Sie sind auf Seite 1von 6

A brief history of Pashto literature

A brief history of Pashto literature


The history of Pashto literature spreads over five thousands years having its roots
in the oral tradition of tapa. However, the first recorded period begins with
Bayazid Ansari (1526-74), who founded his own Sufi school of thoughts and began
to preach his beliefs. He gave Pashto prose and poetry a new and powerful tone
with a rich literary legacy. Khair-ul-Bayan, oft-quoted and bitterly criticized thesis,
is most probably the first book on Sufism in Pashto literature. Among his disciples
are some of the most distinguished poets, writers, scholars and sufis, like Arzani,
Mukhlis, Mirza Khan Ansari, Daulat and Wasil, whose poetic works are well
preserved. Akhund Darweza (1533- 1615), a popular religious leader and scholar
gave a powerful counterblast to Bayazid's movement in the shape of Makhzanul
Islam. He and his disciples have enriched the Pashto language and literature by
writing several books of prose.
The second period is perhaps the most prolific and glorious one. Khushal Khan
Khattak (1613-89), father of Pashto, is the central figure of this period. He
introduced new forms and modern trends in Pashto literature. The Persian ghazal,
rubai and masnavi influenced the Pashto poets and writers of this period. The
Sufism of Hafiz Shirazi found an echo in Rahman Baba's works. Similarly Abdul
Qadir Khattak, Ashraf Khan Hijri, Kazim Khan Shaida, Ma`azullah Khan, Ahmad
Shah Abdali and many others have left valuable treasure of literature in Pashto.
This period was dominated by poetry, but prose also held an important place.
Romantic stories and versified fiction gained popularity towards the end of this
period and continued with some modifications throughout the second period and
even into the third which reached in the evolution of Pashto literature came to a
close with the death of great warrior-king and poet, Ahmad Shah Abdali. Political
rivalries were at their worst during this period. The decline of Mughal hegemony in
India, on the one hand and the rise of Marhattas and Sikhs not to speak of the
British machination in south-east India and Russian incursions greatly changed
the outlook of people.
The fourth period begins with the dawn of the twentieth century. The Khilafat and
Hijrat Movements gave rise to a type of poetry that called out to soldiers of
freedom. This generation of Amir Hamza Khan Shinwari and Dost Mohammed of
young poets enriched the poetry of the period with new idealism. Abdul Akbar
Khan Akbar, Ghani Khan, Khadim Mohammad Akbar, Khaliq, Samandar Khan,
Rahat Zakheli, Khan Mir Hilali, Makhfi, Sanober Hussain Kakajee, Khan Kamil
played an important role in promoting the cause of Pashtoon's revivalism. The
twentieth century proved very fertile, rich and flourishing for Pashto literature
because it gave new genres and literary forms like Drama, Short Story, Novel,
Takl, Character-Sketch, Travelogue, Reportage, Satire, Azad Nazam and Haiku. A
large number of literary organizations also took birth in this century. Olasi Adabi
Jirga that is considered as the first ever organized literary organization of Pashto
was founded by Sanober Hussain Kakajee, Dost Mohammed Kamil and Amir Hamza
Khan Shinwari in 1949.Olasi Adabi Jirga made remarkable contributions to Pashto
literature. Literary criticism and research on scientific lines were the two major
achievements of this organization. It also produced great men of letters like
Qalandar Moomand, Murad Shinwari, Saif-u- Rahman Salim, Hamish Khalil and

some others. Qlandar Moomand founded Da Sahu Leekunkew Adabi Maraka in


1962 and rendered invaluable services to Pashto since its inception. Qalandar
Moomand compiled the first ever Pashto to Pashto dictionary (Daryab) while
Hamish Khalil compiled a comprehensive directory of Pashto poets and writers (Da
Qalam Khawandan) containing necessary information about more than three
thousand men of letters.
The younger generation of poets carried forward the legacy of these early poets
and writers with great enthusiasm. The contributions of Kabul Adabi Tolana and
Pashto Academy are immense.
The Afghan scholars, researchers, linguists, historians, poets and writers namely
Gul Bacha Ulfat, Adul Hai Habbibi, Adur-Rauf Benawa, Qayam -u- Din Khadim, Adul
Shakoor Rashad, Sadiqullah Rashtin and many others have a major share in
promoting Pashto language and literature. Aghan issue gave a much wider scope
to the flourishing of Pahto literature. In the present day situation, Pashto
literature is gaining popularity on foreign media due to the Afghan crisis. It is
expected that with the resolution of the Afghan problem, Pashto literature will
serve the Pakhtoon, s cause of cultural identity.
__________________
Life is a tale told by an idiot...

