
Links
longer
from
supports
loaded
needed.
the beam
beams
where
sloping
there
high shear
are
into the columns around the support. span and at top of beam
bentover
up

During inspection, it should be ensured that the spacing allowed for


between
and and
linkscompaction
will not deter
concrete bars
pouring
using the poker vibrator.
Columns
Circular and rectangular columns have been adopted in the project.
Main
reinforcement
is put
vertically
to them to ensure shear resistance
take the
axial load and
links
tied around
and confinement.
Where columns continue over story, bars should be left projecting into
that
level with
lap lengths.
Theadequate
bondingcompression
surface is roughened to ensure proper jointing
of concrete.
GENERAL ASSESSMENT OF WORKMANSHIP
Project progress
The project is fast progressing with the contractor working in more than
two structures simultaneously.
Road works are also ongoing.
Current methods of construction including cranes, bob-cats, trucks,
earth
moving
andand
hauling
machines,
concrete
pumps
several
concrete mixing plants have been
incorporated making the work efficient.
Supervision
In the site visit, we did not see any Resident engineer or his deputy
(unlike
at Britam
where
really and joined us to the site.)
explained
to us what
wasthey
on going
No steel reinforcement foremen were seen on the sites to help the gang.
The gang was using no drawings when laying the rebar, or tapes when
measuring
Maydetermined
be bar
spacing canbar
be spaces.
inherently
by experience?
As a result, we noted many omissions.
1. In the hotel area,
floor
1 stslab, the beams have been reinforced and form work fixed without
any It is clear some links will be gaping out of concrete
provision for cover.
after
curing
should
it be poured
in their
current
condition.
This was done for all beams on that floor.
2. In the hotel area, the columns lap lengths provided are inadequate for
In
small
columns
the
heavily
hotel
reinforced
terminating
area,
between
first beams,
floor,
bars
on will
which
that
where
especially
level,
could
a stepped
some
near
leadbars
to
supports
slab
problems
inissome
planned
thecolumns
in
links
concrete
to be,
have
have
the
the
topspaces
level
column.
This
require
hacking
of
the
columns.
3. pouring,
4.
beingshoddily
gang
wrong
been
cut
has
bent
positions
compaction
wrongly
terminated
as istied
required.
and
instead
leading
rebar
cranked
and of
at
to them
very wrongly

5.
6.

7.

8.
9.

bonding. Also, at some instances, the bent up bars near columns are so
dense
no concrete can pass
through
The slabs reinforcement bars are meandering losing the linearity
between
sections
Too manystraight
openings
in beams most of which are in critical regions near
supports
and at
Some beams
hadmid-spans.
as many as 18 pipe openings each approx. 200mm dia(
6mid
at each
support and six at
support).
What could be the impact of these openings on the capacity of
concrete
in such
regions?
The flat slabs
on the
mall, first floor, had the steel bars terminated at
critical
regions
(at for
midstrips).
spans and
on top of
supports
Rebar has been continuously lapped on
top
of supports
without
staggering
which
could lead to weak moment links.
The formwork of the 1200mm deep column pads was not well tie d
leading
wedge-like
facesofdue
bulging to
unde
r the loading
thetolarge pour of concrete.
Some beams had been reinforced (beam 1) before full issuance of
drawings

RECOMMENDATION
Supervision should be provided on site to ensure quality of work is as
per
the design.
Such will
such
unexpected
omissions
andprevent
their repetition.
It should be ensured that all works on going are as per drawings issued
and
no work progresses without
drawings
Foremen should accompany their gangs for direction and guidance
Frequent site visits will be good to follow the progress.
CONCLUSION
I was able to appreciate design and the need for supervision in any
engineering
It done,
was clear
that while
designs maywork.
be well
without
supervision there is a risk of not
achieving what the designs stipulate.
I was also happy to see workmanship in the field where practical
knowledge coupled with theory is needed.
Am so thankful for that opportunity.