The Following 3 Users Say Thank You to Islaw Khan For This Useful Post:
Sna Shah (Saturday, September 22, 2012), VetDoctor (Sunday, September 23, 2012)
#2
Saturday, September 22, 2012

Sna Shah
Junior Member

Join Date: Apr 2012


Location: Islamabad
Posts: 20
Thanks: 32
Thanked 10 Times in 6 Posts

Quote:

Originally Posted by Islaw Khan

A brief history of Pashto literature


The history of Pashto literature spreads over five thousands years having its
roots in the oral tradition of tapa. However, the first recorded period begins with
Bayazid Ansari (1526-74), who founded his own Sufi school of thoughts and
began to preach his beliefs. He gave Pashto prose and poetry a new and
powerful tone with a rich literary legacy. Khair-ul-Bayan, oft-quoted and bitterly
criticized thesis, is most probably the first book on Sufism in Pashto literature.
Among his disciples are some of the most distinguished poets, writers, scholars
and sufis, like Arzani, Mukhlis, Mirza Khan Ansari, Daulat and Wasil, whose
poetic works are well preserved. Akhund Darweza (1533- 1615), a popular

religious leader and scholar gave a powerful counterblast to Bayazid's


movement in the shape of Makhzanul Islam. He and his disciples have enriched
the Pashto language and literature by writing several books of prose.
The second period is perhaps the most prolific and glorious one. Khushal Khan
Khattak (1613-89), father of Pashto, is the central figure of this period. He
introduced new forms and modern trends in Pashto literature. The Persian
ghazal, rubai and masnavi influenced the Pashto poets and writers of this
period. The Sufism of Hafiz Shirazi found an echo in Rahman Baba's works.
Similarly Abdul Qadir Khattak, Ashraf Khan Hijri, Kazim Khan Shaida, Ma`azullah
Khan, Ahmad Shah Abdali and many others have left valuable treasure of
literature in Pashto. This period was dominated by poetry, but prose also held an
important place. Romantic stories and versified fiction gained popularity
towards the end of this period and continued with some modifications
throughout the second period and even into the third which reached in the
evolution of Pashto literature came to a close with the death of great warriorking and poet, Ahmad Shah Abdali. Political rivalries were at their worst during
this period. The decline of Mughal hegemony in India, on the one hand and the
rise of Marhattas and Sikhs not to speak of the British machination in south-east
India and Russian incursions greatly changed the outlook of people.
The fourth period begins with the dawn of the twentieth century. The Khilafat
and Hijrat Movements gave rise to a type of poetry that called out to soldiers of
freedom. This generation of Amir Hamza Khan Shinwari and Dost Mohammed of
young poets enriched the poetry of the period with new idealism. Abdul Akbar
Khan Akbar, Ghani Khan, Khadim Mohammad Akbar, Khaliq, Samandar Khan,
Rahat Zakheli, Khan Mir Hilali, Makhfi, Sanober Hussain Kakajee, Khan Kamil
played an important role in promoting the cause of Pashtoon's revivalism. The
twentieth century proved very fertile, rich and flourishing for Pashto literature
because it gave new genres and literary forms like Drama, Short Story, Novel,
Takl, Character-Sketch, Travelogue, Reportage, Satire, Azad Nazam and Haiku. A
large number of literary organizations also took birth in this century. Olasi Adabi
Jirga that is considered as the first ever organized literary organization of
Pashto was founded by Sanober Hussain Kakajee, Dost Mohammed Kamil and
Amir Hamza Khan Shinwari in 1949.Olasi Adabi Jirga made remarkable
contributions to Pashto literature. Literary criticism and research on scientific
lines were the two major achievements of this organization. It also produced
great men of letters like Qalandar Moomand, Murad Shinwari, Saif-u- Rahman
Salim, Hamish Khalil and some others. Qlandar Moomand founded Da Sahu
Leekunkew Adabi Maraka in 1962 and rendered invaluable services to Pashto
since its inception. Qalandar Moomand compiled the first ever Pashto to Pashto
dictionary (Daryab) while Hamish Khalil compiled a comprehensive directory of
Pashto poets and writers (Da Qalam Khawandan) containing necessary
information about more than three thousand men of letters.
The younger generation of poets carried forward the legacy of these early poets
and writers with great enthusiasm. The contributions of Kabul Adabi Tolana and
Pashto Academy are immense.
The Afghan scholars, researchers, linguists, historians, poets and writers namely
Gul Bacha Ulfat, Adul Hai Habbibi, Adur-Rauf Benawa, Qayam -u- Din Khadim,
Adul Shakoor Rashad, Sadiqullah Rashtin and many others have a major share in

promoting Pashto language and literature. Aghan issue gave a much wider scope
to the flourishing of Pahto literature. In the present day situation, Pashto
literature is gaining popularity on foreign media due to the Afghan crisis. It is
expected that with the resolution of the Afghan problem, Pashto literature will
serve the Pakhtoon, s cause of cultural identity.
Salam Islaw Khan!
Hope you are fine, I am opting Pashto as my optional for css 2013, will you plz guide
me,which book should i study from which questions come in exams???
For objective portion, are past papers enough for that purpose??
and for pashto poets, which book should i consult?
Waiting for your generous help...

#3
Sunday, September 23, 2012

VetDoctor
Senior Member

Join Date: Jul 2012


Location: Peshawar
Posts: 179
Thanks: 92
Thanked 82 Times in 67 Posts

AOA Islaw rora & Sna


I opted pashto in CSS 2012 and just relied on the book named " POHANNA". Although i
attempted the whole paper apart from 2 or 3 objectives and a proverb. But still it was not a
100% attempt.
Now for next attempt i am going to study "POHANNA" as well as books on " Rehman baba"
and "khushhal khan" but for proverbs and for objectives is there any book available in the
market ?
Regards

The Following User Says Thank You to VetDoctor For This Useful Post:
Sna Shah (4 Weeks Ago)
#4
Sunday, September 23, 2012

prestigious
MARWAT

Quote:

Originally Posted by VetDoctor

Join Date: Mar 2010


Location: GIKI
Posts: 663
Thanks: 1,709
Thanked 1,353 Times in 653 Posts

for next attempt i am going to study "POHANNA" as well as books on " Rehman baba" and
"khushhal khan" but for proverbs and for objectives is there any book available in the
market ?
Regards
Visit the book shop situated beside the Pashto Deptt. UoPeshawar. All the books of
Pashto CSS/PMS preparation are available there. : )
__________________
Waseem Ullah Marwat

The Following User Says Thank You to prestigious For This Useful Post:
VetDoctor (Sunday, September 23, 2012)
#5
Sunday, September 23, 2012

Ahmed Faisal
Senior Member

Join Date: Feb 2012


Location: Quetta
Posts: 267
Thanks: 88
Thanked 139 Times in 102 Posts

can somebody tells me that what is difference between pushto in peshawar and that of
Balochistan?? is there any good book for basic understanding like for kids?? i know about
pohna but i want a kind of book that should be very very easy.
__________________
"Our Lord, give us the good in this world and the good in the hereafter." (Al-Qur'an, 2:201).

#6
Sunday, September 23, 2012

prestigious
MARWAT

Join Date: Mar 2010


Location: GIKI
Posts: 663
Thanks: 1,709
Thanked 1,353 Times in 653 Posts

Quote:

Originally Posted by Ahmed Faisal


can somebody tells me that what is difference between pushto in peshawar and that of
Balochistan?? is there any good book for basic understanding like for kids?? i know about
pohna but i want a kind of book that should be very very easy.
Dear there is difference in dialect. Quetta people use che while Peshawar people
use sae e.g choora in Marwat and I hope in Quetta too and in Peshawar dialect it is

pronounced as sumra. There is difference in pronunciation and many more


examples.
For basics there is book available in the UoPesh pashto dept bookshop. Don't know
where you can find it in Quetta. Visit UoBalochistan Pashto deptt and ask for a
Pashto book for beginners. They will tell you from where you can find the relevant
book and also will tell you the name of the appropriate book.
__________________
Waseem Ullah Marwat

The Following User Says Thank You to prestigious For This Useful Post:
Ahmed Faisal (Sunday, September 23, 2012)
#7
4 Weeks Ago

Sna Shah
Junior Member

Join Date: Apr 2012


Location: Islamabad
Posts: 20
Thanks: 32
Thanked 10 Times in 6 Posts

Quote:

Originally Posted by VetDoctor


AOA Islaw rora & Sna
I opted pashto in CSS 2012 and just relied on the book named " POHANNA". Although i
attempted the whole paper apart from 2 or 3 objectives and a proverb. But still it was not
a 100% attempt.
Now for next attempt i am going to study "POHANNA" as well as books on " Rehman
baba" and "khushhal khan" but for proverbs and for objectives is there any book available
in the market ?
Regards
Hmmm,ok, i got it, thanks Vetdoctor, if need some assistance then i will ask from you later.

The Following User Says Thank You to Sna Shah For This Useful Post:
VetDoctor (4 Weeks Ago)